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  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 90-95 © IAEME 90 PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION STUDY OF WASTE PLASTIC OIL AND DIESEL BLEND IN D.I. SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE Rajan Kumar1 , M.K.Mishra2 , S.K.Singh3 , Arbind kumar4 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, BIT Sindri, Dhanbad 2 Department of chemistry, BIT Sindri, Dhanbad 3 Director, BIT Sindri, Dhanbad 4 Department of Mechanical Engineering, BIT Mesra, Ranchi ABSTRACT The present work is carried out to evaluate the fuel qualities and adaptability of waste plastic oil as an alternative fuel for CI engine. The blends used for this study were D100and D90WPF10. The physico-chemical properties of these samples were analyzed and found that it has almost similar properties to that of diesel and waste plastic oil –blends was also tested as a fuel in a D.I. diesel engine and its performance characteristics were analyzed and compared with diesel fuel and it is found that the blend of 10% waste plastic oil with diesel can be good substitute for diesel engine in near future. Key words: Diesel Engine, Physico-Chemical, Performance and Emission. INTRODUCTION Plastic is a macromolecule polymer, formed by polymerization of hydrocarbon materials and it has the ability to be shaped by the application of reasonable amount of heat and pressure. Plastics contain compounds such as carbon monoxide, sulfur and nitrogen [1]. Plastics are being used all over the world, and afterwards, these plastics turn into waste plastics. At the same time, waste plastics have created a very serious environmental challenge because of their huge quantities and their disposal problems. The waste plastics either end up in landfill or incineration. The waste plastic that ends up in the landfill when littered does not degrade for thousands of years causing lands to become infertile and environmentally unsafe for its habitants around them. Due to excessive amount of waste plastics discarded everyday a large amount of them end up in incineration facilities. When INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 90-95 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.5377 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJMET © I A E M E
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 90-95 © IAEME 91 incinerated, waste plastics release toxic gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), which causes health hazards, sulfur dioxides (SO2) when incinerated, which contributes to acid rain, nitrogen oxides (NOx) which contribute to ozone depilation and acid rain, and carbon dioxide (CO2), greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Many researchers have been conducted to convert waste plastics into renewable energy sources. This is possible because plastics are originally made from crude oil. Crude oil is a very limited natural resource that is used to make transportation fuel, plastics and other products. Crude oil is a non-renewable energy source and since it is a natural resource it will deplete in the near future. Successful methods have been carried out to convert waste plastics into liquid based fuels. These methods include various procedures to convert the waste plastics such as Pyrolysis, in which the contents of waste plastics are thermally degraded to produce liquid-based fuels and other products without the presence of oxygen [2-4]. OBJECTIVE OF THE PRESENT WORK The objective of this study is to investigate the fuel qualities and adaptability of oil, which were synthesized from mixed plastic waste in direct injection single cylinder diesel engine. Materials and Methods Waste plastic oil used provided by Poly-Crack Technology (STEP), Mumbai and Diesel fuel purchased from local petrol station. The fuel blends were prepared by mixing waste plastic fuel with diesel fuel. Table1: Test Fuel Nomenclatures Sl. No. Sample ID Composition (by vol %) 1 D100 100% diesel fuel 2 D90WPF10 90% diesel and 10% waste plastic oil Methods Physico-chemical Studies Diesel and waste plastic oil were mixed into a homogenous blend by magnetic stirrer and two samples of different composition were prepared. The properties studied were the Density, Viscosity, flash point, fire point, calorific values; Standard methods (i.e. ASTM and I.P.) were used in the experiments. The Engine: A single -cylinder, four-stoke 5HP; diesel engine is selected for the study. The Bore and the stoke lengths are 80mm and 110 mm respectively. The engine ran on four Different load conditions at 33%, 50%, 66%, 83% and full load. Performance Test: The following engine performance parameters were computed for above two samples, Brake thermal Efficiency, Brake specific fuel Consumption, brake specific energy conversion, brake mean effective pressure, air fuel ratio and volumetric efficiency. Emission Test: Exhaust temperature has been measured and also smoke is measured by Automotive Emission Analyzer HG-540.
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 90-95 © IAEME 92 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Determination of physico-chemical properties Table 2: Comparison of properties of blended plastic oil with diesel and diesel The results of chemical and physical properties of blended waste plastic oil with diesel and diesel are shown in table 2.It are clear that the density of both the oil is approximately same. The viscosity of blended oil is slightly lower than that of diesel, which goes in favor of D90WPF10.The flash point of blended oil is slightly higher than that of diesel, so the blended oil is safer fuel for storing and transportation than that of diesel. PERFORMANCE TEST ON CI ENGINE The performance test was conducted in the thermal engineering Laboratory of BIT Mesra, Ranchi. Before testing, the fuel supply tube was connected to a suitably calibrated burette fitted along the side of especially designed cylindrical tank fixed on a wooden stand of suitable height. When it was required to measure the fuel consumption, the valve was closed so that the fuel could flow into the engine through filter from the graduated burette. Engine speed was measured using Tachometer and the time for a known volume of fuel (10cc.) consumption was measured using stop watch. 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 Brakethermalefficiency,% Load, % D 90W PF 10 D 100 Fig 1: Variation of thermal efficiency with load Sample ID/Properties D90WPF10 D100 Density (g/cm³) at 35ºC 0.804 0.80 Viscosity(cp) at 35ºC 10.4 10.71 Flash point (o C) 65 61 Calorific Values (MJ/Kg) 44.87 45.35 Acid Number(Mg KOH/g) --- 0.03 Pour Point (o C) -5 -6 Cold Filter Plugging point (o C) --- 1 Cloud point (o C) ---- 1
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 90-95 © IAEME 93 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 D90WPF10 D100 Brakethermalefficiency,% Brake Power, kW Fig. 2: Variation of thermal efficiency with load 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 0.20 0.22 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.30 0.32 D90WPF10 D100 Brakespecificfuelconcumption,kg/kW-hr Load, % Fig. 3: Variation of brake specific fuel consumption with load 3 0 4 0 50 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 00 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 D 9 0 W P F 1 0 D 1 0 0 HCemission,ppm L o a d , % Fig. 4: Variation of Hydrocarbon emission with load
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 90-95 © IAEME 94 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0 0 .0 0 0 .0 2 0 .0 4 0 .0 6 0 .0 8 COemission,% L o a d , % D 9 0 W P F 1 0 D 1 0 0 Fig. 5: Variation of CO emission with load Fig. 6: Variation of CO2 emission with load 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0 0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 O 2 emission,% L o a d , % D 9 0 W P F 1 0 D 1 0 0 Fig. 7: Variation of O2 emission with load 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 4 0 0 6 0 0 8 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 4 0 0 NO x emission,ppm L o a d , % D 9 0 W P F 1 0 D 1 0 0 Fig. 8: Variation of NOx emission with load 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 1 0 CO 2 emission,% L o a d , % D 9 0 W P F 1 0 D 1 0 0
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 90-95 © IAEME 95 Figure.1 shows the variation of thermal efficiency with the engine load. Figure.2 shows the variation of thermal efficiency with brake power. Figure 3 shows the variation of brake specific fuel consumption with load. The brake thermal efficiency increases with the increase in load for both the fuel. The brake thermal efficiency of D90WPF10 is found to be little higher than diesel. The maximum thermal efficiency at full load is found to be 36.45 and 36.63 for D100 and D90WPF10 respectively. The higher thermal efficiency may be due to the additional lubricity provided by the blended fuel [5]. The brake thermal efficiency also increases with the increase in brake power for both the oil tested. It is found that the thermal efficiency of D90WPF10 is slightly higher than diesel for the same power output. The BSFC is comparative parameter that shows how efficiently an engine is converting fuel into work [6]. The brake specific fuel consumption decreases with the increase in load for both the fuel. The BSFC of D100 is found to be little lower than D90WPF10. The hydrocarbon emission of D100 is found to be little higher than diesel. The CO emission of D100 is found to be little higher than D90WPF10.CO2 is a desirable byproduct that is produced, when the carbon form fuel is fully oxidized during the combustion process. The increase in % CO2 with load indicates good combustion [7]. The CO2 emission for D100 is also found to be slightly higher than diesel. The NOx emission of D90WPF10 is found to be lower than diesel. The O2 emission for both the fuel is found to be approximately same. CONCLUSION The observation made in the present work were the part of ongoing research work, in which the main objective is to evaluate the suitability of the oil from waste plastic with respect to the physico-chemical properties, and its performance and emission, as an extended fuel for diesel engine. Test results showed that the thermal efficiency, BSFC, HC emission, CO and CO2 emission and NOx emission of blended fuel were within the acceptable range. After analysis it is observed that the blended oil from the waste plastic can be used in CI engine without any engine modification. REFERENCES 1. A.Aboulkas, K.El. Harfi, A.El.Benchana, A.mokhlisse and A.Outzorit, Estonian Academy Publisher, Oil Shale Vol. 24 No.1 (2007), pp. 15-33. 2. Moinuddin Sarker, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid, and Mohammed Molla, Journal of Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications Vol. 1 (2011), pp. 1-9. 3. Senthilkumar Tamilkolundu1. Chandrasekar Murugesan, 2nd International Conference on Chemical, Ecology and Environmental Sciences (ICCEES'2012) Singapore April 28-29, 2012, pp. 66-70. 4. J. M. Arandes, I. Torre, P. Castano, M. Olazar, and J. Bilbao, Energy and Fuels, 21 (2007), pp. 561–569. 5. V, Internal Combustion Engine, TMH Publication, 2008, ISBN 10:0.07-064817-4, pp. 597 Ganeshan. 6. Rajan Kumar, S.K.Singh, Arbind Kumar and M.K.Mishra, Journal of Biofuels, Vol.3(2) (2011), pp. 79-87. 7. A.M. Liaquat, M.A. Kalam, H.H. Masjuki and A. Rezza, Sci.Int(Lahore), 22, 4(2010), pp. 245-249, ISBN-1013-5316. 8. Rajan Kumar, Dr. Manoj K Mishra and Dr. Shyam K Singh, “Performance and Emission Study of Jatropha Biodiesel and its Blends on C.I. Engine”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 85 - 93, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.