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  • International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January - February (2014), © IAEME RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (IJIERD) ISSN 0976 – 6979 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6987 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January - February (2014), pp. 01-09 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijierd.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.1283 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJIERD ©IAEME DRILL ABILITY STUDIES OF JUTE FIBRE REINFORCED PLASTIC SANDWICH STRUCTURE USING DOE AND ANOVA IN VARIOUS SURROUNDING CONDITION Sathishkumar. S1, A.V. Suresh2, S.C. Sharma2, Radha. H.R1 1 T. John institute of technology, Mechanical Engineering Department, Bangalore -560083, Karnataka, India 2 T. B.M.S. Institute of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Department, Bangalore -560064, Karnataka, India ABSTRACT This paper aim is to review the study of the effect of drilling parameter such as cutting velocities, feed rates and drill diameter and peel up and peel down mechanism at entrance and exit side. The orientation angle of fibre is in the form of 0, 45,-45, 60,-60, 75,-75, 90,-90 degree. The quality of drilled holes on hole wall delamination of polyurethane foam sandwich structure clarify the interaction mechanism between fibre, foam and drilling tool. Different damage has been conceptualized and methodologies provided to avoid damage in drilling of sandwich structure. Drilling tests were carried out on sandwich structure with conventional HSS drill bit. It is observed that experimental parameters were selected as per design of experiment. 27 experiments were performed varying the drilling parameters and measured the thrust force and torque. Cutting velocity is the factor influence the delaminating factor (Fd) followed by speed (450,852 and 1860 rpm) feed rate (0.104, 0.211 and 0.315mm/rev) and drill diameter (3, 4 and 5mm). Interaction factors are drilling velocity/feed rate, drilling velocity/speed and drilling velocity/drill diameter found out. Error associated with ANOVA FEA analysis. Compared with experimental ANOVA to FEA analysis. Key words: Sandwich materials, HSS drill, Delamination, Pillar drilling machine, Hot press machine, Tool maker’s microscope.. 1
  • International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January - February (2014), © IAEME 1. INTRODUCTION Sandwich materials consisting of reinforcing fibres embedded in an vinyl ester resin and corematerial polyurethane foam. Sandwich materials construction can vary and performance characteristics are dependent upon the type of the skin, thickness of bond of the skin and core. Sandwich materials are higher specific strength stiffness to weight ratio and high service temperature. The sandwich structure is combination of heterogeneous material of two FRP skins and middle polymer foam. Sandwich structures have high bending, fatigue and buckling strength. These properties depend upon the strength of the outer skins and the foam. If any failure either skin or foam would cause failure of the entire sandwich structure. Sandwich materials are highly promising materials for applications in the railway industry energy observing materials buffers, fenders, carriage interior panels and structural panels for separating floor of coaches, in aircraft engine components and engine fan case, in marine water tight doors and boat hulls ,trolleys, refrigerators covers, windows and doors. Delamination and surface finish of drilled composite materials have been found to be influenced by a numbers of factors such as feed rate, drill tool geometry, tool wear and tool material (Hocheng and Puw, 1992:;chen 1997;Doran and Maikish,1973; Venial et al.,1995; koplev et al., 1983). Lin and chen found the effects of increasing cutting velocity on drilling of CFRP ( lin and chen, 1996). Koenig et al detected the effects of processing variables on drilling damage (Koenig et al., 1984,1985).delamination develops along the fibre direction and pull-push mechanism at enter and exit has been proposed by hocheng_Dharan (Hocheng 1990,ozaki 2000). Taguchi’s method to obtain optimum drilling conditions for delamination free drilling in composite laminates (Ugo Enemuoh et al., 2001. Davim and Reis presented a approach analysis of variance (ANOVA) to create a correlation between drilling diameter , federate, and spindle speed. To predict the thrust force and surface roughness of HSS twist drill in drilling of composite materials. Fig 1.1 Sandwich material structure and peel up and peel down mechanism. A= sandwich structures. B= Jute skin material. C= polyurethane foam 2. FABRICATION OF SANDWICH STRUCTURES 2.1.Fabrication of polyurethane foam a. Equal amount 185 gm of Methylene di-isocyanate (MDI) and 185 gm of Polyether polyol were taken in separate clean and dry glass cups. b. MDI and PP were mixed using a stirring rod in a separate glass vessel. c. Construct wooden die size of (250*250*25mm), inner surface was covered with Teflon sheet because of avoid of sticking. d. The mixed mixture was poured into die covered with metal plate and a pressure of 5tons was applied using Hot Press Machine. e. PUF-rigid foam was taken out of the die after curing for 25 minutes. f. Woven jute fabric was laid up on PUF core g. A resin was applied on each face of the jute fabric. h. The specimen was cured at ambient temperature. 2
  • International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January - February (2014), © IAEME 2.2.Fabrication of Jute/vinyl ester in 65:35 ratios a. Calculation of Jute/vinyl ester : I. Density of the laminate=[(Wt fraction of jute fibre *density of jute fibre)+Wt fraction of vinyl ester resin*density of vinyl ester resin)]Wt. DL= {Wt. F Jf*DJf + Wt. F Vester*Den Vester} = {(0.65*1.3) + (0.35*1.05)}=1.2125 g/cc. II. Mass of laminate= [density * Volume of sample] i. =[1.2125*25*25*0.3]=227.345gm/cc III. Mass of the resin mixture used (35%)= [227.345*0.35]=80gm. IV. Ratio of mass of the resin to mass of promoter, catalyst, accelerator=100:2 V. Mass of resin=[80*(100/10)]=80gm VI. Mass of promoter used =80*100/110=72.72gm VII. Mass of accelerator=[80*(2/100)]=1.6 VIII. Mass of Jute fibre used=[227.345*0.65]=147gm IX. Weight of the one ply=13gm X. No of the plies=[147/13]=11.3=11 b. Computation of Young’s modulus: For Iso-strain condition. E=[ef*Vf+ em*vm].where ef = young’s modulus of fibre. vf = volume fraction of fibre. em= young’s modulus of matrix. vm = volume fraction of matrix. E=[26*0.65+2.458*0.35]=17.76 Gpa. No of fibre on both x and y direction is the same. For iso-stress condition: ‫ܧ‬ൌ ݂݁ ‫݉݁ כ‬ ݂݁ ‫ ݉ݒ כ‬൅ ݁݉ ‫݂ݒ כ‬ 26 ‫845.2 כ‬ 0.35 ‫ 62 כ‬൅ 0.65 ‫845.2 כ‬ =6.159Gpa=Ez Ez is transverse direction ie perpendicular to the direction of fibre. c. Computation of Rigidity modulus of Jute/Vinylester: 1 ‫݉ݒ ݂ݒ‬ ൌ ൅ ‫݉ܩ ݂ܩ ݕݔܩ‬ ݂݁ 26 ‫ ݂ܩ‬ൌ ൌ ൌ 8.666 2ሺ1 ൅ ߛ݂ሻ 2ሺ1 ൅ 0.5ሻ ݁݉ 3 ൌ ൌ1 2ሺ1 ൅ ߛ݂ሻ 2ሺ1 ൅ 0.5ሻ 1 ‫݉ݒ ݂ݒ‬ 0.65 0.35 ൌ ൅ ൌ ൅ ൌ 0.425 ‫ܣܲܩ‬ ‫666.8 ݉ܩ ݂ܩ ݕݔܩ‬ 1 ‫ ݉ܩ‬ൌ 3 View slide
  • International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January - February (2014), © IAEME Sl no 01 Table 2.2.1: Young’s modulus and rigidity modulus of Jute/vinylester Material Ex Ey Ez ߛ௫௬ ߛ௬௭ ߛ௭௫ ‫ܩ‬௫௬ ‫ܩ‬௬௭ Jute/vinyl 17.76 17.76 6.15 0.5 0.5 0.5 2.3529 2.06 ester ‫ܩ‬௭௫ 2.06 3. DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT (DOE) • • Design was carried out using design of experiment it is based on orthogonal array experiment planning is a technique used to evaluate multiple effects with least amount of experiment effort. It is an optimal experimental plan. Example: 215 (factorial designs)=32768 experiments. 2 indiacate number of levels and 15 is number of factors. In fact it is seen that when investigating the influence of 15 factors(each at 2 levels) the number of trials can be reduced to th of that required for a full factorial experiment by using orthogonal arrays 16 experiments instead of 32768. 3.1. Levels involved in Design of Experiments • Number of Main factors and their levels chosen for study. Sample A B C Main factor Feed rate (mm/rev) Spindle speed (rpm) Drill diameter (mm) Level 1 0.104 450 3 Level 2 0.211 852 4 Level 3 0.315 1860 5 DOF 2 2 2 Table 3.1.1 Main factors and their levels chosen for study • Interaction factors chosen for the study. Sample AxB BxC AxC • • Interaction factors Feed rate x spindle Spindle speed x drill diameter Feed rate x drill diameter Table 3.1.2 Interaction factors chosen for the study DOF 4 4 4 Computation of total degree of freedom. Total degree of freedom = (DOF of main factors) + (DOF of interaction factors) = (2+2+2) + (4+4+4 = 6+12=18 Computation of minimum number of experiments required. Minimum number of experiments= total degree of freedom+1=19 4. ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (ANOVA ANOVA is a collection of statistical models, and their associated procedure in which the observed variance is partitioned into components due to different explanatory variables. The initial techniques of the ANOVA were developed by the statistician and geneticist R.A.Fisher in the 1920s and 1930s. Sometimes it is known as Fisher’s ANOVA. It is performed based on the DOE. All the response variables performed like delamination factor, peak thrust force and torque. 4 View slide
  • International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January - February (2014), © IAEME Expt no Symbol 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 • Feed rate Spindle speed Drill dia Delamination (mm/rev) (rpm) (mm) (mm) C B A Fd 0.104 450 3 0.365 0.104 450 4 1.6875 0.104 450 5 1.2354 0.104 852 3 0.5533 0.104 852 4 1.9 0.104 852 5 0.845 0.104 1860 3 1.0043 0.104 1860 4 1.6807 0.104 1860 5 1.234 0.211 450 3 0.3996 0.211 450 4 0.8833 0.211 450 5 0.696 0.211 852 3 0.7833 0.211 852 4 0.8833 0.211 852 5 0.696 0.211 1860 3 1.3733 0.211 1860 4 1.8225 0.211 1860 5 1.642 0.315 450 3 0.99 0.315 450 4 0.98 0.315 450 5 0.8 0.315 852 3 0.95 0.315 852 4 1.8625 0.315 852 5 0.992 0.315 1860 3 1.9772 0.315 1860 4 1.9842 0.315 1860 5 1.956 Table 4.1.1 table for delamination factor Fd Interaction factor between A,B and C sandwich computation given by equation below: Sum of squares=SSA=SS B= SSC=sum of squares due of factor A, B and C SSAB= (SSA- SSB), SS BC=(SSB=SSC), SSAC(SSA-SSB) =sum of squares of factor interaction between AB,BC and AC. SST= total sum squares is given by= 0.3652 +---------1.9562/27 Therefore sum of squares due to error is given by: SSE= SST- SSA- SSB- SSB=SSC- SSA-SSB- SSAB- SS BC- SSAC MSA= MSB= MSC= sum of the squares/DOF MSAB= MSBC= MSAC MSS error 5
  • International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January - February (2014), © IAEME ANOVA result for Jute/vinylester Factor DOF A B C AB BC AC Error Total 2 2 2 4 4 4 8 26 SS ௌௌ MSS=஽ைி ெௌௌ MSS=ெௌௌ௘௥௥௢௥ Ftab for 95%confidence 1.38584 0.6929202 16.3529595 4.46 2.33302 1.1665108 27.52972842 4.46 0.64430 0.3221506 7.602775561 4.46 0.28680 0.0717006 1.692138793 3.84 1.05770 0.2644255 6.240458712 3.84 0.42682 0.1067064 2.518279624 3.84 0.33898 0.0423727 6.47347 Table 4.1.2 ANOVA result for Jute/vinylester Percentage % 21.41 36.04 9.95 4.43 16.34 6.59 5.24 100 4.1. Jute vinyl/ester polyurethane foam sandwich Fig 4.1.1 Drilled polyurethane foam sandwich structure entrance hole surface feed rates 0.211mm/rev, speed 852rpm, diameter 4mm 4.2 Effect of feed rate, speed against delamination factor The result of ANOVA for delamination factor indicates that • Jute vinyl ester drilling velocity is the factor that has the greatest influence on the delamination (36.04%), followed by the feed rate (21.41%) and drill diameter (9.95%). • Interaction factors are as follows drilling velocity/feed rate (4.4%), drilling velocity/speed (16.4%) and feed rate/drill diameter (6.5%)’ • Error associated with ANOVA maximum 16.3% and minimum 4.4% • Total error 5.24% 5. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Finite element method is used to analyse orthogonal cutting of fibre reinforced plastic composites. The machining direction is altered with respect to the fibre orientation. A geometric model of sandwich structures laminate was developed as a rectangular block of size 250*250*30mm. the element type for skin is 3mm top and bottom side was shell 99 layered and rigid foam 24mm was meshed using 3D solid 8-node brick element solid-46 with 8814 nodes and 33042 elements. The element has three degree of freedom at each node translation in the nodal X, Y and Z direction. The model was constrained in all DOF on the four lateral faces and in the Z-direction on the bottom face of the model. Thrust force was applied on the cylindrical part in the Z-direction. Torque was applied on the periphery of the cylindrical part. 6
  • International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January - February (2014), © IAEME 5.1 Finite element modelling Fig 5.1.1 Finite element modelling of a sandwich structures with mesh model Fig 5.1.1 geometrical model obtained was discretised or meshed into 3D solid 46 8noded hexahedran shown in finite element of model of sandwich rectangular and circular hole type mesh: The element type chosen for the study was solid 46 include following. • No of layers chosen were 11 plies for the jute/vinyl ester. Orientation of fibre was 00 angle. Material properties chosen for the study was linear and orthrotropic where nine elastic constant werw defined. The model was constrained in all DOF on the four lateral faces and in the z-direction on the bottom face of the model. FEA model shows the four lateral areas and bottom face. • • Thrust force was applied on the sandwich model in the z-direction. Tsai-wu plot shows the different feed, speed and drill diameter. • • • • Fig 5.2.1 FEA results analysis of Jute/vinyl ester Slno Materials used Feed rate (mm/rev) Speed (rpm) Drill diameter (mm) FEA result 01 02 03 Jute/vinyl ester Jute/vinyl ester Jute/vinyl ester 0.104 0.211 0.315 1860 852 450 3 3 3 1.0615 1.0840 1.0097 5.2 FEA results compared with the experimental results discussion Sl no 01 02 03 Materials used Feed rate Speed (mm/rev) (rpm) Drill Experimental diameter result (Fd) (mm) Jute/vinyl ester 0.104 1860 3 1.09 Jute/vinyl ester 0.211 852 3 1.0833 Jute/vinyl ester 0.315 450 3 1. 0956 Table 5.1.1 Damage zone of the Jute/vinyl ester 7 FEA result 1.0615 1.0840 1.0097
  • International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January - February (2014), © IAEME CONCLUSIONS From above Table 5.1.1 given we concluded that the following points. • For Jute/vinyl ester sandwich structures the delaminating factor corresponding to shows the Experimental consideration 3mm drill diameter, 0.104 feed rate mm/rev and 1860 speed rpm and FEA results are 1.09 and 1.0615 were found to be better. • Delamination factor found to be least for low feed and high speed for high feed and low speed delamination factor is high. Consideration only the entrance negligible on exit side. • ANOVA results indicated that diameter was the only factor that influenced the delamination factor. • The orientation angle of fibre is in the form of 0,45,-45,60,-60,75,-75,90,-90 degree gives the above better quality of hole. REFERENCES 1. [Durao 2008] Durao, L.M.P., Magalhaes, A.G., Marques, A.T., Baptista, A.M., Figueiredo, M. Drilling of Fibre Reinforced Plastic Laminates. Materi-als Science Forum. 2008, Vols. 587-588, pp. 706-710. ISSN 1662-9752. 2. [Hocheng 1990] Hocheng, H., Dharan, C. K. H. Delamination during drilling in composite laminates. Journal of Engineering for Industry. 1990, Vol. 112, pp. 236–239. ISSN 0022-1817. 3. [Hocheng 2003] Hocheng, H., Tsao, C.C. Comprehensive analysis of delamination in drilling of composite materials with various drill bits. Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 2003, Vol. 140, pp. 335-339. ISSN 0924-0136. 4. [Mathew 1999] Mathew, J., Ramakrishnan, N., Naik, N.K. Trepan-ning on unidirectional composites: delamination studies. Composi-tes Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. 1999, pp. 951-959. ISSN 1359-835X. 5. [Ozaki 2000] Ozaki, M. Supervisory Control of Drilling of Composite Materials, Berkeley: University of California, 2000.[Zhang 2001] 6. Zhang, H., Chen, W., Chen, D., Zhang, L. Assessment of the Exit Defects in Carbon Fibre-Reinforced Plastic Plates Caused by Drilling. Key Engineering Materials. 2001, Vol. 196, pp. 43-52. ISSN 1013-9826. 7. V.Diwakar Reddy, A. Gopichand, G. Nirupama and G. Krishnaiah, “Design and Fabrication of Corrugated Sandwich Panel using Taguchi Method”, International Journal of Design and Manufacturing Technology (IJDMT), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 1 - 13, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6995, ISSN Online: 0976 – 7002. 8. K. Sakuma, Y. Yokoo, M. Seto, Study on drilling of reinforced plastics—relation between tool material and wear behavior, Bull.JSME 27 (228) (1984) 1237–1244 9. W. Koenig, P. Grass, A. Heintze, F. Okcu, C. Schmitz-Justin, Devel-opments in drilling, contouring composites containing kevlar, Prod.Eng. 63 (8) (1984) 56–61. 10. H. Hocheng, C.K.H. Dharan, Delamination during drilling in composite laminates, ASME J. Eng. Ind. 112 (1990) 236–239 11. Aleya Fardausy, Md. Alamgir Kabir, Humayun Kabir, M. Mahbubur Rahman, Khadiza Begam, Farid Ahmed, Md. Abul Hossain and Md. Abdul Gafur, “Study of Physical, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Unidirectional Jute Fiber Reinforced Pvc Film Composites”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 267 - 274, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499. 8
  • International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January - February (2014), © IAEME 12. Ravishankar.R, Dr.K. Chandrashekara and Rudramurthy, “Experimental Investigation and Analysis of Mechanical Properties of Injection Molded Jute and Glass Fibers Reinforced Hybrid Polypropylene Composites”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 197 - 206, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. 13. S. Jain, D.C.H. Yang, Delamination-free drilling of composite lam-inates, ASME J. Eng. Ind. 116 (1994) 475–481.[19] 14. P.C. Upadhyay, J.S. Lyons, On the evaluation of critical thrust for delamination-free drilling of composite laminates, J. Reinf. Plast.Comp. 18 (14) (1999) 1287–1303 15. H. Hocheng, H. Puw, On drilling characteristics of fiber-rein-forced thermoset and thermoplastics, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture 32 (4) (1992) 583–592. 16. W.C. Chen, Some experimental investigations in the drilling of carbon fiberreinforced plastic (CFRP) composite laminates, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture 37 (8)(1997) 1097–1108 17. F. Veniali, A. Di Llio, V. Tagliaferri, An experimental study ofthe drilling of aramid composites, Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Energy Resources Technology 117 (1995) 271–278. 9