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  • 1. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 163 DUAL NOTCH LOADED MICROSTRIP ANTENNA FOR PENTA BAND OPERATION Dr. Nagraj K. Kulkarni Department of Electronics Government College, Gulbarga-585105, Karkataka, India ABSTRACT This paper presents on a novel design and development of dual notch loaded square microstrip antenna for penta band operation. The antenna is housed with a volume of 80 X 50 X 1.6 mm3 . The antenna operates between the frequency range of 2.83 to 8.40 GHz giving a maximum impedance bandwidth of 5.7 % and virtual size reduction of 13% with a peak gain of 2.86 dB. The low cost glass epoxy substrate material is used to fabricate the antenna. The microstripline feed arrangement along with quarter wave transformer is used to excite the antenna. The antenna shows linearly polarized broadside radiation characteristic. The design detail of the antenna is described. The experimental results are presented and discussed. This antenna may find applications in WLAN and for systems operating in C band frequencies. Keywords: Square Microstrip Antenna, Notch, Penta Band. 1. INTRODUCTION In modern communication scenario the microstrip antennas (MSAs) are finding profound applications in establishing transmit/receive action in emerging communication applications like WLAN, WiMax and 3G-4G mobile systems, because of their numerous features like low profile, low fabrication cost, planar structure, ruggedness, integrability with Millimeter and micrometer integrated circuits and ease of installation [1]. The dual, triple and multiple band antennas are realized by many methods such as, slot on the patch, ground plane [2-4] etc. But in this study a simple square microstrip antenna with dual notches placed at diagonally opposite corners of the patch is used to achieve penta band operation. This kind of antenna is found to be rare in the literature. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET) ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), pp. 163-167 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8896 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJECET © I A E M E
  • 2. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 164 2. ANTENNA DESIGN The conventional square microstrip antenna(SMSA) and dual notch loaded square microstrip antenna (DNSMSA) are fabricated on low cost glass epoxy substrate material of thickness h = 0.16 cm and εr = 4.2. The art work of proposed antennas is sketched using auto-CAD software to achieve better accuracy. The antennas are etched using the photolithography method. Figure 1: Top view geometry of SMSA Figure 1 shows the top view geometry of square microstrip antenna (SMSA), which is designed for the resonant frequency of 3.5 GHz using the equations available in the literature for the design of square microstrip antenna [5]. The SMSA consists of a square radiating patch of equal length (L) and width (W). The Lf and Wf are the length and width of the microstripline used to excite the patch. A semi miniature-A (SMA) connector of 50 impedance is used at the tip of the microstripline to feed the microwave power. A quarter wave transformer of length Lt and width Wt is used to match the impedances between lower radiating edge of the patch and microstripline feed. Figure 2: Top geometry of DNSMSA Figure 2 shows the geometry of dual notch loaded square microstrip antenna (DNSMSA). Dual notches of horizontal and vertical dimensions Ad = λ0/14.12 and Bd = λ0/21.25 respectively are placed at two diagonally opposite corners of the SMSA. Table 1 gives the design parameters of SMSA and DNSMSA.
  • 3. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 165 Table 1: Design parameters of SMSA and DNSMSA ( cm ) Antenna L W Lf Wf Lt Wt A B Ad Bd SMSA 2.04 2.04 2.18 0.32 1.09 0.06 5 8 - - DOSMSA 2.04 2.04 2.18 0.32 1.09 0.06 5 8 λ0/14.12 λ0/21.25 3. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The Agilent Technologies make (Agilent N5230A: A.06.04.32), Vector Network Analyzer is used to measure the experimental return loss of SMSA and DOSMSA. Figure 3: Variation of return loss versus frequency of SMSA Figure 3 shows the variation of return loss versus frequency of SMSA. From this figure it is seen that, the SMSA resonates at 3.43 GHz of frequency which is nearer to the designed frequency of 3.5 GHz. The experimental impedance bandwidth over return loss less than -10 dB is calculated using the formula, Impedance bandwidth (%) = H L C f f f − × 100 % (1) where, fH and fL are the upper and lower cut off frequencies of the resonating bands when their return loss reaches -10 dB and fC is a centre frequency of fH and fL. The impedance bandwidth is found to be 2.94 %. Figure 4: Variation of return loss versus frequency of DNSMSA
  • 4. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 166 Figure 4 shows the variation of return loss versus frequency of DNSMSA. It is clear from this figure that, the antenna resonates for five bands BW1 = 3.47% (2.83-2.93 GHz), BW2 =3.66 % (4.82-5.00 GHz), BW3 = 3.1 % (5.6-5.78 GHz), BW4 = 3.58 % (6.58-6.82 GHz) and BW5 = 5.7 % (7.49-8.40 GHz) for the resonating modes of f1, f2, f3, f4 and f5 respectively. The BW1 is due to the fundamental resonance of the patch. The bands BW2 to BW5 are due to the effect of dual notches present on the radiating patch. Further it can be noted that, DNSMSA shows virtual size reduction of about 13.01% which indicates the compactness of the antenna. Also, the frequency ratio f2/f1 of the antenna is found to be 1.70 which shows the flexibility in the design of dual and triple frequency antennas. Figure 5: Radiation pattern of DNSMSA measured at 4.85 GHz Figure 5 the far field co-polar and cross-polar radiation patterns of DNSMSA measured in its operating band. From these figure it is observed that, the pattern is broadsided and linearly polarized. The gain of the proposed antenna is calculated using absolute gain method given by the relation, ( ) 0r t λPG (dB) = 10 log - (Gt) dB - 20 log dB P 4πR       where, Pt and Pr are transmitted and received powers respectively. R is the distance between transmitting antenna and antenna under test. The peak gain of DNSMSA measured in BW2 is found to be 2.86 dB. 4. CONCLUSION From this study it is concluded that, DNSMSA resonates for five modes between 2.83 to 8.40 GHz and gives a maximum bandwidth of about 5.70 %. Also, the DNSMSA shows a virtual size reduction and frequency ratio of about 13% and 1.70 respectively. The antenna exhibits broadside radiation characteristics with a peak gain of 2.86 dB. The proposed antenna uses low cost substrate material with simple design and fabrication. This antenna may find applications in WLAN and for systems operating in C band frequencies. REFERENCES 1. Constantine A. Balanis, “Antenna theory: analysis and design”, John Wiley, New York, (1997). 2. Girish Kumar and K. P. Ray, “Broadband microstrip Antennas”, Artech House, Boston, London, 2003. 3. S. V. Shynu, G. Augastin, C. K. Aanandan, P. Mohanan and K. Vasudevan, C- shaped slot loaded reconfigurable microstrip antenna, Electron Lett. 42(2006), 316-318.
  • 5. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 4. Chulvanich. C., Nakasuwan, J., “Design narrow slot antenna for dual frequency”, No.3, (2007), 1024-28. 5. Antennas: John D Kraus MacGraw Hill pub. Co.Ltd. 6. Anurag Sharma, Ramesh Bharti Patch Antenna”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue Online: 0976 –6472. 7. Naveen S. M, Vani R. M and Hunagund P. V Shaped Notch”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. 8. L. Lolit Kumar Singh, Bhaskar Gupta Ground Plane on Microstrip Antenna Performance Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 BIO-DATA Dr. Nagraj K. Kulkarni Electronics from Gulbarga University Gulbarga in the year 1995, 1996 and respectively. He is working Electronics Government Degree College Gulbarga. He is an active researcher in the field of Microwave Electronics. ics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 167 uwan, J., Songthanapitak, N., Anantrasirichai, N and narrow slot antenna for dual frequency”, Progress In Electromagnetic Research PIER Antennas: John D Kraus MacGraw Hill pub. Co.Ltd. Anurag Sharma, Ramesh Bharti and Archanaagarwal, “Enhanced Bandwidth Slotted Microstrip ernational Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 41 - 47, ISSN Print: 0976 nd Hunagund P. V, “Printed Rectangular Monopole Antenna With E ernational Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 206 - 213, ISSN Print: 0976 L. Lolit Kumar Singh, Bhaskar Gupta and Partha P Sarkar, “A Review on Effects n Microstrip Antenna Performance”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 201 ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. Dr. Nagraj K. Kulkarni received his M.Sc, M.Phil and Ph. D degree in Applied Electronics from Gulbarga University Gulbarga in the year 1995, 1996 and working as an Assistant professor and Head, in the nment Degree College Gulbarga. He is an active researcher in the field of Microwave Electronics. ics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Wakabayashi, T, Progress In Electromagnetic Research PIER Enhanced Bandwidth Slotted Microstrip ernational Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & , ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN lar Monopole Antenna With E ernational Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & , ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, n Effects of Finite ernational Journal of Electronics and , 2012, pp. 287 - 292, his M.Sc, M.Phil and Ph. D degree in Applied Electronics from Gulbarga University Gulbarga in the year 1995, 1996 and 2014 the Department of nment Degree College Gulbarga. He is an active researcher in the