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    40120140501018 40120140501018 Document Transcript

    • International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 158 DUAL STUB AND U - SLOT LOADED SQUARE MICROSTRIP ANTENNA FOR QUAD BAND OPERATION Dr. Nagraj K. Kulkarni Department of Electronics, Government College, Gulbarga-585105, Karnataka, India ABSTRACT In this communication, a novel dual open stub and U slot loaded square microstrip antenna is presented as a technique for quad band operation. The proposed design has a structure of 80 × 50 × 1.6 mm3 . The antenna consists of two open stubs and U slot of optimum geometry embedded on the square radiating patch which is exited by microstripline feed at the center. The proposed antenna operates between 4.37-9.40 GHz of frequency. The peak gain of 2.76 dB is achieved with broadside radiation characteristics when compared to the conventional square microstrip antenna. The design concepts are given. The experimental results are presented and discussed. This antenna may find applications in WLAN, IEEE 802.11a and systems operating in X-band frequencies. Key words: Square Microstrip Antenna, Quad Band, Open Stub, U-Slot. 1. INTRODUCTION In the present scenario microstrip antennas are becoming more popular because of their advantages like low profile, low volume, planar structure, compatibility to microwave and millimeter wave integrated circuits (MMICs) and ease of installation, conformability to curved surfaces [1]. The modern wireless communication systems like WLAN and WiMax are rapidly growing and the small and compact antennas possessing triple quad bands is the need of the hour. Many microstrip antenna designers put forth their efforts to meet these requirement using the techniques of variable inductive or capacitive loads to the patch [2], loading of shorting walls at different locations [3-4], stub loading technique [5], integrating varactor diodes to the radiating patches and changing their biasing voltages [6] etc. But, the antenna having dual open stubs and U shaped slot on the square radiating patch which is capable of operating at four bands with better gain is presented in this study. This kind of geometry is found to be rare in the literature. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET) ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), pp. 158-162 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8896 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJECET © I A E M E
    • International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 159 2. ANTENNA DESIGN. The proposed antenna is fabricated using low cost glass epoxy substrate material of area A x B, thickness h = 1.66 mm and dielectric constant εr = 4.2. The artwork of proposed antennas is sketched using computer software auto CAD to achieve better accuracy. The bottom surface of the substrate consists of a tight ground plane copper shielding. Photolithography process is used to fabricate the antennas. Figure 1: The top view geometry of SMSA Figure 1 shows the top view geometry of conventional square microstrip antenna (SMSA). SMSA is designed for the resonant frequency of 3.5 GHz using the equations available in the literature for the design of square microstrip antenna [7]. SMSA consists of a square radiating patch of equal length (L) and width (W), which is excited through a microstripline of length Lf and width Wf. A 50 semi miniature-A (SMA) connector is used at the tip of the microstripline to feed the microwave power. A quarter wave transformer of length Lt and width Wt is incorporated to match the impedances between lower edge of the patch and microstripline feed. Figure 2: The top view geometry of DOSUSMSA Figure 2 shows the top view geometry of dual open stub and U slot loaded square microstrip antenna (DOSUSMSA), which is constructed from SMSA. The open stubs of dimensions Xd and Yd are placed at two diagonally opposite corners along the width of SMSA. The U slot of width 1 mm is placed at the center of the square patch. Uh and Uv are the horizontal and vertical arm lengths of the U slot. The dimensions Uh and Uv are taken in terms of λ0, where λ0, is a free space wave length in cm corresponding to the designed frequency of 3.5 GHz. The various dimensions of the proposed antennas are listed as in Table 1.
    • International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 160 Table 1. Design Parameters of SMSA and DOSUSMSA (in cm) Antenna L W Lf Wf Lt Wt A B Xd Yd Uh Uv SMSA 2.04 2.04 2.18 0.32 1.09 0.06 5 8 - - - - DOSUSMSA 2.04 2.04 2.18 0.32 1.09 0.06 5 8 0.8 0.2 λ0/6 λ0/6 3. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The Agilent Technology make (Agilent N5230A: A.06.04.32) Vector Network Analyzer is used to measure the experimental return loss of SMSA and DOSUSMSA. Figure 3: Variation of return loss versus frequency of SMSA Figure 3 shows the variation of return loss versus frequency of SMSA. From this figure it is seen that, the SMSA resonates at 3.43 GHz of frequency which is nearer to the designed frequency of 3.5 GHz. The experimental impedance bandwidth over return loss less than -10 dB is calculated using the formula, Impedance bandwidth (%) = H L C f f f − × 100 % (1) where, fH and fL are the upper and lower cut off frequencies of the resonating bands when their return loss reaches -10 dB and fC is a centre frequency of fH and fL. The impedance bandwidth is found to be 2.94 %. Figure 4: Variation of return loss versus frequency of DOSUSMSA
    • International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 Figure 4 shows the variation of return loss versus frequency of DOS figure it is clear that, the antenna resonates at bandwidths BW1 = 9.25 % (4.21-4.65 GHz) and BW4 = 8.27 % (8.69-9.44 GHz). patch, BW2 to BW4 are due to the independent resonan on the radiating patch. Further, DOS copper area of SMSA by placing the dual open stubs and U slots on the radiating patch. Figure 5: Radiation pattern of SMSA measured at 3.43 GHz Figure 6: Radiation pattern of DOSUSMSA measured at 4.43 GHz Figure 5 and 6 show the far field co antennas are which are measured in their operating cross polar power level is down by a maximum polar power level. Also, it is seen that, the patterns are broadsided and linearly polarized. construction of DOSUSMSA from characteristics. The gain of DOSUSMSA is calculated using the absolute gain method given by the relation, ( ) 10 log - ( ) - 20logG dB G dB dB= where, Gt is the gain of the pyramidal horn antenna and R is the distance between the transmitting antenna and the antenna under test (AUT). The power received by AUT, ‘P power transmitted by standard pyramidal horn antenna ‘P maximum gain of SMSA and DOSUSMSA 2.76 dB respectively. It can be noted that the gain of DOSUSMSA increases by 3.45 times more when compared to the gain of SMSA. ics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 161 shows the variation of return loss versus frequency of DOSUS figure it is clear that, the antenna resonates at four bands f1, f2 f3 and f4 with their respective 4.65 GHz), BW2 =1.7 % (5.5-5.7 GHz), BW3 = 9.44 GHz). The BW1 is due to the fundamental resonance of the are due to the independent resonance of dual open stubs and the r, DOSUSRMSA uses less copper area of 18.8 % when compared to MSA by placing the dual open stubs and U slots on the radiating patch. Radiation pattern of SMSA measured at 3.43 GHz Radiation pattern of DOSUSMSA measured at 4.43 GHz far field co-polar and cross-polar radiation patterns of the proposed sured in their operating bands. From these figures it is observed that, the cross polar power level is down by a maximum -15dB when compared to their corresponding polar power level. Also, it is seen that, the patterns are broadsided and linearly polarized. MSA from SMSA does not affect the nature of broadside calculated using the absolute gain method given by the relation, 0 ( ) 10 log - ( ) - 20log 4 r t t P G dB G dB dB P R λ π           (2) is the gain of the pyramidal horn antenna and R is the distance between the transmitting antenna and the antenna under test (AUT). The power received by AUT, ‘P power transmitted by standard pyramidal horn antenna ‘Pt’ are measured independently DOSUSMSA measured in its operating band is found to be It can be noted that the gain of DOSUSMSA increases by 3.45 times more when compared to the gain of SMSA. ics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME USMSA. From this with their respective = 4.48% (7.20-7.53 is due to the fundamental resonance of the the U-slot present % when compared to MSA by placing the dual open stubs and U slots on the radiating patch. Radiation pattern of DOSUSMSA measured at 4.43 GHz polar radiation patterns of the proposed From these figures it is observed that, the their corresponding co- polar power level. Also, it is seen that, the patterns are broadsided and linearly polarized. Hence the of broadside radiation calculated using the absolute gain method given by the relation, is the gain of the pyramidal horn antenna and R is the distance between the transmitting antenna and the antenna under test (AUT). The power received by AUT, ‘Pr’ and the ’ are measured independently. The measured in its operating band is found to be 0.8 and It can be noted that the gain of DOSUSMSA increases by 3.45 times more
    • International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 4. CONCLUSION A compact, dual open stub and U slot loaded performance for quad band operat diagonally opposite corners of a square patch a peak gain of 2.76 dB which is 3.45 times more when compared to the gain of SMSA construction of DOSUSMSA from characteristics. The DOSUSMSA is simple material for its fabrication. This antenna may find applications in WLAN, IEEE 802.11a and systems operating in X-band frequencies. REFERENCES 1. Constantine A. Balanis, Antenna theory 1997. 2. Girish Kumar and K. P. Ray, Broadband microstrip 2003. 3. J. Ollikainen, M. Fischer and P. Vainikainen, for mobile communications, Electron Lett. 4. A. Mishra, P. Singh, N.P. Yadav, J.A. Ansari and B.R. Vishvakarma, Compactshorted microstrip patch antenna for dual band operation, PIER C, 9 (2009),171 5. K. P. Ray and G. Kumar, Tunable Trans Antennas Propagat 48 (2000), 1036 6. S. V. Shynu, G. Augastin, C. K. Aanandan, loaded reconfigurable microstrip antenna, 7. Antennas: John D Kraus: MacGraw Hill Pub Co. 8. Archana Agarwal, Manish Kumar, Priyanka Jain and Shagun Maheshwari, “Tapered Circular Microstrip Antenna with Modified Ground Plane for UWB Commun Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 43 - 47, ISSN Print: 0976 9. P. Naveen Kumar, S.K. Naveen Kumar and S.N.Mulgi, “Design and Develo Rectangular Microstrip Antenna for Quad and Triple Band Operation”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 132 - 138, ISSN Print: 0976 BIO-DATA Dr. Nagraj K. Kulkarni Electronics from Gulbarga University Gulbarga in the year 1995, 1996 and 2014 respectively. He is working as an Assistant professor and Head, in the Department of Electronics Government field of Microwave Electronics. ics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 162 A compact, dual open stub and U slot loaded square microstrip antenna is designed and its band operation is verified experimentally. By placing open stubs at two square radiating patch with U slot embedded at which is 3.45 times more when compared to the gain of SMSA from SMSA does not affect nature of broad side radiation is simple in its design and uses the low cost glass epoxy substrate This antenna may find applications in WLAN, IEEE 802.11a and systems Constantine A. Balanis, Antenna theory: analysis and design, John Wiley, Broadband microstrip antennas, Artech House, Fischer and P. Vainikainen, Thin dual resonant stacked shorted Electron Lett. 35 (1999), 437-439. A. Mishra, P. Singh, N.P. Yadav, J.A. Ansari and B.R. Vishvakarma, Compactshorted microstrip patch antenna for dual band operation, PIER C, 9 (2009),171-182. Tunable and dual band circular microstrip antenna with stubs, IEEE Trans Antennas Propagat 48 (2000), 1036 - 1039. C. K. Aanandan, P. Mohanan and K. Vasudevan, reconfigurable microstrip antenna, Electron Lett. 42(2006), 316-318. Antennas: John D Kraus: MacGraw Hill Pub Co. Ltd. Archana Agarwal, Manish Kumar, Priyanka Jain and Shagun Maheshwari, “Tapered Circular Microstrip Antenna with Modified Ground Plane for UWB Communications”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, 47, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. P. Naveen Kumar, S.K. Naveen Kumar and S.N.Mulgi, “Design and Develo Rectangular Microstrip Antenna for Quad and Triple Band Operation”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 138, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. Dr. Nagraj K. Kulkarni received his M.Sc, M.Phil and Ph. D degree in Applied Electronics from Gulbarga University Gulbarga in the year 1995, 1996 and 2014 respectively. He is working as an Assistant professor and Head, in the Department of Electronics Government Degree College Gulbarga. He is an active Electronics. ics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME microstrip antenna is designed and its open stubs at two the centre of the which is 3.45 times more when compared to the gain of SMSA. The not affect nature of broad side radiation cost glass epoxy substrate This antenna may find applications in WLAN, IEEE 802.11a and systems Wiley, New York, Boston, London, shorted patch antenna A. Mishra, P. Singh, N.P. Yadav, J.A. Ansari and B.R. Vishvakarma, Compactshorted 182. with stubs, IEEE Vasudevan, C- shaped slot 318. Archana Agarwal, Manish Kumar, Priyanka Jain and Shagun Maheshwari, “Tapered Circular ications”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, P. Naveen Kumar, S.K. Naveen Kumar and S.N.Mulgi, “Design and Development of Rectangular Microstrip Antenna for Quad and Triple Band Operation”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 3, his M.Sc, M.Phil and Ph. D degree in Applied Electronics from Gulbarga University Gulbarga in the year 1995, 1996 and 2014 respectively. He is working as an Assistant professor and Head, in the Department of researcher in the