Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
30120140504004
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

30120140504004

55
views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
55
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 23-30 © IAEME 23 INFLUENCE OF FLANK WEAR LAND INCLINATION ON ATTRIBUTES OF ORTHOGONAL MACHINING USING SLIP LINE FIELD 1* VISHALDATT V KOHIR, 2 S T DUNDUR 1* Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Angadi Institute of Technology and Management, Savagaon, Belgaum- 590 009, Karnataka, India 2 Professor, Department of Industrial and Production Engineering, Basaveshawar Engineering college, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India ABSTRACT Progressive tool wear alters the micro geometry of the cutting tool. Of all the tool wear types, flank wear attracted maximum attention as it is often used for determining the tool life. Many researchers agreed to the presence of nonzero inclination of flank wear land with respect to cutting direction but, no research available provides the effect of flank wear land inclination on the attributes of the orthogonal machining. Hence this paper is targeted to investigate the influence of flank wear land inclination angle on orthogonal machining using slip line field model. The investigation verifies the influence of non-zero inclination of flank wear land inclination on the attributes of the orthogonal machining. Keywords: Flank Wear Land Inclination, Slip Line, Edge Preparation. 1. INTRODUCTION In modern manufacturing industry, titanium, nickel and metal matrix composites have become common work piece materials replacing the conventional ferrous materials. Which are difficult to machine. One of the main issues with machining of these materials is wear rates of cutting tool used. Out of all tool wear types, flank wear greatly influences the surface integrity of the work. Apart from this emergence of new machining technique like hard turning and widespread use of edge preparation such as chamfered, radiused, honed and water fall honed to strengthened the edge inspires modern research community to have better understanding of flank wear related problems to incorporate these tooling characteristics into improve related models or to develop new cutting models[1]. Slip line field theory was successfully used to construct the cutting models with different tool edge conditions such as sharp [2- 5], rounded [6-12], chamfered [13, 14], worn or flank INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 23-30 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.5377 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJMET © I A E M E
  • 2. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 23-30 © IAEME 24 wear [15,16]. According slip line field theory edge prepared tools can be modeled similarly as that of cutting with a flank wear. Some of the researchers [1, 17, 18, 19] consider that the flank wear is parallel to the cutting direction. There is another class of researchers [15, 16, 20, 21] who believe that the flank wear land makes a non zero inclination with the cutting direction as shown in Fig 1 Figure 1: Flank Wear Land Inclination with cutting direction Generally the cutting edge geometry defined by the edge radius, chamfer angle, or flank wear considerably influences the material flow pattern in metal cutting [20]. The existence of inclination of flank wear land was based on observations made by Thomsen and Kobyashi [22], who reported a significant plastic flow below worn tool flank face when a negative clearance angle exists but for zero clearance angle wear land does not affect the shearing mechanism. Liu and Barash [17] indirectly showed the evidence of existence of plastic flow in the work piece under the tool flank face, while studying the state of sub layer cutting with artificially created flank wear land. Photomicrograph of the work piece taken by Nakayama [23] provides the evidence of plastic deformation below the flank surface. Using the above mentioned observations Shi and Ramlingam [15] developed a slipline model with a chip breaker and flank wear land. A nonzero inclination of flank wear land with respect to the cutting direction is assumed and the inclination angle is determined as a part of the problem solution. Waldorf [8] pooled the model of Shi and Ramalingam [15] with the findings of Thomsen et al. [22] to analyse round edge tools that form sharp-like edges after stable build up. To predict cutting forces under the combined effects of flank and crater wear, a slip line based force modeling approach is employed by Yong Huang [20]. In the proposed slipline field model flank wear land is considered to be inclined to the cutting direction. Slip line field solutions for a tool with flank wear land making a non-zero inclination with the cutting direction were proposed by the S T Dundur and N S Das [15] and found that the ploughing, cutting and thrust forces vary linearly with flank wear. In above mentioned models the inclination of flank wear was determined as a part solution and no experimental evidence was available. Recently experimental investigation conducted by Vishaldatt and S T Dundur [24] with a modified single point tool to capture the profile of flank wear land endorses the non-zero inclination of the flank wear land with cutting direction. The Fig 2(a) shows the image of tool seen in the Nikon V-12B profile projector with the magnification of 20 X and Fig 2(b) with annotations. This experimental evidence proves the existence of non- zero inclination of flank wear land with direction. In this paper an attempt is made to investigate the consequences of the flank wear land inclination on the attributes of orthogonal cutting using slipline field solutions.
  • 3. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue Figure 2(a): Image of worn tool 2. SLIP LINE MODEL OF TOOL WITH FLANK WEAR LAND To study the influence of flank wear land inclination Dundur and N S Das [15] are utilized. shear zone OQDF, secondary shear zones the pre-deformation zone OGH with its free surface slip line fields are analyzed by the matrix procedure developed Dewhurst [26]. The corresponding hodo A FORTRAN program is developed for flank wear land inclination as one of the input data slip line field variables angels α, θ, evaluates the friction angle ϕR then determines the linear coefficient m within the secondary zone of the slip line field. The value of m and θ used to construct adhesion and other matrix operators. Then plastic force components Hp, and moment Mp are determined with Dewhurst [26]. The solution takes account of for equilibrium of the chip as per S T Dundur and N S Das forces are HE, VE and moment ME are calculated. The static admissibility condition of the chip is met when the following conditions are satisfied. Where LH and LV are the horizontal and vertical distances of ensure that adhesion friction condition also reveals at the flank wear land national Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 23-30 © IAEME 25 worn tool Figure 2(b): Image of worn tool with annotations 2. SLIP LINE MODEL OF TOOL WITH FLANK WEAR LAND To study the influence of flank wear land inclination, slip line field solution given by the S T ] are utilized. The Slip line field shown in Fig .3 (a) consists of the primary , secondary shear zones PQR and QCB, two center fan fields OGF with its free surface OH inclined to the horizontal at angle line fields are analyzed by the matrix procedure developed by Dewhurst and Colloins [25] . The corresponding hodograph is shown in Fig 3 (b). program is developed for the construction of the proposed slip line field ear land inclination as one of the input data. The slip line field solutions are characterized by , ψ2, δ and the hydrostatic pressure pR at R. The program first then determines the linear coefficient m0 which relates within the secondary zone of the slip line field. The value of m0 together with the fi used to construct adhesion and other matrix operators. Then plastic force components Hp, d moment Mp are determined with help of subroutines given in Dewhurst and Collins . The solution takes account of forces in elastic contact zone for force and moment S T Dundur and N S Das [6]. For given PR and X values the elastic are calculated. The static admissibility condition of the chip is met following conditions are satisfied. ……………………………………………………………… (1) …………………………………………………………….... ( ……………………………………………… are the horizontal and vertical distances of A from P as shown in Figure 3 friction condition also reveals at the flank wear land QB. ……………………………. (4) national Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), Image of worn tool with annotations slip line field solution given by the S T (a) consists of the primary OGF and QCD and inclined to the horizontal at angle φ. The by Dewhurst and Colloins [25] and the construction of the proposed slip line field with The slip line field solutions are characterized by . The program first which relates α and β lines together with the field angles ϕR, α used to construct adhesion and other matrix operators. Then plastic force components Hp, Vp help of subroutines given in Dewhurst and Collins [25] and ces in elastic contact zone for force and moment and X values the elastic are calculated. The static admissibility condition of the chip is met ……………………………………………………………… (1) …………………………………………………………….... (2) ……………………………………………… (3) as shown in Figure 3(c).To ……………………………. (4)
  • 4. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 23-30 © IAEME 26 Figure 3: (a) Slip line field (b) Hodograph (c) forces and moments at the chip boundary The adhesion friction condition is considered at the work and flank interface as suggested by Maekawa et al.[27] and same is introduced as the fourth constrain. Which provides the friction angle at B i.e. ϕB. 2.1 DETERMINATION OF FLANK WEAR LAND INCLINATION FROM SLIP LINE AND HODOGRAPH To evaluate the flank wear land inclination or negative clearance angle consider the upper triangle xhd’ and lower triangle xgd’ of the hodograph fig 2 (b). Applying sine rule we have
  • 5. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 23-30 © IAEME 27 ܸܿ ൌ ఘభ ୱ୧୬ ఝ ൈ sin ቀ ଷగ ସ ቁ ൌ ఘభ ୱ୧୬ ఋ ൈ sinሺ‫݀݁ݔ‬′ሻ sin ߜ ൌ √2 sin ߮ sin൫ߨ െ ሺߜ ൅ ߰ଶ െ ߶ொ െ ߛሻ൯ sin ߜ ൌ √2 sin ߮ sin ߶஻ The above relation is used in the equilibrium equations as fifth condition ‫ܨ‬ହ ൌ sin ߜ െ √2 sin ߮ sin ߶஻ ൌ 0…………………………..……………………….(5) The above equations (1) to (5) are nonlinear in nature, they are solved using the algorithm developed by Powell [28] .The chip equilibrium was assumed to be achieved when the inequality given below is satisfied ൬ ‫ܨ‬ଵ ݇‫ݐ‬௢ ൰ ଶ ൅ ൬ ‫ܨ‬ଶ ݇‫ݐ‬଴ ൰ ଶ ൅ ൬ ‫ܨ‬ଷ ݇‫ݐ‬௢ ൰ ଶ ൅ ൬ ‫ܨ‬ସ ݇‫ݐ‬௢ ൰ ଶ ൅ ൬ ‫ܨ‬ହ ݇‫ݐ‬௢ ൰ ଶ ൑ 10ିଵ଴ Normalization by to is to avoid a trivial situation when α and θ are too small and the error allowed (10ିଵ଴ ) is limited by the dimensions of the matrix operators used. Based on Hill’s over stressing criteria[29] the program terminates and final set of values of slip line are generated. In this manner all field variables are computed. These data were used to construct the slip line field and hodograph, to calculate the machining parameters and flank wear land inclination with cutting direction. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In the present study the flank inclination is based on the adhesion friction conditions as suggested by Maekawa et al.[27]. In this investigative analysis two values of µ are considered while keeping all other factors constant. It is a well know fact that rake angle plays a vital role in the machining operation. So the effect of rake angle was considered in Fig.4. The flank wear land angle decreases with increase in rake angle and this may be due to the increased sharpness of the tool. During studying the influence of flank wear land inclination by employing the second order response method using central composite design, Figure 4: The effect of flank wear land inclination on rake angle on the Vishal datt and S T Dundur [30] observed the similar trend. It is evident from the Fig.4 that, friction conditions prevailing at the flank face and work face influence the initial inclination of the flank face. 0 2 4 6 8 0 5 10 15 20 25 Flankwearlandinclination Rake angle µ =2 µ =1
  • 6. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 23-30 © IAEME 28 Figure 5: The effect of flank wear land inclination on the uncut chip thickness The chip thickness declines with the rise in flank wear land inclination as shown in Fig. 5. The cutting force rises as the flank wear land inclination increases as shown in Fig.6. The rise in the cutting force may be attributed to presence of ploughing forces due to the flank Figure 6: The effect of flank wear land inclination on the cutting force wear. At the lower coefficient of friction the variation in the cutting forces is linear but at higher values this variation becomes very sharp. Similar trend is seen for thrust force in Fig.7. Figure 7: The effect of flank wear land inclination on the thrust force Figure 8: The effect of flank wear land inclination on subsurface deformation 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0 2 4 6 8 Uncutcthipthicness Flank wear land inclination µ =1 µ =2 0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8 CuttingforceFc/to Flank wear land inclination µ =2 µ =1 0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8 ThrustforceFt/to Flank wear land inclination µ =2 µ = 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 -1 1 3 5 7 Subsurfaceplastic deformation Flank wear land inclination
  • 7. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 23-30 © IAEME 29 The surface below the flank face is subjected to plastic deformation. This deformation zone has a bearing on the surface integrity of the work piece. From the Fig 8 it is evident that the rise in flank wear land inclination increases the sub surface deformation below the flank face. 4. CONCLUSIONS The usage of non zero flank wear land inclination in the analysis of slip line field theory is supported by experimental evidences. The present investigation verifies the influence of non-zero inclination made by the flank face with respect to cutting direction, on the attributes of the orthogonal machining. The higher values of rake angle result in lower values of inclination angle. The machining forces and subsurface deformation are affected by the flank wear land inclination. Present study may lay the foundation for further modeling of machining to address effect of flank inclination in orthogonal machining. REFERENCES [1] Raja K Kountanya and William J Endres, Flank wear of edged radiused cutting tools under ideal straight edged orthogonal conditions, Transactions .of the ASME, 2004, vol.126, Aug., p 496-504. [2] E.H. Lee, B.W. Shaffer, The theory of plasticity applied to a problem of machining, Trans. ASME, 1951; vol. 18: pp. 405-413. [3] H. Kudo, Some new slip-line solutions for two dimensional steady-state machining, International Journal of Mechanical Science, 1965; vol. 7: pp. 43-55. [4] Roth and P.L.B.oxley, Slip-line field analysis for orthogonal machining based upon experimental flow fields, Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 1972; vol.14: no.2, pp.85-97. [5] Maity K.P. and N S Das, A class of slip-line field solutions for metal machining with slipping and sticking contact at the chip-tool interface, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 2001; vol.43: pp. 2435-2452. [6] N S Das and S T Dundur, Slip line field solutions for metal machining with adhesion friction and elastic effects at the chip tool contact region, Proceedings IMechE Part B:Journal of Engineering Manufacturing, 2005; vol.219: Part B, pp. 57-72. [7] Fang N, Slipline model of machining with round edge tool Part I: New model and theory. Journal of Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 2003; Vol. 51: pp. 715-742. [8] D. J. Waldorf, R.E DeVor, S.G. Kapoor, Slip-line field for ploughing during orthogonal cutting, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, ASME, 1998; vol. 120: pp. 693-698. [9] X. Jin, Y. Altintas, Slip-line field model of micro-cutting process with round tool edge effect, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 2011; Vol. 211: pp. 339-355. [10] S. Ozturk, E. Altan, A slip-line approach to the machining with rounded-edge tool, International Journal of Advance Manufacturing Technology, 2012; vol. 63: pp. 513-522. [11] B Aksu, E Ozlu, E Budak, Analysis and modeling of edge forces in orthogonal cutting. Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Manufacturing Engineering, 2008; October 1-3, Chalkidiki, Greece. [12] Manjunathaiah J. and Endres J, A new model and analysis of orthogonal machining with an edge radiused tool, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Transactions of ASME, 2000; Vol. 122: pp. 384-390.
  • 8. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 23-30 © IAEME 30 [13] H Ren. and Altintas.Y, Mechanics of machining with chamfered tools, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Transactions of ASME, 2000 November; Vol. 122: pp 650-658. [14] Yu Long & Yong Huang, Force modeling under dead metal zone effect in orthogonal cutting with chamfered tools, Transactions of NAMRI/SME, 2005; Vol 33: pp.573-580. [15] Shi T. and Ramlingam S, Slip-line solution for orthogonal cutting with a chip breaker and flank wear, International Journal of Mechanical Science, 1991; Vol. 33: No. 9, pp. 689-704. [16] S T Dundur and N S Das, Slipline field modeling of the orthogonal machining for a worn tool with elastic effects and adhesion friction at the contact regions, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 2009; Vol. 209; pp.18-25. [17] C R Liu and M M Barash, The mechanical state of the sub layer of a surface generated by chip removal process part-2 Cutting with a tool with flank wear, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 1976, Vol., 98. pp. 1202-1208. [18] Z T Tanga et.al The influence of tool flank wear on residual stresses induced by milling aluminum alloy, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 209, pp. 4502-4508. [19] Uysal A., Altan E., A New Slip-Line Field Modeling of Orthogonal Machining for a Worn Tool, International Symposium on Models and Modeling Methodologies in Science and Engineering: MMMse 2011, Vol. 3, pp. 193-198, 19-22 July 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA. [20] Yu Long and Yong Huang, Combined effects of flank and crater wear on cutting force modeling in orthogonal machining -Part-1: model development, Machining science and technology, 2010 Vol 14: pp.1-25. [21] Zhen Zhang, Slip line modeling of machining with worn blunt cutting tools, Michigan technological university publication, PhD thesis, 2008. [22] E.G. Thomsen, A.G. MacDonald, and S. Kobayashi, “Flank friction studies with carbide tool reveal sub layer plastic flow, Journal of Engineering for Industry, Transactions ASME, 1962 February: pp.53-62. [23] Nakayama.K and Tamura, Size effect in metal cutting force, ASME Journal of Engineering for Industry, 1968, February, Vol 90, PP 119-126. [24] Vishal Datt Kohir, Suresh T Dundur, et.al, An Investigation of Flank Wear Land Inclination In Orthogonal Machining, Journal for Manufacturing science and Production, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 1-2, Pages 25–29, ISSN (Online) 2191-0375, ISSN (Print) 2191-4184. [25] Dewhurst P., The Coulomb friction boundary value problem in plain-strain slip line field theory, Advanced Technology of Plasticity; II, 1984, p-1085-1090. [26] Dewhurst P., A general matrix operator for linear boundary value problems in slip line field theory, Int. J. for Numerical methods in Eng., 1985, Vol. 21, pp 169-182. [27] Maekawa K., Kitagawa T., and Childs T.H.C., Friction characteristics at chip-tool interface in steel machining, 23rd Leeds Lyon Symposium in Tribology. 1997, [28] Powell, M. J. D.; A Fortran subroutine for solving systems of non-linear algebraic equations. 1970, In: Kuester, J. L; Mize,J. H.; Optimization techniques with FORTRAN. Mc-Graw Hill, New York, 1973. [29] Hill R., The mechanics of machining a new approach, Journal of. Mechanics .Physics and Solids, 1954, Vol. 3, p 47-53. [30] Vishal Datt Kohir, Suresh T Dundur, Study the Influence of Machining Parameters on the Inclination of Flank Wear Land with Cutting Direction, Journal information, knowledge and research in mechanical engineering, Nov 12 to Oct 13, Vol 02, pp 552-557. [31] Tejinder pal singh, Jagtar singh, Jatinder madan and Gurmeet kaur,, “Effects of Cutting Tool Parameters on Surface Roughness”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 1, Issue 1, 2010, pp. 182 - 189, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.

×