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30120140502005 2
30120140502005 2
30120140502005 2
30120140502005 2
30120140502005 2
30120140502005 2
30120140502005 2
30120140502005 2
30120140502005 2
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30120140502005 2

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  • 1. International Journal of ElectronicsJOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND INTERNATIONAL and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET) ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), pp. 43-51 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8896 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJECET ©IAEME A COMPACT PROXIMITY–FED QUAD BAND–NOTCHED ULTRA–WIDEBAND PATCH ANTENNA Ayad Shohdy W. Ghattas1 and Elsayed Esam M. Khaled2 1 2 Electrical Engineering Department, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt Electrical Engineering Department, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt ABSTRACT A compact proximity feed printed ultra-wide band (UWB) patch antenna with four notched bands characteristics is proposed and investigated in this article. The proposed antenna introduces UWB performance in the frequency range of 3.1 GHz to 11.7 GHz with almost omnidirectional radiation pattern. Narrow rectangular slits and T–shaped slots are etching in the ground plane to provide four notched bands at frequencies of 3.5, 3.9, 5.25 and 5.9 GHz to avoid the interference with the existing wireless networks which occupy bands at these frequencies. The antenna is designed, simulated and fabricated. The measured data of the fabricated antenna demonstrate good agreement with the simulated results. Keywords: Four Notched Bands, Microstrip Patch Antenna, Proximity Feed, UWB Antenna. 1. INTRODUCTION The ultra–wide band (UWB) antennas have gained high interest in the recent years since 2002 when the unlicensed use of the commercial UWB communications devices is permitted [1–3]. However communications with these antennas need to avoid interference with the existing standard wireless networks such as WiMAX (3.3–3.6 GHz), C band satellite communication (3.7–4.2 GHz), lower WLAN (5.15–5.35 GHz), higher WLAN (5.725–5.825 GHz) and LMI C band (5.725– 6.025GHz). To avoid such interference, frequency band-notches are preferably applied directly to the UWB antennas instead of implementation of additional band stop filters. Most of researches in the literature are focused to design UWB antennas with a single [4–5], dual [6–7] or triple [8–10] frequency band–notches. In this paper, a compact planar patch antenna with UWB frequency range of 3.1 to 11.7 GHz with four rejected band–notches corresponding to the previously mentioned applications is presented. The proposed antenna in this work is adopted with a proximity-fed line technique. The desired four notched bands are achieved by etching different shaped slots in the ground plane of the antenna. 43
  • 2. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME The analysis and design of the proposed antenna are carried out using the commercial software CST microwave studio (MWS) simulator. Also the antenna is fabricated and its performance parameters are measured using HP8719 vector network analyzer. The simulated results and the measured data are presented. 2. ANTENNA DESIGN (PARAMETRIC STUDIES) The antenna is etched on FR4 substrate of a relative permittivity εr = 4.5, loss tangent tan δ = 0.01, a thickness h = 1.5 mm. The total dimension of the substrate and the ground plane is lg × wg = 20 × 20 mm2. The Geometry of the proposed UWB antenna is shown in Fig. 1. The antenna is fed by a proximity 50 microstrip line of dimensions lf × wf = 12 × 2 mm2 printed on one surface of the substrate. To achieve UWB range a modified shape looks like a cedar tree is etched in the ground plane on the other side of the substrate as shown in the figure. To provide a band–notch in the antenna performance a slot or slots can be etched in the ground plane with total length corresponding to a half guided wavelength at the notched frequency. The length of a slot can be considered approximately by [11–12]: co l slot ≈ 4 f notch εr +1 (1) 2 where lslot is the length of the slot, fnotch is the centre frequency of the notched band, εr is the relative permittivity of the antenna substrate, and co is the velocity of light. Firstly to achieve the proposed band notch at frequency (5.15–5.35 GHz) a two symmetric T–shaped slots of dimensions lt = 6 mm, wt = 2.5 mm, t = 0.7 mm, g = 0.9 mm and ts = 0.8 mm with total length equal to 2 × lslot where lslot as it is shown in fig. 1, lslot = t / 2 + lt + ts + wt / 2 = 8.4 mm which approximately corresponds to notched frequency 5.25 GHz according to equation (1) are etched in the lower part of the ground plane. Secondly to provide a notched band at 5.725–6.025 GHz, two other symmetric narrow rectangular slits of dimensions ls1 × ws1 = 7.4 × 0.25 mm2 with total length equal to 2 × lslot where lslot = 7.65 mm which approximately corresponds to a notched frequency at 5.9 GHz are etched in the ground plane at both sides of the modified cedar tree–shaped slot. Also to achieve another band notch at frequency band of 3.7–4.2 GHz, two other symmetric narrow rectangular slits of dimensions ls2 × ws2 = 11.4 × 0.25 mm2 with total length equal to 2 × lslot where lslot = 11.65 mm which approximately corresponds to a notched frequency at 3.9 GHz are etched in the ground plane and at distance d = 0.5 mm from the 5.9 GHz slots. Lastly to provide the fourth–proposed notched band of 3.3–3.6 GHz, two narrow rectangular symmetric slits of dimensions ls3 × ws3 = 13 × 0.25 mm2 with total length equal to 2 × lslot where lslot = 13.25 mm which approximately corresponds to the notched frequency of 3.5 GHz are etched in the ground plane at a distance c = 0.25 mm from the 3.9 GHz slots. Dimensions of each part of the antenna are illustrated in detail in Table 1. The antenna is fabricated and photographs of the top and bottom views of the antenna are shown in Fig. 2. 44
  • 3. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME (a) (b) Figure 1: The Geometry of the proposed UWB antenna, (a) bottom–view of the antenna, (b) top– view of the antenna Table 1: Dimensions of the elements of the proposed UWB antenna Dim. lg wg lf wf Value (mm) Dim. Value (mm) 20 ts 0.8 20 g 0.9 12 t 0.7 2 a 1 ls1 ls2 7.4 11.4 b c 1.75 0.25 (a) ls3 ws1 ws2 ws3 lt wt 13 d 0.5 0.25 0.25 0.25 6 2.5 e Substrate’s height (h) 3.5 1.5 (b) Figure 2: Photographs of the fabricated proposed antenna, (a) top–view, (b) bottom–view. 3. IMPLEMENTATION AND RESULTS The proposed antenna is designed and simulated using the CST MWS simulator software. Also the antenna is fabricated and tested using the vector network analyzer HP8719. Fig. 3 illustrates the simulated results and measured data of the S11 parameter as a function of frequency for the proposed quad band–notched UWB antenna. The simulation results show a bandwidth from 3.1 GHz 45
  • 4. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME to 11.7 GHz (8.6 GHz Bandwidth) whereas the measured bandwidth of the antenna is from 2.7 GHz to 10.3 GHz (7.6 GHz Bandwidth). Ultimately, the prototype antenna without any slots and with only the modified cedar tree– shaped slot covers the entire UWB band of 4 – 13 GHz. Fig. 4(a) – (d) shows the gradual processes for etching the cedar tree–shaped slot in the ground plane which are carried out with the help of the CST MWS simulator to get the UWB range for the proposed antenna. Fig. 4(e) present the S11 as a function of frequency for the designs shown in fig. 4(a) – (d) passes through these processes. From the figure it is observed that, fig. 4(d) shows acceptable UWB range. 0 S11 (dB) -10 -20 -30 -40 Simulated CST MWS Measured -50 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 Frequency (GHz) Figure 3: Simulated and measured S11 parameter versus frequency of the proposed quad bandnotched UWB antenna -5 (a) (b) S 1 1 (dB ) -15 -25 Fig. 4(a) Fig. 4(b) Fig. 4(c) Fig. 4(d) -35 -45 -55 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 Frequency (GHz) (c) (d) (e) Figure 4: (a) – (d) Gradual processes for the modified cedar tree to get UWB range, (e) Simulated S11 versus frequency of the designs in figures 4(a) – (d) 46
  • 5. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME To achieve a notched band at frequency 5.25 GHz two T–shaped slots are etched in the ground plane and each is at a distance e from the substrate’s edge. Fig. 5 shows the effect of etching the T–shaped slots with different values of e on the S11 parameter. The figure illustrates that the optimum value is e = 3.5 mm to provide a band notch at frequency 5.25 GHz. To achieve another band notch at frequency 5.9 GHz two narrow rectangular slits of dimensions ls1 × ws1 = 7.4 × 0.25 mm2 are etched in the ground plane at a distance b = 1.75 mm from the right and left edge of the substrate. Fig. 6 illustrates the effect of etching these slits on the S11 of the proposed antenna with different values of the distance b. The two slits with a distance b = 1.75 mm provide a band notch at frequency 5.9 GHz. Third–notched–band at frequency 3.9 GHz is obtained by etching another two narrow rectangular slits of dimensions ls2 × ws2 = 11.4 × 0.25 mm2 and separated with a distance d from the previous slits in the ground plane as shown in fig. 1. Fig. 7 shows the effect of changing the distance d on the S11 of the proposed antenna. It is clear that the best value is d = 0.5 mm. Furthermore by etching two other narrow rectangular slits of dimensions ls3 × ws3 = 13 × 0.25 mm2 and at a distance c from the previous slits a fourth–band notched at frequency 3.5 GHz can be achieved. Fig. 8 shows the effect of varying the distance c of the two rectangular slits on the center frequency and the band of the fourth–band notched. The figure demonstrates that the optimum value is c = 0.25 mm. 0 e =3.0 mm e =3.5 mm e =4.0 mm S 11 (dB) -10 -20 -30 -40 1 3 5 7 9 Frequency (GHz) 11 13 Figure 5: Simulated S11 versus frequency for different values of e of T–shaped slots 0 b = 1.50 mm b =1.75 mm b = 2.00 mm S11 (dB) -10 -20 -30 -40 1 3 5 7 9 Frequency (GHz) 11 13 Figure 6: Simulated S11 versus frequency for different values of b of narrow slits of dimensions ls1 × ws1 = 7.4 × 0.25 mm2 47
  • 6. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 0 d = 0.35 mm d =0.50 mm d = 0.65 mm S11 (dB) -10 -20 -30 -40 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 Frequency (GHz) Figure 7: Simulated S11 versus frequency for different values of d of narrow slits of dimensions ls2 × ws2 = 11.4 × 0.25 mm2 0 c = 0.10 mm c = 0.25 mm c = 0.40 mm S11 (dB) -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 Frequency (GHz) Figure 8: Simulated S11 versus frequency for different values of c of narrow slits of dimensions ls3 × ws3 = 13 × 0.25 mm2 For more clarification to the antenna design, the simulated surface current distributions of the proposed quad band–notched UWB antenna at frequencies of 3.5, 3.9, 5.25, and 5.9 GHz are shown in Fig. 9. It can be seen that the currents mainly concentrate over the corresponding T– and rectangular–shaped slots at frequencies 3.5, 3.9, 5.25 and 5.9 GHz which means that a large portion of electromagnetic energy has been stored around the etched slots. This response causes the antenna to be nonresponsive at the corresponding notch frequencies. Fig. 10 shows the normalized far-field radiation patterns of Eφ and Eθ in the yz– (E–plane) and xz– (H–plane) planes of the proposed antenna at frequencies 4.5 GHz, 7 GHz and 9.5 GHz. The results demonstrate that the radiation patterns exhibit a nearly omnidirectional radiations in the xz– plane at these frequencies, whereas, in yz–plane the radiation patterns is bi-directional and look like the radiation from a dipole antenna. Fig. 11 illustrates the gain and the radiation efficiency of the proposed antenna versus frequency. The figure shows that the proposed antenna has high gain and 48
  • 7. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME good radiation efficiency over the entire frequency band except at the four proposed frequency band– notches. (a) (b) (c) (d) Figure 9: Surface current distributions of the proposed antenna at notched frequencies (a) 3.5 GHz, (b) 3.9 GHz, (c) 5.25 GHz, (d) 5.9 GHz 0 0 30 30 30 60 60 90 90 120 150 60 60 90 120 30 90 120 120 xz-plane 150 yz-plane 150 (a) 180 0 30 0 30 60 30 60 90 120 30 60 90 60 90 120 150 150 180 90 120 150 120 150 180 150 180 xz-plane yz-plane (b) 49
  • 8. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 0 0 90 90 90 90 120 120 120 150 60 60 60 60 120 30 30 30 30 150 150 150 180 180 xz-plane yz-plane (c) Figure 10: Simulated radiation patterns of Eφ (solid line) and Eθ (dashed line) in the xz– and yz– planes of the proposed antenna at frequencies (a) 4.5 GHz, (b) 7 GHz, (c) 9.5 GHz 100 Antenna Radiation Efficiency% 8 A ntenna P eak G (dB ain ) 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 80 60 40 20 0 -12 1 3 5 7 9 11 1 13 Frequency (GHz) (a) 3 5 7 9 Frequency (GHz) 11 13 (b) Figure 11: (a) Simulated antenna peak gain, (b) simulated radiation efficiency of the proposed antenna 4. CONCLUSION In this work an UWB antenna with four notched bands is designed. Matching between the UWB antenna and the 50 ohm microstrip line is done through a proximity feed technique. To obtain the required four band notches, slots etching in the ground plane are implemented. The effects of adding these slots on the performance of the antenna are demonstrated. The proposed antenna provides wideband performance in a frequency band from 3 to 11.7 GHz with notched bands at 3.5, 3.9, 5.25 and 5.9 GHz which correspond to WiMAX, C band satellite communication, lower WLAN, higher WLAN and LMI C band respectively. The proposed antenna shows omnidirectional radiation with good radiation efficiency over the frequency band except at the four notched bands. The proposed antenna is fabricated and the measured data of the S11 showed a very good agreement with the simulated results. The performances of the antenna illustrate that it is good candidate for UWB applications. 50
  • 9. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] Revision of part 15 of the Communication’s Rules Regarding Ultra–Wideband Transmission Systems, Federal Communications Commission, ET–Docket 98–153, FCC 02–48, 2002. Danideh, A., R. Sadeghi Fakhr, and H. R. Hassani, “Wideband co–planar microstrip patch antenna,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 4, 81–89, 2008. Zhang, Y., W. Hong, C. Yu, Z. –Q. Kuai, Y. –D. Don, and J. Y. Zhou, “Planar ultrawideband antennas with multiple notched bands based on etched slots on the patch and/or split ring resonators on the feed line,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 56, No. 9, 3063–3068, Sep. 2008. Yazdi, M., and N. Komjani, “A compact band–notched UWB planar monopole antenna with parasitic elements,” Progress In Electromagnics Research Letters, Vol. 24, 129–138, 2011. Khaled, E. E. M., A. A. R. Saad, and D. A. Salem, “A proximity–fed annular slot antenna with different a band–notch manipulations for ultra-wide band applications,” Progress in Electromagnics Research B, Vol. 52, 37–56, 2013. Ali, M. M. M., A. A. R. Saad , E. E. M. Khaled, “A design of miniaturized ultra–wideband printed slot antenna with 3.5/5.5 GHz dual band–notched characteristics: analysis and implementation,” Progress In Electromagnics Research B, Vol. 52, 37–56, 2013. Fan, S. –T., Y. –Z. Yin, H. Li, and L. Kang, “A novel self-similar antenna for UWB applications with band–notched characteristics,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 22, 1–8, 2011. Ali, Mohamed Mamdouh M., Ayman Ayd R. Saad, and Elsayed Esam M. Khaled, “A Proximity–fed elliptical-shaped aperture UWB antenna with triple band–rejection property,” PIERS Proceedings, 1034–1038, Stockholm, Sweden, Aug. 12–15, 2013. Zein, Sameh M., Rashid A. Saeed, Raed A. Alsaqour, Rania A. Mokhtar, and Alaa A. Yassin, “Design of integrated triple band–notched for ultra–wideband microstrip antenna,” International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET), Vol. 5, No. 1, 504–511, Feb. Mar. 2013. Liu1, FJ., K. P. Esselle1, S. G. Hay, and S. S. Zhong, “Study of an extremely wideband monopole antenna with triple band–notched characteristics,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 123, 143–158, 2012. Ghattas, Ayad Shohdy W., and Elasyed Esam M. Khaled, “A design and an equivalent circuit of a quad band–notched ultrawide band patch antenna,” International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering (IJECE), Vol. 2, No. 4, 139–148, Sep. 2013. Zheng, Z. –A., and Q. –X. Chu, “Compact CPW–fed UWB antenna with dual band–notched characteristics,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 11, 83–91, 2009. Akaa Eteng and Justus N. Dike, “Modelling of a Time-Modulated Ultra-Wideband Communication Link”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 33 - 42, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. M. Veereshappa and Dr.S.N Mulgi, “Corner Truncated Rectangular Slot Loaded Monopole Microstrip Antennas for Quad-Band Operation”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 165 - 171, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. Archana Agarwal, Manish Kumar, Priyanka Jain and Shagun Maheshwari, “Tapered Circular Microstrip Antenna with Modified Ground Plane for UWB Communications”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 43 - 47, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. 51

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