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  1. 1. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 65-75 © IAEME 65 IMPLEMENTATION OF TRANSLATOR STRATEGY FOR MIGRATION OF IPV4 TO IPV6 ARUNKUMAR. R1 , V. SRIDHAR2 , S. DINESH REDDY3 , CH. SREEDHAR4 1 Assistant Professor, 2 Assistant Professor, 3 B.Tech student-ECE, 4 Assistant professor 1 CSE Department, Vidya Jyothi Institute of Engineering & Technology, Aziz Nagar, Ap, India. 2 ECE Department, Vidya Jyothi Institute of Engineering & Technology, Aziz Nagar, Ap, India. 3 B.Tech Student-Ece, Vidya Jyothi Institute of Engineering & Technology, Aziz Nagar, Ap, India 4 ECE Department, Global Institute of Technology, Moinabad, Ap, India ABSTRACT The Internet is a worldwide collection of networks that links together millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions and individuals. The magnificence of the Internet is we can access it from a computer anywhere. The first major version of IP, Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4), is the dominant protocol of the Internet. But Challenges in Today’s Internet are Address depletion, Loss of peer-to-peer model, increasing need for security, wireless/mobile devices accessing Internet services.IPv6 provides a platform for new Internet functionality that will be needed in the immediate future, and provide flexibility for further growth and expansion. IPv6 is intended to succeed IPv4, which is the dominant communications protocol for most Internet traffic as of now. Although IPv6 solves addressing issues for customers, a long transition period is likely before customers move to an exclusive IPv6 network environment. During the transition period, any new IPv6-only networks will need to continue to communicate with existing IPv4 networks. This problem arises, as lot of corporates with IPV4 web sites will not show interest to migrate to IPV6, which involves financial burden, and also lack vendor support. NAT-PT is designed to be deployed to allow direct communication between IPv6-only networks and IPv4-only networks. For a service provider customer, an example could be an IPv6-only client trying to access an IPv4-only web server. Enterprise customers will also migrate to IPv6 in stages, and many of their IPv4-only networks will be operational for several years. Keywords: IPV6, IPV4, NATPT, Protocal, Internet, Wireless Mobile Devices. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJCET) ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 65-75 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijcet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 8.5328 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCET © I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 65-75 © IAEME 66 I. INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTERNET ARCHITECTURE The Internet architecture is of a layered design, which makes testing and future development of Internet protocols easy. The Internet provides three sets of services. At the lowest level is a connectionless delivery service (network layer) called the Internet protocol (IP). The next level is the transport layer service. Multiple transport layer services use the IP service. The highest level is the application layer services. The physical/link layer (Network N in Figure 1) envelops the IP layer header and data. If the physical layer is an Ethernet LAN, the IP layer places its message in the Ethernet frame data field. The transport layer places its message in the IP data field. The application layer places its data in the transport layer data field. A field in the transport layer header designates which application layer program will act on the transport layer segment. An application program, based on its need for reliability and throughput, selects the appropriate transport layer protocol to use. Since the Internet only has one network-layer protocol (IP), going down the stack from a transport layer protocol does not involve a selection. The physical/link layer selected by the IP layer is dictated by an interface table associated with the IP address in the IP header. The original TCP/IP reference model consists of 4 layers. The process is reversed at the destination host. The Ethernet driver removes the Ethernet header and passes the remainder (frame data containing IP header, TCP header, and FTP message) to the destination IP. Figure 1: Conceptual layering of Internet protocols 2. IP ADDRESSING For any two systems to communicate, they must be able to identify and locate each other. While these addresses in below Figure are not actual network addresses, they represent and show the concept of address grouping. This uses the A or B to identify the network and the number sequence to identify the individual host. Application 1 Application 2 Application N Transport 1 Transport 2 Transport N Internet (IP) Network 1 e.g., token ring Network 2 e.g., Ethernet Network N e.g., SMDS Application Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Link / Physical Layers
  3. 3. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 65-75 © IAEME 67 Figure 2.1: Internetworking An IP address is a 32-bit sequence of 1s and 0s. To make the IP address easier to use, the address is usually written as four decimal numbers separated by periods. For example, an IP address of one computer is 192.168.1.2. Another computer might have the address 128.10.2.1. This way of writing the address is called the dotted decimal format. In this notation, each IP address is written as four parts separated by periods, or dots.Each part of the address is called an octet because it is made up of eight binary digits. For example, the IP address 192.168.1.8 would be 11000000.10101000.00000001.00001000 in binary notation. 2.1 IPV4 ADDRESSING A router forwards packets from the originating network to the destination network using the IP protocol. The packets must include an identifier for both the source and destination networks. Using the IP address of destination network, a router can deliver a packet to the correct network. When the packet arrives at a router connected to the destination network, the router uses the IP address to locate the particular computer connected to that network. IP addresses are divided into classes to define the large, medium, and small networks. Class A addresses are assigned to larger networks. Class B addresses are used for medium-sized networks and Class C for small networks. 2.2. Class A, B, C, D, and E IP addresses Figure 2.2: Classful addressing
  4. 4. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 65-75 © IAEME 68 To accommodate different size networks and aid in classifying these networks, IP addresses are divided into groups called classes. This is known as classful addressing .The Class A address was designed to support extremely large networks, with more than 16 million host addresses available. Class A IP addresses use only the first octet to indicate the network address. The remaining three octets provide for host addresses. Figure 2.3: Range of classes 3. IPV4 (Vs) IPV6 Over twenty years ago, IP Version 4 (IPv4) offered an addressing strategy that, although scalable for a time, resulted in an inefficient allocation of addresses. Figure 3.1: classful adress division 8 Bits8 Bits 8 Bits 8 Bits Class-A: Class-B: Class-C: Class-D: Class-E: 0-127 128-191 192-223 224-239 240-255 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Address Identifier Network Address Host Address 0 7 bits Network Address 24 bits Host AddressA 10 14 bits Network Address 16 bits Host AddressB 110 21 bits Network Address 8 bits Host AddressC 1110 Multicast address (224.0.0.0-239.255.255.255)D 1111 Reserved for future useE
  5. 5. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 65-75 © IAEME 69 The Class A and B addresses make up 75 percent of the IPv4 address space, however fewer than 17,000 organizations can be assigned a Class A or B network number. Class C network addresses are far more numerous than Class A and Class B addresses, although they account for only 12.5 percent of the possible four billion IP addresses. Class C addresses are limited to 254 usable hosts. This does not meet the needs of larger organizations that cannot acquire a Class A or B address. Even if there were more Class A, B, and C addresses, too many network addresses would cause Internet routers to come to a stop under the burden of the enormous size of routing tables required to store the routes to reach each of the networks. Figure 3.2: Address Hirerachy 4. ROUTING CONCEPTS Routing is the act of moving information across an inter-network from a source to a destination. Along the way, at least one intermediate node typically is encountered. Routing is often contrasted with bridging, which might seem to accomplish precisely the same thing to the casual observer. The primary difference between the two is that bridging occurs at Layer 2 (the link layer) of the OSI reference model, whereas routing occurs at Layer 3 (the network layer). 4.1 ROUTING ALGORITHMS Routing algorithms can be differentiated based on several key characteristics. First, the particular goals of the algorithm designer affect the operation of the resulting routing protocol. Second, various types of routing algorithms exist, and each algorithm has a different impact on network and router resources. Finally, routing algorithms use a variety of metrics that affect calculation of optimal routes. Types of Routing • Static Routing • Dynamic Routing • Default Routing 4.1.1 STATIC ROUTING Static routing is a data communication concept describing one way of configuring path selection of routers in computer networks. It is the type of routing characterized by the absence of communication between routers regarding the current of the network. IANA National Local Consumer InterNIC America RIPE Europe APNIC Asia Regional IANA NationalNational LocalLocal ConsumerConsumer InterNIC America RIPE Europe APNIC Asia Regional InterNIC America RIPE Europe APNIC Asia InterNIC America RIPE Europe APNIC Asia Regional
  6. 6. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 65-75 © IAEME 70 4.1.2 DYNAMIC ROUTING A router using dynamic routing will 'learn' the routes to all networks that are directly connected to the device. Next, the router will learn routes from other routers that run the same routing protocol (RIP, RIP2, EIGRP, OSPF, IS-IS, BGP etc). Each router will then sort through it's list of routes and select one or more 'best' routes for each network destination the router knows. 4.1.3 DEFAULT ROUTING A default route, also known as the gateway of last resort, is the network route used by a router when no other known route exists for a given IP packet's destination address. All the packets for destinations not known by the router's routing table are sent to the default route. This route generally leads to another router, which treats the packet the same way: If the route is known, the packet will get forwarded to the known route. If not, the packet is forwarded to the default-route of that router which generally leads to another router. And so on. Each router traversal adds a one- hop distance to the route. 5. IPv6 The current version of IP (known as Version 4 or IPv4) has proven to be robust, easily implemented and interoperable, and has stood the test of scaling an internet-work to a global utility the size of today’s Internet. This is a tribute to its initial design. However, the initial design did not anticipate the following: • The recent exponential growth of the Internet and the impending exhaustion of the IPv4 address space. • The growth of the Internet and the ability of Internet backbone routers to maintain large routing tables. • The need for simpler configuration. • The requirement for security at the IP level. • The need for better support for real-time delivery of data—also called quality of service (QoS). To address these and other concerns, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has developed a suite of protocols and standards known as IP version 6 (IPv6). This new version, previously called IP-The Next Generation (IPng), incorporates the concepts of many proposed methods for updating the IPv4 protocol. 5.1 IPV6 FEATURES: The following are the features of the IPv6 protocol: • New header format • Large address space • Efficient and hierarchical addressing and routing infrastructure • Stateless and stateful address configuration • Built-in security • Better support for QoS • New protocol for neighboring node interaction
  7. 7. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 65-75 © IAEME 71 6. IPV6 MIGRATION PLAN The objective of the IPv6 migration plan proposal is to conduct a detailed study of network infrastructure and critical applications and prepare a report detailing In the migration plan, we will consider the implementation proposals that have minimal impact on day to day operations as well as additional costs. The work undertaken will involve: • Study the network and gather information on network infrastructure, key network equipment, servers, appliances and computers, • Gather information on critical applications, • Prepare plan to migrate to a dual stack IPv4/IPv6 network with minimal impact on existing critical applications, and • Prepare strategies for IPv6 compliance audits based on Global Standards. 6.1 MIGRATION APPROACH Prior to IPv6 deployment, we will consider these factors in organization’s current environment: • Inventory of current IPv4 addresses and time to address exhaustion. • Identification of IPv4 assets including routers, applications, servers and hosts. • Complexity of existing IPv4 networks. 6.2 PILOT IMPLEMENTATION 6.2.1 Approach for Large Organization: Large Organizations would incur more or high costs when compared with medium or small enterprises. The level of costs again depends on the existing network infrastructure, the existing level of network expertise, exposure and understanding on IPv6 of the IT staff. 6.3 APPROACH FOR SMALL TO MEDIUM SIZED ORGANIZATION The relative costs for small to medium sized organization would also be high but slightly less than large organization. Much of the cost would be for their core network infrastructure, operations, and staff. 7. IMPLEMENTING NAT-PT FOR IPV6 7.1 NAT-PT Using a protocol translator between IPv6 and IPv4 allows direct communication between hosts speaking a different network protocol. Users can use either static definitions or IPv4-mapped definitions for NAT-PT operation. Figure 7.1: NAT-PT Basic Operation NAT-PT runs on a router between an IPv6 network and an IPv4network to connect an IPv6- only node with an IPv4-only node.Although IPv6 solves addressing issues for customers, a long
  8. 8. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 65-75 © IAEME 72 transition period is likely before customers move to an exclusive IPv6 network environment. During the transition period, any new IPv6-only networks will need to continue to communicate with existing IPv4 networks. 7.2 STATIC NAT-PT Static NAT-PT uses static translation rules to map one IPv6 address to one IPv4 address. IPv6 network nodes communicate with IPv4 network nodes using an IPv6 mapping of the IPv4 address configured on the NAT-PT router. The NAT-PT device is configured to map the source IPv6 address for node A of2001:DB8:bbbb:1::1 to the IPv4 address 192.168.99.2. NAT-PT is also configured to map the source address of IPv4 node C, 192.168.30.1 to 2001:DB8::a. When packets with a source IPv6 address of node A are received at the NAT-PT router, they are translated to have a destination address to match node C in the IPv4-only network. NAT-PT can also be configured to match a source IPv4 address and translate the packet to an IPv6 destination address to allow an IPv4- only host communicate with an IPv6-only host. 7.3 DYNAMIC NAT-PT Dynamic NAT-PT allows multiple NAT-PT mappings by allocating addresses from a pool. NAT-PT is configured with a pool of IPv6 and/or IPv4 addresses. At the start of a NAT-PT session a temporary address is dynamically allocated from the pool. The number of addresses available in the address pool determines the maximum number of concurrent sessions. The NAT-PT device records each mapping between addresses in a dynamic state table. Figure 7.2: Dynamic NAT-PT Operation 7.4 PORT ADDRESS TRANSLATION OR OVERLOAD Port Address Translation (PA T), also known as Overload, allows a single IPv4 address to be used among multiple sessions by multiplexing on the port number to associate several IPv6 users with a single IPv4 address. PAT can be accomplished through a specific interface or through a pool of addresses Figure 7.3: Port Address Translation
  9. 9. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 65-75 © IAEME 73 8. RESULTS 8.1 STATIC NAT-PT Screen: 8.1.1 Ping source to destination Screen: 8.1.2 Ping destination to source 8.2 IPV4 MAPPED DYNAMIC NAT-PT Screen: 8.2.1 Ping v6 to v4
  10. 10. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 65-75 © IAEME 74 Screen: 8.2.2 Ping v4 to pool 8.3 IPV4 MAPPED NAT-PT(PAT) Screen 8.3.1: ping to IPv6 to prefix translated Screen 8.3.2: ping IPv4 to port mapped 9. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE NAT-PT is designed to be deployed to allow direct communication between IPv6-only networks and IPv4-only networks. One of the benefits of NAT-PT is that no changes are required to existing hosts. All the NAT-PT configurations are performed at the NAT-PT router. All this has resulted in the development of a new protocol (IPv6) in order to solve these problems. IPv6 has a much larger address space available (128 bit addressing), which should be sufficient for a longer period of time for various applications. In addition, the new protocol provides a number of new features and advantages over the old version.
  11. 11. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 65-75 © IAEME 75 A new addressing scheme that would resolve the limitations, and an interim path towards the new scheme. • IPv6 to IPv4 NAT is just an interim solution • Yet as a knowledgeable network professional we need to know about IPv6 issues. Benefits of NAT-PT: • NAT provides transparent and bi-directional connectivity between networks having arbitrary addressing schemes • NAT eliminates costs associated with host renumbering • NAT conserves IP addresses • NAT eases IP address management • NAT enhances network privacy 10. BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] IPv6 for all: A Guide for IPv6 usage and application in different environment by Mariela Rocha,Guillermo Cicileo, Roque Gagliano. Internet Society ISOC-AR chapter argentina. [2] IPv6 supported features "Start Here: Cisco IOS XE Software Release Specifics for IPv6 Features ," Cisco IOS XE I. [3] Basic IPv6 configuration tasks “Implementing IPv6 Addressing and Basic Connectivity," Cisco IOS XE IPv6 Configuration. [4 ] IPv6 commands: complete command syntax command mode, defaults, usage guidelines. [5] Cisco IOS IPv6 Command Reference MIBs. [6] RFC 2765 Stateless IP/ICMP Translation Algorithm (SIIT). [7] RFC 2766 Network Address Translation - Protocol Translation (NAT-PT). [8] www.cisco.com/cisco/web/support/. [9] www.cisco.com/web/solutions/trends/ipv6/. [10] www.ipv6.apple.com/. [11] [IPV200501] ipv6 portal. http://www.ipv6tf.org/meet/faqs.php [12] [RFC2373] R.Hinden,S.deering,IPv6 addressing architecture, Rfc2373,july1998. [13] [RFC3587] R.Hinden, S.deering, E.nordmark, ipv6 global unicast address format,RFC3587,aug 2013. [14] Pings wg: http://playground.sun.com/pub/ipng/html NGtrans: http://www.6bone.net/ngtrans [15] IPv6 users site: http://www.ipv6.org. [16] IPv6 Forum: http://www.ipv6forum.com. [17] Fahim A. Ahmed Ghanem and Vilas M. Thakare, “Compatibility Between the New and the Current IPv4 Packet Headers”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 202 - 210, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. [18] Chirag Mulchandani, Kinjal Mistry, Purva Chawan and Abhishek Shetty, “Transition from IPv4 to IPv6”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp. 169 - 176, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. [19] Fahim A. Ahmed Ghanem and Vilas M. Thakare, “Optimization of IPv6 Packet’s Headers Over Ethernet Frame”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 99 - 111, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472.

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