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  • 1. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), pp. 116-121 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJMET ©IAEME CONVERTING SOUND ENERGY INTO ELECTRICITY USING PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIAL: A STUDY [1] Mr. Sankalp Shrivastava, [4] [2] Mr. Manish Gome, Mr. Chahat Mundra, [5] [3] Mr. Sanjay Purohit, Mr. Shashank Singh Pawar Asst. Professor of Mechanical Engineering Department, CDGI, Indore, India ABSTRACT In the search for alternative energy sources there's one form of energy you don't hear much about, which is ironic because I'm referring to sound energy. sound is a mechanical form of energy which travel in the form of wave, mechanical wave that is an oscillation of pressure this pressure created by the sound could be used to convert it into electric energy or other form of energy. This paper suggesting a concept to convert ambient noise (sound in the form of wave energy) to power a mobile phone or generate energy for the national grid from rush hour traffic. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of piezoelectric power generation by sound vibration. Keywords: Alternative Energy, Piezoelectric, Sound Energy, Noise, Power, Electricity. INTRODUCTION “There is definitely energy contained in that sound,” says David Cohen-Tanugi, vice president of the MIT Energy Club and a John S. Hennessy Fellow in MIT’s Materials Science and Engineering department. “But the density of the energy is very low, and there is no way to capture it all. You’d have to have obscenely loud, continuous noise for harvesting to be worthwhile.” Sound energy is the energy produced by sound vibrations as they travel through a specific medium. Speakers use electricity to generate sound waves and now by using zinc oxide, the main ingredient of calamine lotion, to do the reverse - convert sound waves into electricity. Piezoelectrics are materials capable of turning mechanical energy into electricity, and can be substances as simple as cane sugar, bones, or quartz. Much research in this field has been focused on transforming the movement of a person running, or even the impact of a bullet, into a small electrical current, but although these advanced applications are not yet available in consumer products, scientists have been using piezoelectric materials in environmental sensors and speakers for years. Piezoelectrics create an 116
  • 2. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME electrical charge under stress, and thus zinc oxide, the main ingredient of calamine lotion, was bent into a field of nanowires sandwiched between two electrodes. The researchers subjected the sandwich to sound waves of 100 decibels which produced an electrical current of about 50 millivolts. Passing trains and subways aren’t only loud, but their surroundings rattle and vibrate as they pass, and part of the thrill of a rock concert is feeling the whole auditorium shake. Piezo material converts mechanical strain into electric energy this property of piezo material could be used to make a device which would be able to sustainably convert the sound energy to electric energy as piezo materials convert sound energy to electric energy. Transducer is also used to convert Mechanical energy to electric energy i.e.it can convert sound energy to electric energy the simple e.g. of use of transducer to convert sound to electric and vice versa is in speakers, headset also it could be converted into electric energy. CONCEPT Suppose we create a very thin curtain like diphagram which will get fluctuated by the oscillation and pressure created by the sound wave and a conductor will be attached to it which will be placed between magnetic bars these fluctuation in the curtain will create a movement in conductor which will affect the magnetic field of the magnet this will generate motional emf and will generate voltage across it. As per faradays law generated emf is given by Generated voltage = Emf =velocity of conductor X magnetic field X length of conductor thus the oscillation created by the sound wave could be converted into electricity and as the frequency is high the movement will be fast due to it we will get appreciable amount of electric energy. Piezo electric materials are transducers its crystals could convert mechanical strain to electricity, the crystals are formed naturally e.g. quartz, bone, DNA whereas artificially ZnO, lithium niobatet Lead Metaniobate the sound energy could be converted into electricity using piezo electric material. Let us see the properties of piezo electric material. Certain single crystal materials exhibit the following phenomenon: when the crystal is mechanically strained, (here sound energy) or when the crystal is deformed by the application of an external stress, electric charges appear on the crystal surfaces; and when the direction of the strain reverses, the polarity of the electric charge is reversed. This is called the direct piezo electric effect, and the crystals that exhibit it are classed as piezoelectric crystal. First let’s understand concept to produce current. When coil of aluminum comes in between two magnets opposite polarity say P N pole, and some force is applied on coil to rotate on its axis it’ll produce magnetic field and due to electromagnet flux charge/current flows. 117
  • 3. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Its shows that to produce current, force or pressure are required or can say force is a main key to produce current. This paper suggesting to utilizing sound vibration as an applied force to produce current. Piezo electric material has ability to convert mechanical stress into electricity. History of Piezoelectricity The first scientific publication describing the phenomenon, later termed as piezoelectricity, appeared in 1880. It was co-authored by Pierre and Jacques Curie, who were conducting a variety of experiments on a range of crystals at the time. In those experiments, they cataloged a number of crystals, such as tourmaline, quartz, topaz, cane sugar and Rochelle salt that displayed surface charges when they were mechanically stressed. Without any external stress Centers of charges coincide, charges are reciprocally cancelled and formed electrical neutral unit cell. Applied external stress Internal structure is deformed, separation of charge centers and dipoles are generated Poles inside material are mutually Cancelled and charge occurs on surface creates polarization on the surface of material. 118
  • 4. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Mathematical modeling Piezoelectricity is the combination of the materials electrical behavior: D =ε E, And Hook’s laws = s T where D: electric displacement, ε: permittivity, E: electric field strength, S: strain, s: compliance, T: stress The coupled strain-voltage equation S = sET + dtE converse piezoelectric effect D= ε TE + dT direct piezoelectric effect d ij , k = ∂Sij /∂Ek piezoelectric coefficient When a poled piezoelectric material mechanically strained it became electrically polarized, producing an electric charge on the surface of the material. Example to explain concept A human walking, for example is a low frequency event that can be captured in the form of stress on a piezoelectric platform. A person walking across a room may complete 1-2 steps per second. Each step introduces a stress in the floor of the room, and the frequency of that alternating stress would be about 1-2 vibrations per second, and this waste vibration energy can be harvested. Vibrations per second are a measure of frequency, often stated in Hertz (Hz). One vibration per second is equal to 1 Hz. Two vibrations per second are equal to 2 Hz. The common United States household’s electrical circuit carries electricity oscillating at 60 cycles per second, or 60 Hz, which is evidenced by the low frequency buzz of an electric shaver. To determine how much energy piezoelectric can produce, a few metrics need to be defined that will be useful for the discussion. The first metric is power. Power is defined in Watts (W), which is defined as units of energy per second. Power is an indication of how quickly energy can be delivered. A powerful air conditioner can cool a room quickly, whereas a weakly powered heater may require a long time to heat a room. Other examples include a solar panel which may be rated at 200 W in peak sunlight at noon in the middle of a summer. The second metric is energy. Energy is defined in many units. In standard units, energy is stated in Joules (J), but for electricity it is often most useful to define energy in terms of watt-hours (W-h), for example, how many watts are produced in an hour. In the examples above, the solar panel would produce 200 W-h from noon to 1 PM. The natural gas power plant would produce 200 million watt-hours (200 megawatt-hours, or MWh) in the same hour. Again, the two examples are different by a factor of one million. One study used lead zirconate titanate (PZT) wafers and flexible, multilayer polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films inside shoes to convert mechanical walking energy into usable electrical energy [1], [2]. This system has been proposed for mobile computing and was ultimately able to provide continuously 1.3 mW at 3 V when walking at a rate of 0.8 Hz. METHOD 1 Suppose we create a very thin curtain like diphagram which will get fluctuated by the oscillation and pressure created by the sound wave and a conductor will be attached to it which will be placed between magnetic bars these fluctuation in the curtain will create a movement in conductor which will affect the magnetic field of the magnet this will generate motional emf and will generate voltage across it. As per faradays law generated emf is given by Generated voltage = Emf =velocity of conductor X magnetic field X length of conductor Thus the oscillation created by the sound wave could be converted into electricity and as the frequency is high the movement will be fast due to it we will get appreciable amount of electric energy. It would work similar as the working of turbine this 119
  • 5. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME type of device could be made but its limitation will be that it will be efficient only in the place where high decibel of sound is available, for example nuclear power plant, industries using huge and noisy machines. METHOD 2 In this method we could convert sound energy to heat energy as sound wave travel by oscillating the particles of the medium so when sound energy travel through the medium it will disturbs the particle of the medium these disturbance created by sound will be used to convert it into heat energy as when the particles of the medium will be pushed by the sound wave it will collides with adjacent particle of the medium this collision will result in production of heat energy the production of heat energy will be more in the denser medium so for more heat production we will need a material with very high density. This heat energy will be converted into electricity. METHOD 3 Converting sound energy to electricity by piezo electric material (piezo electric materials are the crystal which convert mechanical strain to electric energy) device could be made using piezo electric material which will collect the sound wave which are travelling near it and that sound wave will be used to cause a strain due to pressure created by its oscillation in the piezo crystal and that will create the disturbance in its atoms resulting in the flow of electric charge on the surface of the crystal thus sound energy could be converted into electricity as the piezo electric material convert mechanical strain to electric energy. And thus this sound energy could be used to perform various tasks by converting it into useful electric energy. CONCLUSION • • As sound has enormous amount energy with it, it could be used by converting it into electric energy for various purposes. Sound energy is a mechanical energy so according to law of thermodynamics mechanical energy could be converted into electric energy. Sound energy could be converted by different methods: Method 1- By creating apparatus using curtain (diphagram) magnet and conductor. Methods 2- By converting Sound energy to heat energy and then heat energy to electric energy. Method 3- By using transducers such as piezo electric material which converts mechanical strain to electric energy and vice4 versa. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] J. Kymissis, C. Kendall, J. J. Paradiso, and N. Gershenfeld, “Parasitic power harvesting in shoes,” in Proc. 2nd IEEE Int. Conf.Wearable Computing, Los Alamitos, CA, Aug. 1998, pp. 132–139. N. S. Shenck and J. A. Paradiso, “Energy scavenging with Shoe-mounted piezoelectric,” IEEE Micro, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 30–42, May-Jun. 2001. S. Roundy, “The power of good vibrations,” Lab Notes- Research from the College of Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, vol. 2, no. 1, Jan. 2002. N. W. Hagood IV et al., “Development of micro-hydraulic transducer technology,” in Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Adaptive Structures and Technologies, Paris, France, Oct. 1999, pp. 71–81. 120
  • 6. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] T. G. Engel, “Energy conversion and high power pulse production using miniature piezoelectric compressors,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 1338–1340, Oct. 2000. V. Hugo Schmidt, “Piezoelectric energy conversion in Windmills,” in Proc. Ultrasonic’s Symp., 1992, pp. 897– 904. G. W. Taylor, J. R. Burns, S. M. Kammann, W. B. Powers, and T. R. Welsh, “The energy harvesting eel: A small subsurface ocean/river power generator,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng., vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 539–547, Oct. 2001. C. S. McDowell, “Implanted bone stimulator and prosthesis system and method of enhancing bone growth,” U.S. Patent 6,143,035, Nov. 7, 2000. S. R. Platt, “Electric power generation within orthopaedic Implants using piezoelectric ceramics,” Masters Thesis, Dept. Mech. Eng. Univ. Nebraska- Lincoln, 2003. P. Horowitz and W. Hill, The Art of Electronics, 2nd ed. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1989. H. H. A. Krueger and D. Berlincourt, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., vol. 33, pp.1339–1344, 1961. M. D. Hill, G. S. White, and C.-S. Hwang, “Cyclic damage in lead zirconate titanate,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., vol. 79, no. 7, pp. 1915–1920, 1996. M. G. Cain, M. Stewart, and M. G. Gee, “Degradation of piezoelectric materials,” National Physical Laboratory Management Ltd., Teddington, Middlesex, U.K., NPL Rep. SMMT (A) 148, 1999. F. Lowrie, M. Cain, and M. Stewart, “Time dependent behavior of piezoelectric materials,” National Physical Laboratory Management Ltd., Teddington, Middlesex, U.K., NPL Rep. SMMT (A) 151, 1999. G. Yang, S.-F. Liu, W. Ren, and B. K. Mukherjee, “Uniaxial stress dependence of the piezoelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate ceramics,” in Active Materials: Behavior and Mechanics. Bellingham, WA: SPIE, 2000, vol. 3992, SPIE Proceedings, pp. 103–113. Implants for Surgery–Wear of Total Knee-Joint Prostheses–Part 1: Loading and Displacement Parameters for Wear-Testing Machines with Load Control and Corresponding Environmental Conditions for Test, ISO14243-1:2002(E), Mar.15, 2002. Kishor B. Waghulde and Dr. Bimlesh Kumar, “Vibration Analysis and Control of Piezoelectric Smart Structures by Feedback Controller Along- with Spectra Plus Software”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 783 - 795, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. 121