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  • International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 08-12 © IAEME 8 DUAL OPEN STUB LOADED SQUARE MICROSTRIP ANTENNA FOR WLAN AND WIMAX APPLICATIONS Dr. Nagraj Kulkarni Government College, Gulbarga-585105, Karkataka, India ABSTRACT In this communication the square microstrip antenna consisting of dual open stubs is presented for quad band operation. The antenna operates between 2.88 to 8.55 GHz. The antenna is constructed with its structure of dimension 8 X 5 X 0.16 cm3 . The microstripline feed arrangement along with quarter wave transformer is used to excite the antenna. The antenna exhibits a broadside and linear radiation characteristics. The peak gain of 3.21 dB is obtained in the operating band. The results are presented and discussed. This antenna may find its applications in WLAN and Wimax communication system. Key words: Square, gain, microstrip antenna. 1. INTRODUCTION The microstrip antennas (MSAs) have gained popular position in today’s communication system because of their inherent attractive features like light weight, planar in structure, ruggedness, different geometries and shapes, easy installation, low fabrication cost [1] etc. It is the need of the hour to select the antenna that uses single antenna for transmit/receive purpose. The microstrip antenna designers worked hard to put forth many methods and techniques such as cutting slots of different geometries like triangular, bow-tie, rectangular narrow slot, square, circular ring etc. on the radiating patch [2-7], use of corner truncated patches, implementing stubs and shorts on the patches [8-10] etc. to achieve dual, triple and multiband operations. But the antenna operating at four independent bands is presented with simple stub loading technique. This kind of study is found to be rare in the literature. 2. DESIGNING The low cost glass epoxy substrate material of area A × B, thickness h = 0.16 cm and dielectric constant εr = 4.2 is used to fabricate the proposed antenna. The artwork of the antenna is INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET) ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 08-12 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.2836 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJECET © I A E M E
  • International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 08-12 © IAEME 9 sketched using computer software Auto CAD to achieve better accuracy. Photolithography process is used to fabricate the antenna. Figure 1: Top view geometry SMSA Figure 1 shows the top view geometry of square microstrip antenna (SMSA), which is designed for the resonant frequency of 3.5 GHz using the equations available in the literature for the design of square microstrip antenna [11]. The SMSA consists of a square radiating patch of equal length (L) and width (W). The Lf and Wf are the length and width of the microstripline used to excite the patch. A semi miniature-A (SMA) connector of 50 impedance is used at the tip of the microstripline to feed the microwave power. A quarter wave transformer of length Lt and width Wt is used to match the impedances between lower radiating edge of the patch and microstripline feed. Figure 2: Geometry of DOSMSA Figure 2 shows the geometry of dual open stub loaded square microstrip antenna (DOSMSA). Two open stubs of horizontal and vertical lengths X and Y respectively are placed at two diagonally opposite corners of the SMSA. Table 1 gives the design parameters of SMSA and DOSMSA. Table 1: Design parameters of SMSA and DOSMSA ( cm ) Antenna L W Lf Wf Lt Wt A B X Y SMSA 2.04 2.04 2.18 0.32 1.09 0.06 5 8 - - DOSMSA 2.04 2.04 2.18 0.32 1.09 0.06 5 8 0.8 0.2 3. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The Agilent Technologies make (Agilent N5230A: A.06.04.32), Vector Network Analyzer is used to measure the experimental return loss of SMSA and DOSMSA.
  • International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue Figure 3: Variation of retur Figure 3 shows the variation of return lo seen that, the SMSA resonates at 3.43 of 3.5 GHz. The experimental impe using the formula, Impedance bandwidth (%) = where, fH and fL are the upper and lower cut off frequencies of the resonating bands when their return loss reaches -10 dB and f bandwidth is found to be 2.94 %. Figure 4: Variation of return loss versus freque Figure 4 shows the variation of return loss versus frequency of resonates at four modes of frequencies f BW1 = 5.7 % (2.88-3.05 GHz) BW2 = = 19.65 % (7.02-8.55 GHz). The first band BW the bands BW2 to BW4 are due to insertion that, the use of stubs on the patch, the frequency ratio between the successive bands is nearly The copper area of DOSMSA reduces International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 08-12 © IAEME 10 Variation of return loss versus frequency of SMSA shows the variation of return loss versus frequency of SMSA. From this figure it is the SMSA resonates at 3.43 GHz of frequency which is nearer to the designed of 3.5 GHz. The experimental impedance bandwidth over return loss less than -10 dB is calculated Impedance bandwidth (%) = H L C f f f − × 100 % (1) are the upper and lower cut off frequencies of the resonating bands 10 dB and fC is a centre frequency of fH and fL. Variation of return loss versus frequency of SMSA shows the variation of return loss versus frequency of DOSMSA resonates at four modes of frequencies f1, f2, f3 and f4 with their respective impedance bandwidths are = 6.1 % (4.71-5.01 GHz) BW3 = 3.2 % (6.60-6.82 The first band BW1 is due to the fundamental resonance of the patch and due to insertion of open stubs on the radiating patch. Further it is noted the frequency ratio between the successive bands is nearly reduces by 7.8 % when compared to the copper area of S International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – © IAEME . From this figure it is which is nearer to the designed frequency 10 dB is calculated are the upper and lower cut off frequencies of the resonating bands L. The impedance DOSMSA. The antenna with their respective impedance bandwidths are 6.82 GHz) and BW4 is due to the fundamental resonance of the patch and patch. Further it is noted the frequency ratio between the successive bands is nearly 1.63. ompared to the copper area of SMSA.
  • International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue Figure 5: Radiation pattern of Figure 6: Radiation pattern of Fig 5 and 6 show the radiation patterns of from these figures that, the patterns are broadside and linearly polarized. The cross is much lower when compared to the co The gain of SMSA and DOSMSA is calculated using the absolute gain method given by t ( ) 10 log - ( ) - 20logG dB G dB dB= where, Gt is the gain of the pyramidal horn antenna and R is the distance between the transmitting antenna and the antenna under test (AUT). The power received by AUT, ‘P power transmitted by standard pyramidal horn antenna ‘P measured for SMSA is found to be 0.8 3.21 dB. This indicates that the novel geometry of times in its operating band when compared to the gain of 4. CONCLUSION From this detailed study, it is concluded that 3.21 dB which is nearly 4 times more when compared to the gain of stubs on the two diagonally opposite corners independent bands between 2.88 to The placement of stubs also makes the antenna to use less copper area of about compared to the copper area of SMSA. The radiation characteristics of broadside and linearly polarized. The proposed antenna is simple in its geometry an This antenna may be used for WLAN International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 08-12 © IAEME 11 Radiation pattern of SMSA measured at 3.43 GHz Radiation pattern of DOSMSA measured at 2.965 GHz the radiation patterns of SMSA and DOSMSA respectively. patterns are broadside and linearly polarized. The cross-polar power level is much lower when compared to the co-polar power level indicates the broad nature of radiation. SMSA is calculated using the absolute gain method given by t 0 ( ) 10 log - ( ) - 20log 4 r t t P G dB G dB dB P R λ π           (2) is the gain of the pyramidal horn antenna and R is the distance between the transmitting antenna and the antenna under test (AUT). The power received by AUT, ‘P power transmitted by standard pyramidal horn antenna ‘Pt’ is measured independently. is found to be 0.8 dB maximum and the peak gain of DOSMSA dB. This indicates that the novel geometry of DOSMSA enhances the gain of the antenna band when compared to the gain of SMSA. From this detailed study, it is concluded that DOSMSA enhances the gain from more when compared to the gain of SMSA. The use of dual open stubs on the two diagonally opposite corners of DOSMSA make antenna to operate for 8.55 GHz with a frequency ratio nearly 1.63 between the bands. also makes the antenna to use less copper area of about MSA. The radiation characteristics of SMSA and broadside and linearly polarized. The proposed antenna is simple in its geometry an WLAN and Wimax communication system. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – © IAEME SMSA respectively. It can be noted polar power level polar power level indicates the broad nature of radiation. SMSA is calculated using the absolute gain method given by the relation, is the gain of the pyramidal horn antenna and R is the distance between the transmitting antenna and the antenna under test (AUT). The power received by AUT, ‘Pr’ and the measured independently. The gain DOSMSA is found to be enhances the gain of the antenna by 4 the gain from 0.8 dB to The use of dual open antenna to operate for four between the bands. also makes the antenna to use less copper area of about 7.8 % when MSA and DOSMSA are broadside and linearly polarized. The proposed antenna is simple in its geometry and construction.
  • International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue REFERENCES 1. G. Kumar and K. P. Ray, Broadband Microstrip Antennas, MA (2003). 2. A.A. Eldek., A.Z. Elsherbeni, tapered tuning stubs for wideband operation,” Progress (2004), 53 – 69. 3. Daniel C. Nascimento, Ricardo Schildberg, and J. C. da S. Lacava, Microstrip Antennas for Glonass Applications”, 4. S. Sadat,., M. Fardis., F. Geran, antenna for UWB applications,” 173-179. 5. K.P.Ray. and Deepti Das Krishna, “Compact dual band suspended semicircular antenna with half U slot”, Microwave 2021-2024, 6. C. Chulvanich, J. Nakasuwan, “Design Narrow Slot Antenna for Dual Frequency”, 7. M. Shehata EI-Sallamy, M Equilateral Triangular Microstrip Antenna for Compact and Dual 126th National radio science conference (NRSC2009), 1 8. R.B Waterhouse, “Broadband stacked shorted patch” Electronic Lett, 35, (1999), 9. Jui-Han Lu and Kin Lu Wong, microstrip antenna with a tuning 10. Yuan Li, R. Chair, K. M. Luk, with two Shorting pins”, Microwave 11. Antennas: John D Kraus: MacGraw Hill Pub Co.Ltd. 12. Chandrappa D.N., P.A.Ambresh Reconfigurable Microstrip Patch Antenna Electronics and Communication Engineerin 2013, pp. 226 - 231, ISSN Print: 0976 13. Kishan Singh and Shivasharanappa N Mulgi, Compact Square Microstrip Antenna Electronics and Communication Engineerin 2010, pp. 99 - 106, ISSN Print: 0976 14. Anurag Sharma, Ramesh Bharti Microstrip Patch Antenna”, Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 BIO-DATA Dr. Nagraj K. Kulkarni Electronics from Gulbarga Universi respectively. He is working as an Assistant professor Electronics Government Degree C field of Microwave Electronics. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 08-12 © IAEME 12 P. 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Chandrappa D.N., P.A.Ambresh and P.V.Hunagund, “Varactor Diode Loaded Double Square Reconfigurable Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications”, International Electronics and Communication Engineering &Technology (IJECET), Volume , ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. vasharanappa N Mulgi,, “Complementary-Symmetric Corner Truncated Compact Square Microstrip Antenna for Wide Band Operation”, International Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume , ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. Anurag Sharma, Ramesh Bharti and Archanaagarwal, “Enhanced Bandwidth Slotted , International Journal of Electronics and Communication Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 41 - 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. Kulkarni received his M.Sc, M.Phil and Ph. D degree in Applied Electronics from Gulbarga University Gulbarga in the year 1995, respectively. 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