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30120140504007 2

  1. 1. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 51-60 © IAEME 51 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF NEEM BIO DIESEL (B20) K. TARUN1, G. SAI GNANARKA2, S. ABHINAV3, K. SAI SATVIK4 1, 2, 3, 4 (Dept. of MECHANICAL, Vasavi College of Engg., Hyderabad, India) ABSTRACT Today energy crisis is worldwide because conventional forms os energy supply and consumption are causing serious economical and environmental problems. Biodiesel is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be manufactured from new and used vegetable oils, animal fats and recycled restaurant grease. Neem Biodiesel B20(20% neem oil+80% diesel) can be used as a substitute for the fossil fuel(diesel). In this paper, the experimental methodology of preparing the biodiesel by transesterification process, properties of the fuel and the behaviour of the diesel engine running on this fuel is discussed. Keywords: Neem Biodiesel B20, Transesterification. INTRODUCTION Biodiesel is produced from renewable sources such as vegetable oils, animal fats and recycled cooking oils. Chemically it is defined as the "mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids" derived from renewable liquid sources. Bio diesel is typically produced by reacting vegetable oil or animal fat with methanol in the presence of a catalyst to yield glycerin and bio diesel. It is a substitute for an additive to diesel fuel that is derived from the oils and fats of plants. It is an alternative fuel that requires no engine modifications and provide power similar to conventional diesel fuel and it contributes no net CO2 or sulphur to the atmosphere and is low in particulate emissions. Due to high Bio-diesel costs, engine compatibility issues, and cold weather operating concerns, Bio-diesel is often blended with conventional diesel fuel. Common Bio-diesel blends are B20 (20% Bio-diesel and 80% petroleum diesel). The environmental benefits associated with using Bio-diesel scale with the percentage of Bio-diesel contained in the fuel blend. B-20 i.e., blend -20 has been prepared by adding 200 ml of neem oil to 800ml of diesel (20%neem oil, 80% diesel) in a bottle and is stirred vigorously for obtaining homogeneous blend. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 51-60 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.5377 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJMET © I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 51-60 © IAEME 52 PROPERTY DIESEL BIO-DIESEL Appearance Light Yellow Pale Yellow Odor Aroma Pleasant Aroma Bio-Degradability Relatively Slow Four times faster than Diesel Flammability Flammable Non Flammable TABLE: Comparision of physical properties between diesel and biodiesel PROPERTY DIESEL BIO-DIESEL Density 430-450kg/m3 875-900kg/m3 Boiling Point 250-3500C 2000C Specific Gravity 0.81-0.96 0.84 Cetane Number >51 >49 Flash Point 52-960C 130-1500C Fire Point 2100C 1600C Kinematic Viscocity 2-5 3.5-5 mm2 /s at 400C EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGY Transesterification Process: Biodiesel fuel blend can be conventionally prepared by using alkali or acid as catalyst. 100gm of refined neem oil is mixed with 12gm of alcohol and 1gm of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) which acts as catalyst. The experiments were conducted in a manner similar to Soxhlet extraction apparatus. This mixture is taken in a 500ml round bottomed flask. The amount of catalyst that should be added to the reactor varies from 0.5% to 1% w/w. Using magnetic stirrer and heater equipment the above mixture is thoroughly mixed and maintained at a temperature of 50-55 0C for two hours. The mixture is now allowed to settle for 24 hours at which two separate layers are obtained. The top layer will be methyl ester of neem oil (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) i.e,. biodiesel) and the bottom one glycerin. Using a conical separating funnel the glycerin is separated at the bottom. To separate the FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) from glycerol, catalyst (NaOH) and methanol, washing was carried out with warm water. Further water and methanol will be removed by distillation. Then the NaOH, Glycerol, methanol and water was treated with phosphoric acid for neutralizing the catalyst. Finally glycerin is obtained as a byproduct in case of alkali transesterification process. Fig.1. shows the experimental set up of the process.
  3. 3. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 51-60 © IAEME 53 TESTING OF IC ENGINES WITH BIO DIESEL The following equipment has been used for the experimental work(Fig.2.) carried out in applied thermo dynamics laboratory. This setup has the provision for to do work on measurement of different parameters and performances .Separate fuel tank is arranged to supply different proportions of diesel and oil. Procedure: 1. The engine was started at no load condition and allowed to work for at least 10 minutes to stabilize. 2. The readings such as time for 10cc fuel consumption, speed, manometer reading, exhaust temperature etc., were taken as per the observation table. 3. The load on the engine was increased by 20% of FULL Load using the engine controls and the readings were taken as shown in the tables. 4. Step 3 was repeated for different loads from no load to full load. 5. After completion of test, the load on the engine was completely relieved and then the engine was stopped and the results are calculated. Fig.2. Experimental Setup
  4. 4. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 51-60 © IAEME 54 Viscocity Test The viscometer (Fig.4.) consists of a metal cup with an axially placed orifice in the base. The hole can be closed by a metal ball or a rod. The metal cup can be heated and the oil is stirred to ensure uniform temperature conditions. When the ball is removed, a thin stream of oil runs in to a small graduated glass flask kept underneath and the time to fill the flask is recorded which represents the viscosity of oil at that temperature. Kinematic viscosity=At-B/t Where A=0.26, B=1790 Fig.3. Experimental setup of IC Engine Test Rig Fig.4. Redwood Viscometer Smoke Test Hartridge smoke meter is used for the smoke test. By pressing power switch on the front panel and checking that the measuring equipment is switched on and after waiting for 20 seconds, the system will itself go to CAL mode and by pressing test, current value of capacity is displayed. Fig.5. Hartridge Smokemeter
  5. 5. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 51-60 © IAEME 55 OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS PURE DIESEL Table 3.1: Pure Diesel 15%NEEM OIL, 85%DIESEL Table 4.1: 15%Neem Oil, 85%Diesel Table 4.2: 15%Neem Oil, 85%Diesel
  6. 6. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 51-60 © IAEME 56 Table 3.2: Pure Diesel 20% NEEM OIL, 80%DIESEL Table 4.3: 20%Neem Oil, 80%Diesel 25% NEEM OIL, 75% DIESEL Table 4.4: 25% Neem oil, 75% Diesel
  7. 7. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 51-60 © IAEME 57 SMOKE TEST Table 4.3: 20%Neem Oil, 80%Diesel Table 4.4: 25% Neem oil, 75% Diesel VISCOCITY TEST
  8. 8. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 51-60 © IAEME 58 GRAPHS
  9. 9. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 51-60 © IAEME 59 RESULTS Brake thermal Efficiency: 1 it is observed that break thermal efficiency for blends of neem oil and diesel oil is higher than that of pure diesel during engine operation. Air-Fuel ratio: Air fuel ratio for various loads of an engine operation with blend of fuel is noted. It is seen that 20% neem oil and 80% diesel has more air fuel ratio when compared with diesel. Brake specific Fuel Consumption: Specific fuel consumption for various loads of an engine is noted. It is found that for almost all loads, the specific fuel consumption slightly decreased with increase in blend number. Mechanical Efficiency: Mechanical efficiency for various loads of an engine operation with blend of fuel is noted. It is seen that 20% neem oil and 80% diesel has more mechanical efficiency when compared with diesel and with other blends. Volumetric Efficiency: It is observed that volumetric efficiency is high for B20 when compared with diesel at no load and at maximum condition. Exhaust Temperature: Exhaust temperature for various loads of an engine operation with blend of fuel is noted. It is found that, B20 (20% neem oil and 80% diesel) has less exhaust temperature at maximum load when compared with diesel. Indicated thermal efficiency: It is found that indicated thermal efficiency is more for B20 (20% neem oil and 80% diesel) when compared with diesel at maximum load. Percentage of smoke vs Load: Percentage of smoke is more for diesel than compare to neem at no load condition. CONCLUSIONS It is possible to replace fossil fuel (diesel) with all its economic and ecological disadvantages, with Neem Bio Diesel which is renewable and easily available The above test leads to an inference that, B20 (20%neem oil + 80%diesel) has the Best performance characteristics which are explained below. • Brake thermal and Mechanical efficiencies for B20 is about 30.29% and 92.34% which are higher when compared with pure diesel and this characteristics implies that maximum thermal input from fuel is converted into mechanical work (wheel power) thus making this blend more efficient. • Indicated thermal efficiency of B20 is high when compared to diesel and thus maximum potential heat would be delivered as work. • Exhaust temperature of B20 has least value, thus life of engine components can be improved. • Volumetric efficiency of B20 is more when compared to pure diesel, engine output can be increased. • Air fuel ratio for B20 is higher i.e., more air is drawn into it which results in high efficient combustion and greater cooling effect. • Additionally, the smoke test conducted shows that B20 blend has the least NOx emissions I.e., 24.6% when compared to the pure diesel which has 30.6% NOx emissions. • Thus it can be concluded that, as B20 has the most suitable characteristics, it is preferable and suggestible to employ in vechicles.
  10. 10. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 51-60 © IAEME 60 REFERENCES [1] Yusuf Ali and M.A. Hanna “Alternative diesel fuels from vegetable oils”. Bio- resource Technology 50 (1994) 153-163. [2] Ayhan Demirbas “Bio-Diesel fuels from vegetable oils via catalytic and non- catalytic supercritical alcohol transesterifications and other methods”. Energy conversion and management 44 (2003) 2093-2109. [3] B.K. Barnwal and M.D. Sharma “Prospects of Bio-diesel production from vegetable oils in India” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 9 (2005) 363-378. [4] A.S. Ramadhas and C. Muraleedharan, “Performance and emission evaluation of a diesel engine fueled with methyl esters of rubber seed oil”. Renewable Energy 30 (2005) 1789-1800. [5] J. Porteiro and J.C. Moran “performance and exhaust emissions in the use of bio- diesel in outboard diesel engines”. Fuel 86 (2007) 1765-1771. [6] V.Narasiman, S.Jeyakumar, M.Mani and K.Rajkumar, “Impact of Combustion on Ignition Delay and Heat Release Curve of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine using Sardine Oil as a Methyl Ester”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 150 - 157, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. [7] Sanjay Patil, “Effect of Injector Opening Pressure on Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of C.I. Engine Fuelled with Palm Oil Methyl Ester”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 233 - 241, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. [8] Mahesh P. Joshi and Dr. Abhay A. Pawar, “Experimental Study of Performance-Emission Characteristics of CI Engine Fuelled with Cotton Seed Oil Methyl Ester Biodiesel and Optimization of Engine Operating Parameters”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 185 - 202, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. [9] Nithyananda.B.S, Anand A and Dr.G.V.Naveen Prakash, “Experimental Investigation of Neem and Mixed Pongamia-Coconut Methyl Esters as Biodiesel on C.I ENGINE”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 232 - 242, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.

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