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  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 62-72 © IAEME 62 FEASIBILITY OF USING WIND ENERGY FOR IRRIGATION IN IRAQ Dr. Omer Khalil Ahmad Al-Jibouri Assistant Prof, Technical Institute – Hawija, Foundation of Technical Education Al- Hawija, Kirkuk, Iraq ABSTRACT The possibility of using the wind energy for pumping in Iraq has been discussed and evaluated. This research includes a theoretical assessment in order to find solution for the technical and economic problems of water pumping from wells and explain the field of utilization this energy. Wind speed for different sites in Iraq which used to calculate the amount of water required for each crop. The energy needed by each location, its characteristics, and usage are determined by studying the results of the field investigations related to water requirements and wind characteristics at each location. Keywords: Wind Energy, Irrigation, Iraq. 1. INTRODUCTION Wind power technology dates back many centuries. There are historical claims that windmachines which harness the power of the wind date back beyond the time of the ancient Egyptians. Hero of Alexandria used a simple windmill to power an organ whilst theBabylonian emperor, Hammurabi, used windmills for an ambitious irrigation project as earlyas the 17th century BC. The Persians built windmills in the 7th century AD for milling andirrigation and rustic mills similar to these early vertical axis designs can still be found in theregion today. Harnessing renewable energy is important for conservation of the fossil fuels and reducing environmental pollution[1]. Wind energy is the kinetic energy associated with the movement of atmospheric air (wind). Wind is free, clean, and inexhaustible energy source. It has been used for hundreds of years for sailing, grinding grain, and for irrigation. Wind energy systems convert this kinetic energy to more useful forms of power. Wind energy systems for irrigation and milling have been in use since ancient times and since the beginning of the 20th century. It is being used to generate electric power. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 62-72 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.5377 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJMET © I A E M E
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 62-72 © IAEME 63 Windmills for water pumping have been installed in many countries particularly in the rural areas. Wind energy is now a low cost generation technology, and it is likely to provide 10 % of the world's electricity by the year 2020 [2]. The geography of Iraq is diverse. It falls into four main regions: the desert (west of the Euphrates), Upper Mesopotamia (between the upper Tigris and Euphrates rivers), the northern highlands of Iraqi Kurdistan, and Lower Mesopotamia, the alluvial plain extending from around Tikrit to the Arabian Gulf, the agriculture in Iraqis concentrated the alluvial plane from the ancient times until this moment in.Both the 1991 Gulf war and 2003 Iraq war have effected and used the water resources. The farmer of Iraq needed water for irrigated the plant, and the electric power generated is not enough to meet the power demand of irrigation. Renewable energy has played an important role to meet increasing energy demand especially in the desert and rural communities.In Iraq, there are many regions that have the range of wind speed of (2-3.5 m/s) which isconsidered useful for the application of wind energy [3] also these regions are more suited for theutilization,due to their remoteness and relatively small and scattered population.According to the decreasing of the conventional energy resources combined with theirecological consequences we must initiate a broad development program and make substantialfunds for utilizing the renewable energy resources like solar and wind energy. In Iraq, a lot of works has been done in this field, Al-alawy studied et. al [4] the possibility of using the wind energy for pumping in some location in the west of Iraq. Erzouky[5] progress an experimental study for using wind energy for irrigation in Basrah south of Iraq. He used Svanoius turbine type on the height of 6 m and connected to the water pump. He found the performance of the system in practice and theoretically and there was a consensus among the results. Jassem [6] estimated the planted area by using wind energy, also it is found that the maximum area that can be planted by beans equals 262 m2 for turbine diameter equal 6 m, and pressure head equal 40 m. This paper aims to secure the needed water andelectricity for people in remote areas for different locations in Iraq; encouraging the use of renewable energyresources, demonstrate the economic feasibility and technical viability of wind energysystems, and gain experience in addition to applied research and development in thefield of wind energy. This research can be considered as a base of wind energy application in Iraq. 2. WIND ANALYSIS Wind speed in any region is not constant, but varies over periods of variation, seasonal variation and yearly variation. The key wind parameter is the mean hub height wind speed. This is the most significant measure of the quality of the wind resource at the site, and is the main determinant of how productive a particular wind will be at the site. The mean wind speed over a period of time is obtained by adding numerous readings taken over that period and dividing the sum by the number of readings.Wind average or mean wind speed or resultant wind is: ࢂഥ ൌ ૚ ࡺ ∑ ࢂ࢏ ࡺ ࢏ୀ૚ ……. (1) Where: N is the sample size, and Vi is the wind speed recorded for the࢏࢚ࢎ observation. In order to take into account the variation in the air massdensity, which is also a parameter (although of second order) in the wind powerdensity. Therefore, a better method of processing wind speed data for power calculationsis to digitize the yearly average power density as:
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 62-72 © IAEME 64 ∑ = = n i iiE V n A P 1 3 2 ρ …….. (2) Where: V = wind speed (m/s), A = Rotor area (m2 ), ρ = air density (1.23 kg/m3 ) at 15 Co and is corrected for the sit specific temperature combined effect on the air density is given by [10]:       − = T Z e T *034.0049.353 ρ ……. (3) WhereZ is the site elevation in meters and T is the temperature. The wind power density (W/m2 ) was calculated using the following equation: ∑ = = n i iirmc V n P 1 3 2 1 ρ …….. (4) The total power of a wind stream in eq. (4) is directly proportional to its density, area, and the cube of it velocity. It will shortly be apparent that the total power discussed above cannot all be converted to mechanical power. In other hand, a wind power is capable of converting no more than 60 percent of the total power of a wind to useful power. The real efficiency (η) is the ratio of actual to total power, therefore the eq. (4) becomes: ܲܽܿ‫݈ܽݑݐ‬ ൌ ‫݌ܥ‬ ‫כ‬ 1/2 ߩ‫ܸܣ‬3 …...….. (5) Where Cp varies between 30 and 40 percent for real turbine. Fig. (2) shows the rotor efficiency versus tip speed. Rotor efficiency is the fractionof available wind power extracted by the rotor and fed to the electrical generator.In most of the meteorological stations, on the whole wind speed is recorded at 10 meters height above the ground. Since wind turbine hub height are typically between 30 and 50 meters, extrapolation of wind speed to the planned hub height is usually required to estimate wind potential. Many techniques and models have been established for height extrapolation of wind speed, the most important and widely used models are the power law models. Mean monthly wind speed at 50 m height is calculated using the following power model: ‫܄‬‫ܐ‬ ‫܄‬‫܉‬ ൌ ሺ ‫܈‬‫ܐ‬ ‫܈‬‫܉‬ ሻહ …… (6) Where Za is the anemometer height, Zh is a common hub height. And the exponent α characterizes the amount of wind shear and is a function of the surface roughness and terrain features up wind of the measuring site. It is considered to be variable with the measured wind speed Va and the anemometer height according to the relationship [12]: ࢻ ൌ ૙.૜ૠି૙.૙ૡૡ૚‫ܖܔכ‬ሺࢂ࢘ሻ ૚ି૙.૙ૡૡ૚‫ܖܔכ‬ሺࡴ࢘/૚૙ሻ …… (7)
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 62-72 © IAEME 65 3. WATER REQUIREMENT The majority of irrigation pumping in Iraq uses fossil fuels such as diesel. An increasingpercentage of irrigation pumping is however done by usingelectrical energy (42% at present). High fuel cost is helping to drivethe installed pumping systems to become electric. Wind power as asource for irrigation Iraq and the decreasing costs of wind energy[7]. In dry climates conditions and semi-arid regions such as Iraq, where the scarce rainfall and limited irrigation water,from that require utilization of available water, such as groundwater from wells.To calculate the amount of water needs from wells we used the following procedures: 3-1 Irrigation The amount of water sufficient to grew specific crop is very important for the design of any irrigation project. And there are many factors which effect to the water amount, and they are sufficient to grow each plant which it are [6]: 1. Irrigation method which will use. 2. Required interval to grew specific crop. 3. Area that covered by water. 4. The characteristics of the soil 5. Irrigation efficiency. 6. Climatic conditions include temperature, relative humidity and wind speed and the amount of rain and the intensity of radiation and the brightness of the sun, and others. Al-Latif and Hadithi [8] put tables to show the requirement of each crop to water for middle of IRAQ (in millimeter per unit area) as shown in Table(1). In order to make the estimate for water demand, each user's consumptions is identified and summed to find the total. It is desirable to do this on monthly basis so that the demand can be conveniently related to the wind sources. Table(1): Amount of water requirement for specific crops Trefoil Barley Wheat Cotton Sesame Mash Forage crops Beans Vegetables Groves January 69 65 65 - - - - 52 52 52 February 72 68 68 - - - - - 54 54 March 98 92 92 79 - - - - 73 73 April 231 115 115 100 93 93 May 151 121 121 June 145 156 156 167 134 134 July 154 166 166 178 142 142 August 145 156 156 167 134 134 September 120 130 130 139 111 111 October 123 115 115 93 93 93 November 90 85 85 68 68 68 December 73 68 68 55 55 55 1 Year 756 608 608 894 608 608 651 268 1130 1130
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 62-72 © IAEME 66 3-2 Drinking water The amount of water sufficient for different species is shown in table.(2)[4] Table.(2) offers guidelines for estimating the waterrequirements for people and livestock. To estimate the total water requirements perday, multiply the number of people or animalsby the amount of water they are expected to consume each day. Table (2): Water requirements in gallons per day for different species Species Gallons per day Human 100 per person Beef cattle 7-12 per head Dairy 10-16 per head Horses 8-12 per head Sheep and goats 1-4 per head Chickens 8-10 per 100 birds Turkeys 10-15 per 100 birds 4. WATER-PUMPING POWER The power required to pump the water is proportional to its density. The acceleration of gravity, the total pumping head, and the volume flow rate of water. The power required to left the water from the well is given by the following equation: pump w gQH P η ρ = …..(8) Where :P = Power (W), Q = Volumetric flow rate of water (m3 ), H = total pumping depth (well depth + 20 m for losses of water pipes and later tank), ߟpump= Pump mechanical efficiency depended on the type of the pump and wind velocity as shown in Fig.(2). For any given wind speed, the power from the rotor must be match the pumping power. Therefore: pump wgQH AVCp η ρ ρ =3 2 1 The design volumetric flow rate of water can be found as: gH VCpA Q w pump ρ ηρ 2 3 = …….. (9) After determined the amount of water (Q) from equation (9) and required of the crop to water (Table 1), can becalculated the planted area of each crop from the following equation: w o h Q A = …….. (10) Where hw represented the water requirement for each crops and taken from Table 1.
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 62-72 © IAEME 67 5. CALCULATIONS AND RESULTS 5.1 Distribution of wind farms in Iraq To apply the distribution of the wind farms along the country measurements for the average wind speed (monthly and annually) in some areas must be studied to give the appropriate decision of choosing the suitable areas for this purpose. Table-1 gives the actual wind speed(m/s) in Iraqi governorates for the period of (1981-2000)[12].The data for this study, weregathered at 17 sites; by the Iraqi MeteorologicalOrganization and Seismology.Inthis type of study longperiod measurements are needed for a good wind energy assessment. Hence the data collectedcould be used for a preliminary analysis frequencies of a certain wind speed as well as the monthly andannual mean wind speeds, to bring out useful conclusions on the wind regime characteristics of thisregion. This can be done by maintained anemometer coupled to an electronic data-logger, through that allthe anemometers were mounted on a fixed height above the ground, usually 10m.Fig.(3) shows mean annual wind speed (m/s) in Iraq, it shows that the wind speed increased gradually from north to the south of the Iraq. The maximum wind speed was (4 .4 m/s) and recorded at Nasria city in the south of Iraq. The low wind speed in the north area of Iraq because of this area is considered transition zone because it locates between mountain in the extreme north east and the opening plains in the south, this may be consideredas the most promising locations where wind machines canbe installed. 5.2 Estimating the type of the pump: From the Table.(3), its showed that the wind speed in Iraq is ranging from (1.3 to 4.4 m/s), according to Fig.(1) the best type of wind turbine is American multi blade type for this range of wind speed as showed in Fig.(4). This windmill has dependably provided significant amounts of water, serving the needs of farmswith only minimal attention for over 150 years. First designed in the mid 1800's, the traditional Americanwindmill has been improved with countless innovations and is now a highly refined and successful technology that isonly slightly reminiscent of it predecessors. This type of windmill is able to pump sufficient amounts of water as it lifts water economically to elevations greater than (400 m). According to the prevailing wind speed in Iraq, the piston pump is the best for pumping the water in Iraq as shown from Fig.(2). To calculate the water pumping needs, first estimate how far water must be lifted fromunderground (the depth of the well) and how much water will be used each day. Fig.(5) was achieved by using eq.(10), this Figure showed daily water production (Liters) at well depth was 20 m and this productivity was increased by the increased the diameter of wind turbine, also the maximum productivity was recorded in Nasria city because the higher value of wind speed in this location. The lower water productivity was recorded in Mosul city consequence of low wind speed in this city. The increased in the well depth cause reduction in water production as shown in Fig.(6,7), In Nasria city, the daily water productivity was decreased from 80000 liters at 20 m depth of the well to 27000 liters at 60 m well depth. Fig.(8) showed this decreasing in water productivity clearly as result of the increasing in well depth for different Iraqi towns. 5.3 Monthly water production Wind is a form of solar energy. It is caused by uneven heating ofthe atmosphere by the sun, irregularities of the earth’s surface, androtation of the earth. The wind speed different from month to other throughout the year.The monthly average data obtained from the mentioned source can be usedfurther to find the monthly water production distribution throughout the year for Baghdad,Nasria and Mosul are illustrated inFig.(9).It can be seen fromFig.(9) that the highest average water production values occurs during March up to Septemberand it becomes maximum during July- August, and September.The higher average wind speed in summer months is very beneficial because
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 62-72 © IAEME 68 the higher water consumption occurred in the summer months for irrigation and drinking. The crop requires most irrigationwater during summer time (June, July and August). Table .(3): Monthly wind surface speed (m/s) for some areas in Iraq from 1978-2008 Sinjar Rabia Mosul Kirkuk Baija Hadiatha Rutba Nakhaib Basia Baghdad Omara Karballa Basra Najaf Diwania Nasria Hawija January 1.5 1.7 1 1 1.5 2.5 2.9 2.6 3.2 2.4 2.7 1.9 2.9 1.2 2.4 3.2 1.4 February 1.6 2.1 1 1.1 1.6 2.6 3.3 3.3 3.6 2.5 2.8 2.1 3.1 1.4 2.7 3.5 1.7 March 2 2.2 1.3 1.4 1.9 3.0 3.2 3.6 4.1 2.8 3.3 2.5 3.4 1.9 3.1 3.9 2.1 April 2.1 2.4 1.4 1.6 2.4 3.4 4.3 4.5 4.6 3.2 3.8 3.0 3.8 2.2 3.4 4.4 2.4 May 2.2 2.5 1.5 1.9 2.6 3.6 4.3 4.3 4.6 3.2 3.9 3.1 3.8 2.3 3.5 4.6 2.8 June 2.3 2.7 1.8 2.1 2.9 3.7 4.3 4.6 4.6 3.3 4.2 3.2 3.9 2.4 3.3 4.8 3.5 July 2.3 3 1.8 1.9 3.5 4.4 4.6 4.7 4.7 3.9 5.9 4.0 5.1 3.0 4.0 6.1 3.1 August 2.1 2.7 1.8 1.9 3.5 4.8 4.5 4.7 4.9 4.1 5.9 4.2 5.1 3.0 4.1 6.2 2.6 September 1.9 2.7 1.5 1.8 3.3 4.6 3.9 4.3 4.7 3.6 5.4 3.5 4.6 2.5 3.3 5.4 2.0 October 1.7 2.3 1.1 1.4 2.3 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.6 2.8 4.1 2.4 3.5 1.8 2.6 4.2 1.9 November 1.5 2.1 0.9 1.5 1.9 2.6 2.7 2.7 3.0 2.5 3.0 2.0 2.8 1.5 2.3 3.4 1.6 December 1.4 1.6 0.7 1.2 1.5 2.2 2.7 2.6 2.9 2.5 3.0 1.8 3.0 1.3 2.2 3.4 1.6 Annual Average of wind at 10 m height 1.9 2.3 1.3 1.6 2.4 3.4 3.7 3.8 4.0 3.1 4.0 2.8 3.8 2.0 3.0 4.4 2.2 Annual Average of wind at 50 m height 2.3 2.5 1.6 1.9 2.9 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.8 3.7 4.8 3.4 4.6 2.4 3.6 5.3 2.7 5.4 Estimating the type of the crops Table (4) shows the area, which can be planted in (m2 ) by different crops for different in Iraq after connected the pump to a storage tank for one year and using a single wind turbine. The area can plant depending on the type of plant and the wind characteristics of wind of region. The largest area was in the Nasria city because of the high level of wind speed in this region, also the increased of area can be achieved by increase of wind turbine in the location of farmer. For increasing the planting area by using the modern method in irrigation such as drip Irrigation, Drip irrigation is a controlled method of irrigation or is a watering method whichdelivers water to plant slowly and right where they need it. The important advantage is Water saving.All of wind data were recorded at 10 m, in order to increase the area of planting crops. We can increase the height of the wind turbine to high altitude. The corrected values at 50 m the tower height are shown in table.(3) according to the eq.(6).
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 62-72 © IAEME 69 Table.(4): Area (m2) can be planted along the year by specific crop for D =4 m, and 40 well depth Fig.(1): Wind turbine eficicncy vs Tip-speed ratio Fig.(2): Performance of comparison of for differnet type[10] wind driven pumps[9] Sinjar Rabia Mosul Kirkuk Baija Hadiatha Rutba Nakhaib Basia Baghdad Omara Karballa Basra Najaf Diawania Nasria Hawija Trefoil 470 835 151 281 948 2696 3474 3764 4390 2043 4390 1506 3764 549 1852 5843 730 Barley 585 1038 187 349 1179 3352 4320 4680 5458 2541 5458 1872 4680 682 2303 7265 908 Wheat 585 1038 187 349 1179 3352 4320 4680 5458 2541 5458 1872 4680 682 2303 7265 908 Cotton 398 706 127 238 802 2280 2938 3183 3712 1728 3712 1273 3183 464 1566 4941 618 Sesame 585 1038 187 349 1179 3352 4320 4680 5458 2541 5458 1872 4680 682 2303 7265 908 Mash 585 1038 187 349 1179 3352 4320 4680 5458 2541 5458 1872 4680 682 2303 7265 908 Forage crops 546 969 175 326 1101 3131 4035 4371 5098 2373 5098 1749 4371 637 2151 6785 848 Beans 132 7 2354 425 793 2675 7605 9800 10617 12383 5764 12383 4247 1061 7 1548 5224 16482 2060 Vegetables 315 558 101 188 634 1804 2324 2518 2937 1367 2937 1007 2518 367 1239 3909 489 Groves 315 558 101 188 634 1804 2324 2518 2937 1367 2937 1007 2518 367 1239 3909 489
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. Fig.(3): Mean annual wind speed (m/s) in Iraq Fig. (5): Daily water production (Liters) at well depth was 20 m Fig. (6): Daily water Sinjar Rabia Mosul Waterproduction(Liters) m Diameter m Diameter m Diameter Sinjar Rabia Waterproduction(liters) onal Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 62-72 © IAEME 70 Mean annual wind speed (m/s) in Iraq Fig.(4): American windmill Daily water production (Liters) at well depth was 20 m Daily water production (Liters) at well depth was 40 m Mosul Kirkuk Baija Hadiatha Rutba Nakhaib Basia Baghdad Omara Karballa Basra Najaf Diawania Nasria Hawija atm Diameter atm Diameter atm Diameter Rabia Mosul Kirkuk Baija Hadiatha Rutba Nakhaib Basia Baghdad Omara Karballa Basra Najaf Diawania Nasria Hawija atm Diameter atm Diameter atm Diameter onal Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), American windmill
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 62-72 © IAEME 71 0.00 5000.00 10000.00 15000.00 20000.00 25000.00 30000.00 Sinjar Rabia Mosul Kirkuk Baija Hadiatha Rutba Nakhaib Basia Baghdad Omara Karballa Basra Najaf Diawania Nasria Hawija Waterproduction(Liters) at 2 m Diameter at 4 m Diameter at 6 m Diameter Fig. (7): Daily water production (Liters) at well depth was 60 m 0.00 1000.00 2000.00 3000.00 4000.00 5000.00 6000.00 7000.00 8000.00 9000.00 Sinjar Rabia Mosul Kirkuk Baija Hadiatha Rutba Nakhaib Basia Baghdad Omara Karballa Basra Najaf Diawania Nasria Hawija Waterproduction(Liters) 20 m depth of well 40 m depth of well 60 m depth of well Fig. (8): Daily water production (Liters) at 2 m diameter of wind mill for different depth of well 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 50000 January February March April May June July August September October November December Waterproduction(Liters) Mosul Baghdad Nasria Fig.(9): Daily water production (liters) (4 m diameter of wind mill 40 m depth well) for different months in the north, middle, and south of Iraq
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 62-72 © IAEME 72 6. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION In the present research, the assessment study of the wind potential energy for irrigation in Iraq leads to the following conclusions: • Wind energy can be used for planting some of the crops in Iraq. • The water production can be increased by using the largest wind turbine and increasing the number of wind turbine can be installed in the site. • Increasing the well depth reduce the water quantity which can be lift from the well. • The water quantity can be lift in the south of Iraq is larger than the water quantity in the north of Iraq. • Experimental study to check the results as a recommendation for this research. 8. REFERENCES [1] Ahmed R. Ibrahim and Dr. Mohammed A. Saeed, (2010), "Wind Energy Potential in Garmyan Zone", Diyala Journal for Pure Science, Vol.6, No.2, pp. 170-182. [2] Roojwan S. Esmaelet. al, (2013),"Wind Energy Proposed In Kurdistan-Iraq", Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol. 3, Issue 6, pp.1531-1537. [3] Al-Tamimy, A., (2007), "Estimation of wind energy in Iraq", Ph.D Thesis, College of science, Al-Mustansriya University. [4] Iman T. Al-Alawayet. al,(1988), "Feasibility of using wind energy in remote areas for pumping in Iraq'', Journal of solar energy, Vol.6 , No.2, pp. 49-74. [5] Micah A. Erzouky,(1994), "Use wind turbine in the water pumping system", Master's thesis, University of Basrah. [6] RaaidR.Jassem, (2013), "Estimated the planted area by using wind energy", International journal of research and reviews in Applied Sciences, Vol.15, No.3, pp 385-389. [7] Zhu Yet. al.,(2008),"Advanced Agricultural IrrigationSystem Applying Wind Power Generation",presented at IEEEEnergy2030, Atlanta, GA USA. [8] Dr. Nabil I. Al-Latif and IssamK.Hadithi, (1988), "Irrigation Basic and Applications". University of Baghdad. [9] Sathyajith Mathew, (2006), "Wind Energy Fundamentals, Resource Analysis and Economics", Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Netherlands. [10] Mukund R.Patel, "Wind and Solar Power System", U.S. Merchant Marine Academy New York, CRC Press LLC, 1999. [11] C. G. Justus, Wind and Wind system performance, vol. 4, no. 2. Philadelphia, PA.: Franklin Institute Press, 1978. [12] Iraqi Atmospheric Stations: Technical Reports 2000. [13] B. M. Kharat and Prof. V. A. Kulkarni,, “Automatic Multichannel Drip Irrigation”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 41 - 49, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. [14] Safayat Ali Shaikh, “Optimal Cropping Pattern in an Irrigation Project”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp. 111 - 121, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. [15] Ibrahim R. Teaima, Alaa A. A. Gharieb and M. A. Younes, “Feasibility of Direct Pumping for Irrigation Improvement Projects”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 494 - 511, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.