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40120140504001

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  • 1. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 01-06 © IAEME 1 A SURVEY ON ROUTING IN VANET Puneet Manchanda1 , Parvinder Bangar2 M.Tech Student1 , A.P. and H.O.D2 ECE Deptt., CBS Group of Institutions, Jhajjar1-2 ABSTRACT Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are a subclass of mobile ad hoc networks in which the mobile nodes are vehicles; these vehicles are autonomous systems connected by wireless communication on a peer-to-peer basis. VANET has some special characteristics that distinguish it from other mobile ad hoc networks; the most important characteristics are: high mobility, self- organization, distributed communication, road pattern restrictions, and no restrictions of network size, all these characteristics made VANETs environment a challenging for developing efficient routing protocols. The design of routing protocols in VANETs is important and necessary issue for support the smart ITS. MANET routing protocol is not suitable for VANET because MANET routing protocol has difficulties from finding stable routing paths in VANET environments. This paper discusses various routing protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks. Keywords: AODV, DSR, FSR, Position Based, PGB, Routing Protocol, TORA, Topology Based. 1 INTRODUCTION Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is a form of mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) that provides vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-roadside wireless communications. It was first introduced by the US Department of Transportation. Indeed, because of its unmistakable societal impact that promises to revolutionize the way they drive, various car manufacturers, government agencies and standardization bodies have spawned national and international consortia devoted exclusively to VANET. Examples include the Car-2-Car Communication Consortium, the Vehicle Safety Communications Consortium, and Honda’s Advanced Safety Vehicle Program, among others. The impetus of VANET is that in the not so-distant future vehicles equipped with computing, communication and sensing capabilities will be organized into a ubiquitous and pervasive network that can provide numerous services to travelers, ranging from improved driving safety and comfort (the original goal), to delivering multimedia content on demand, and to other similar value-added INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET) ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 01-06 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.2836 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJECET © I A E M E
  • 2. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), V services. The initial intention is to provide safety and convenience for passages. Safety applications are motivated by the need to inform fellow drivers of actual or imminent road conditions, delays, congestion, hazardous driving conditions and othe include traffic status reports, collision avoidance, emergency alerts and cooperative driving. The applications such as driver assistance, accident rescue, online payment services, online shopping, and the alike are examples of convenience applications involve wireless communications where messages propagate from one vehicle to another [1]. Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) have grown out of the need to support the growing number of wireless products that can now be used in vehicles. These products include remote keyless entry devices, personal digital assistants (PDAs), laptops and mobile telephones. As mobile wireless devices and networks become increasingly important, the dem Vehicle- to-Roadside (VRC) or Vehicle grow [8]. VANETs can be utilized for a broad range of safety and non value added services such as vehicle safety, automated toll payment, traffic management, enhanced navigation, location-based services such as finding the closest fuel station, restaurant or travel lodge and infotainment applications such as providing access to the Internet [2]. 2 ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN VANET The characteristic of highly dynamic topology makes the design for VANET is challenging. The routing protocol of VANET can be classified into two categories such as Topology based routing protoco Figure 1: Taxonomy of Various Routing Protocols in VANET 2.1 Topology Based Routing Protocols Topology based routing protocols use link’s information within the network packets from source to destination. Topology based routing approach can be further categorized into proactive (table-driven) and reactive (on Topology Based Routing Proactive(tab le-driven) FSR AODV AODV+PGB International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 01-06 © IAEME 2 es. The initial intention is to provide safety and convenience for passages. Safety applications are motivated by the need to inform fellow drivers of actual or imminent road conditions, delays, congestion, hazardous driving conditions and other similar concerns. Examples include traffic status reports, collision avoidance, emergency alerts and cooperative driving. The applications such as driver assistance, accident rescue, online payment services, online shopping, and convenience-improvement applications. Most, if not all, VANET applications involve wireless communications where messages propagate from one vehicle to Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) have grown out of the need to support the growing er of wireless products that can now be used in vehicles. These products include remote keyless entry devices, personal digital assistants (PDAs), laptops and mobile telephones. As mobile wireless devices and networks become increasingly important, the demand for Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Roadside (VRC) or Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) Communication will continue to VANETs can be utilized for a broad range of safety and non-safety applications, allow for as vehicle safety, automated toll payment, traffic management, enhanced based services such as finding the closest fuel station, restaurant or travel lodge and infotainment applications such as providing access to the Internet [2]. ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN VANET The characteristic of highly dynamic topology makes the design of efficient routing protocols The routing protocol of VANET can be classified into two categories protocols & Position based routing protocols. Figure 1: Taxonomy of Various Routing Protocols in VANET [3] Topology Based Routing Protocols Topology based routing protocols use link’s information within the network packets from source to destination. Topology based routing approach can be further categorized into driven) and reactive (on-demand) routing [4]. VANET Routing Protocols Reactive(on- demand) TORA DSR Geographic Routing Non-DTN DTN International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – © IAEME es. The initial intention is to provide safety and convenience for passages. Safety-improvement applications are motivated by the need to inform fellow drivers of actual or imminent road r similar concerns. Examples include traffic status reports, collision avoidance, emergency alerts and cooperative driving. The applications such as driver assistance, accident rescue, online payment services, online shopping, and improvement applications. Most, if not all, VANET applications involve wireless communications where messages propagate from one vehicle to Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) have grown out of the need to support the growing er of wireless products that can now be used in vehicles. These products include remote keyless entry devices, personal digital assistants (PDAs), laptops and mobile telephones. As mobile wireless Vehicle (V2V) and Infrastructure (V2I) Communication will continue to safety applications, allow for as vehicle safety, automated toll payment, traffic management, enhanced based services such as finding the closest fuel station, restaurant or travel lodge of efficient routing protocols The routing protocol of VANET can be classified into two categories [3] Topology based routing protocols use link’s information within the network to send the data packets from source to destination. Topology based routing approach can be further categorized into Hybrid
  • 3. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 01-06 © IAEME 3 2.1.1 Proactive (table-driven) Proactive routing protocols are mostly based on shortest path algorithms. They keep information of all connected nodes in form of tables because these protocols are table based. Furthermore, these tables are also shared with their neighbors. Whenever any change occurs in network topology, every node updates its routing table. 2.1.2 Fisheye state routing (FSR) FSR is similar to LSR, in FSR node maintains a topology table (TT) based upon the latest information received from neighboring and periodically exchange it with local neighbors. For large networks to reduce the size of message the FSR uses the different exchange period for different entries in routing tables. Routing table entries for a given destination are updated preferably with the neighbors having low frequency, as the distance to destination increases. The problem with the FSR routing is that with the increase in network size the routing table also increases. As the mobility increases route to remote destination become less accurate. If the target node lies out of scope of source node then route discovery fails [5]. 2.2 Reactive (On Demand) Reactive routing protocol is called on demand routing because it starts route discovery when a node needs to communicate with another node thus it reduces network traffic. 2.2.1 AD HOC ON-DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR (AODV) AODV routing protocol is proposed for mobile ad hoc network, it has been evaluated in several researches and shows good results compared to related routing protocols; so it has a good documentation. AODV offers low network overhead by reducing messages flooding in the network; that when compared to proactive routing protocols, besides reducing the requirement of memory size; by minimizing the routing tables which keep only entries for recent active routes, also keeps next hop for a route rather than the whole route. It also provides dynamically updates for adapting the route conditions and eliminates looping in routes; by using destination sequence numbers. So AODV is flexible to highly dynamic network topology and large-scale network. However, it causes large delays in a route discovery, also route failure may require a new route discovery which produces additional delays that decrease the data transmission rate and increase the network overhead .Moreover, the redundant broadcasts without control will consume extra bandwidth (broadcast storm problem), this problem grows as the number of network nodes increases, that besides collisions which lead to packet lost problem [6]. AD HOC ON-DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR PREFERRED GROUP BROADCASTING (AODV+PGB) This protocol enhances the AODV protocol by Preferred Group Broadcasting (PGB) algorithm, this algorithm aims to reduce control message overhead in addition to offer routes availability which is an important feature in VANET environment, as the reducing routing overhead is a significant issue in ad hoc networks, also the routes consistency is a desirable issue in fast moving environment. There are many issues that critically decreasing ad hoc network performance can be abbreviated: a) The problem of hidden terminal which arises if the signal from the source to the destination is weaker; this makes easy to interrupt the communication between two nodes by a hidden terminal.
  • 4. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 01-06 © IAEME 4 b) No particular scheme is used to select intermediate hops. A large number of hops involve the short distance selection; however the link can simply be fail if one of the intermediate nodes goes out of the range, otherwise the weak signal may be changed. c) The larger numbers of errors may reduce the quality of links; which lead to decreasing network throughput. Also if the data transmission rate is adapted according to the network congestion, it could be affected by the large data error rate decreases the data transmission rate and may cause a bottleneck in the current node. PGB tried to deal with all these issues via permits some particular nodes to re- broadcast a route request packet. However, if the node that allowed rebroadcasting the route request is not the nearest node to the destination, then the route discovery could be longer than it should. Also broadcast can be halted if there is no specific node which had a rebroadcast permit (case in light networks). Moreover packet duplication may occur if any two nodes rebroadcast the same packet at the same time [6]. 2.3 Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) TORA belongs to the family of link reversal routing in which directed a cyclic graph is built which directs the flow of packets and ensures its reach ability to all nodes. A node would construct the directed graph by broadcasting query packets. On receiving a query packet, if node has a downward link to destination it will broadcast a reply packet; otherwise it simply drops the packet. A node on receiving a reply packet will update its height only if the height of replied packet is minimum of other reply packets. TORA Algorithm has the advantage that it gives a route to all the nodes in the network, but the maintenance of all these routes is difficult in VANET [5]. 2.3.1 Dynamic Source Routing Protocol (DSR) DSR protocol aims to provide a highly reactive routing process; by implementing a routing mechanism with an extremely low overhead and fast reaction to the frequent network changes, to guarantee successful data packet delivery regardless of network changes. DSR is a multi hop protocol; it decreases the network overhead by reducing periodic messages. This protocol has two main processes: route discovery and route Maintenance. In the route discovery, when a source node needs an unavailable route, it initially broadcasts a route request message. All intermediate nodes which received this message will rebroadcast it, except if it was the destination node or it has a route to the destination; in this case the node will send a route replay message back to the source, later the received route is cashed in the source routing table for future use. If a route is failing, the source node will be informed by a route error message. In DSR protocol, every data packet contains a complete list of the intermediate nodes; so the source node should delete the failed route from its cache, and if it stores other successful route to that destination in its cache, it will exchange the failed one by the other successful route. But if there is no alternative route, it will initiate a new route discovery process. The benefit of DSR protocol is clearly shown in a network with low mobility; because it can use the alternative route before starts a new process for route discovery. However, the multi routes may lead to additional routing overheads by adding all route information to every data packet, besides, as the network span larger distance and including more nodes, the overhead will frequently increase and as result network performance will be degraded [6]. 2.4 Geographic Routing Protocols In geographic (position-based) routing, the forwarding decision by a node is primarily made based on the position of a packet’s destination and the position of the node’s one-hop neighbors. The position of the destination is stored in the header of the packet by the source. The position of the
  • 5. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 01-06 © IAEME 5 node’s one-hop neighbors is obtained by the beacons sent periodically with random jitter (to prevent collision). Nodes that are within a node’s radio range will become neighbors of the node. Geographic routing assumes each node knows its location, and the sending node knows the receiving node’s location by the increasing popularity of Global Position System (GPS) unit from an onboard Navigation System and the recent research on location services, respectively. Since geographic routing protocols do not exchange link state information and do not maintain established routes like proactive and reactive topology-based routings do, they are more robust and promising to the highly dynamic environments like VANETs. In other words, route is determined based on the geographic location of neighboring nodes as the packet is forwarded. There is no need of link state exchange or route setup. Geographic routing into three categories of non-Delay Tolerant Network (non-DTN), Delay Tolerant Network (DTN), and hybrid. The non-DTN types of geographic routing protocols do not consider intermittent connectivity and are only practical in densely populated VANETs whereas DTN types of geographic routing protocols do consider disconnectivity. However, they are designed from the perspective that networks are disconnected by default. Hybrid types of geographic routing protocols combine the non-DTN and DTN routing protocols to exploit partial network connectivity [4]. 2.4.1 Non-DTN Routing Protocols in VANET The fundamental principle in the greedy approach is that a node forwards its packet to its neighbor that is closest to the destination. The forwarding strategy can fail if no neighbor is closer to the destination than the node itself. In this case, we say that the packet has reached the local maximum at the node since it has made the maximum local progress at the current node. The routing protocols in this category have their own recovery strategy to deal with such a failure [7]. The non- DTN protocols are geographic routing protocols, but it does not consider a dis-connectivity issue; it assumes there are always a number of nodes to achieve the successful communication; so, this protocol is only suitable for high density network. In these protocols, the node forwards its packet to the closest neighbor to the destination, but this approach may be unsuccessful if there is no closest neighbor to the destination rather than the current node itself. Many non-DTN routing protocols handle this failure; 2.4.2 Delay Torenant Network (DTN) Protocols DTN is a wireless network designed to perform efficiently in networks with some characteristics; like frequent disconnection communication, large scale, long unavoidable delays, limited bandwidth, power constraints and high bit fault rates. In this network, all nodes help each other to forward packets (store and forward scheme). These nodes may have a limited transmission range; so packets transmission will take large delays. Commonly, the DTN node is a mobile node, so it establishes routes to other nodes when they reach its transmission range. In DTN protocol, there is no guarantee of unbroken end to end connectivity, so the packets may be cached for a time at intermediate nodes To design of a routing protocol for DTN network with these characteristics is a significant problem [3]. 2.5 Hybrid Routing Protocols Hybrid protocol is a mixture of both proactive and reactive protocols; it aims to minimize the proactive routing protocol control overhead and reduce the delay of the route discovery process within on-demand routing protocols. Usually the hybrid protocol divides the network to many zones to provide more reliability for route discovery and maintenance processes. Each node divides the network into two regions: inside and outside regions; it uses a proactive routing mechanism to maintain routes to inside region nodes and using a route discovery mechanism to reach the outside region nodes [3].
  • 6. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 01-06 © IAEME 6 3 CONCLUSION Vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) offer a vast number of applications without any support from fixed infrastructure. These applications forward messages in a multi-hop fashion. Routing is an important component in vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V) communication. This paper discusses various routing protocols of VANET. Designing an efficient routing protocol for all VANET applications is very hard. Hence a survey of different VANET protocols, comparing the various features is absolutely essential to come up with new proposals for VANET. REFERENCES [1] Yan, Gongjun, Nathalie Mitton, and Xu Li. "Reliable routing in vehicular ad hoc networks." In Distributed Computing Systems Workshops (ICDCSW), 2010 IEEE 30th International Conference on, pp. 263-269. IEEE, 2010. [2] Sherali Zeadally·,Ray Hunt·,,Yuh-Shyan ,Chen·Angela,Irwin·Aamir Hassan, “ Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETS): status, results,and challenges”, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010. [3] Kevin C. Lee, Uichin Lee, Mario Gerla, “Survey of Routing Protocols in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks”. [4] Bijan Paul, Md. Ibrahim, Md. Abu Naser Bikas, “VANET Routing Protocols: Pros and Cons”, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 20– No.3, April 2011. [5] Sandhaya Kohli, Bandanjot Kaur, Sabina Bindra “A comparative study of Routing Protocols in VANET”. [6] Marwa Altayeb and Imad Mahgoub “A Survey of Vehicular Ad hoc Networks Routing Protocols”, International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies ISSN 2028-9324 Vol. 3 No. 3 July 2013, pp. 829-846 © 2013 Innovative Space of Scientific Research Journals http://www.issr-journals.org/ijias/,2013. [7] Ramin Karimi, Norafida Ithnin ,Shukor Abd Razak, Sara Najafzadeh “Non DTN Geographic Routing Protocol For Vehicle Ad hoc Network” , IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol.8, Issue 5, No 3, September 2011 ISSN (Online): 1694-0814 .2011. [8] Harsch, C., Festag, A., & Papadimitratos, P. (2007). Secure position-based routing for VANETs. In Proceedings of IEEE 66th vehicular technology conference (VTC-2007), Fall 2007 (pp. 26–30), September 2007. [9] P.A. Kamble and Dr. M.M. Kshirsagar, “Improvement Over AODV Routing Protocol in Vanet”, International journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 4, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 315 - 320, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375. [10] Mitul K. Patel, “Study of Localization Techniques in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks”, International Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 4, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 194 - 202, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375. [11] Thaker Minesh, S B Sharma and Yogesh Kosta, “A Survey: Variants of Energy Constrained Reactive Routing Protocols of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering &Technology (IJECET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 248 - 257, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472.

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