International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL EN...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

30120130406009

191

Published on

Published in: Technology, Automotive
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
191
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

30120130406009

  1. 1. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013), pp. 69-77 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJMET ©IAEME IMPLEMENTATION OF GRAPHICAL - ANALYTICAL METHOD IN DETERMINATION OF SPEED OF VEHICLE IN CASE OF ROAD ACCIDENT AND COMPARING OF RESULTS WITH THE SOFTWARE METHOD 1 1,2 Gëzim HOXHA, 2 Nijazi IBRAHIMI University of Prishtina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Traffic and Transport, St. Sunny Hill, n.n., 10 000 Prishtina, Kosovo ABSTRACT In this paper is treated the problem of determining the speed of movement of vehicles in case of road accident. One frequent cause of accidents in road is the speed of movement and adaptation conditions with circumstances of the road. For determination of speed is used the graphic-analytical method which based in maintaining the quantity of movement of the vehicles before and after the collision. This method takes into account several factors such as: measures of vehicles involved in the accident, angle between the directions of movements of the vehicles before and after the collision, the displacement distance of vehicle after the collision. Results obtained with graphicalanalytical method are compared with software method - through PC Crash software. Keywords: Velocity, Vehicle, Road, Angle, Distance, Collision, Simulations. 1. INTRODUCTION Determination of velocities of motion of vehicles participating in the accident constitutes the most important analysis in the delivery of final results to finding the cause of truly accident. Implementation of graphical –analytical method for determination of speed of vehicle in the case of accident is treated for three different cases of accidents. In each of the accidents have been involved two vehicles with different technical features. Technical characteristics of vehicles involved in the accidents which have been subjected to treatment in this paper and the road conditions which are causing accidents are presented in Table1. 69
  2. 2. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME Table.1. Technical characteristics of vehicles involved in the accidentsand the road conditions First case of road accident Second case of road accident (Vehicle) (Vehicle) Technical Characteristics Toyota Land Cruiser VW Golf3 TDI Truck DAF Mercedes Benz 200 Land Cruiser 3.0 D-4D 1HXO 2700 ATI 124 Engine type: Engine power [kW]: Diesel Diesel Diesel 96 81 Weight [kg]: 2080 Length [m]: Third case of road accident (Vehicle) Opel Astra Ford Eskort X16SZR Escort 1.6 16V Benzin Benzin Benzin 295 80 55 66 1055 6100 1321 1070 1145 4.72 4.15 5.63 4.74 4.11 4.3 Width [m]: 1.88 1.74 2.5 1.74 1.71 1.7 Height [m]: 1.85 1.44 - 1.44 1.43 1.46 Track width [m]: 1.57 1.51 / 1.49 2.10 / 2.10 1.49 1.485 / 1.46 1.44 / 1.46 Wheelbase [m]: 2.79 2.51 4.4 2.8 2.61 2.52 265/65R17S 195/65R15V 295/80R22C 185/65R14 185/65R15 175/70R13 13.1 10.8 - 9.6 16.5 12.7 - - 0.71 0.9 1.35 0.82 0.81 Type Tire dimensions : Accel. 0-100 [km/h]: Rear overhang [m]: Front overhang [m]: Type of road Number of lanes Vehicle traffic Road condition Visibility 0.780000 1.08 0.72 0.840000 0.860000 Regional road Highways Regional road 1 lanes for directions 2 lanes for directions 1 lanes for directions average asphalt and dry good - sunny day average asphalt and wet rainy weather average asphalt and wet rainy weather 2. ANALYSIS OF FIRST CASE OF ROAD ACCIDENT In this accident are involved two vehicles:“Toyota Land Cruiser” and “VW Golf”.Vehicles before the crash have been moving in the opposite direction with one another. Collision between vehicles is made at the angle 21○ .After crash, vehicle " Toyota Land Cruiser " stopped in the distance of 11[m] from collision position, vehicle " VW Golf " stopped near collision position turned at 140○from direction of motion before the crash . 70
  3. 3. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME Figure 1. Positions of vehicles “Toyota Land Cruiser” and “VW Golf” before and after crash 2.1. IMPLEMENTATION OF GRAPHIC - ANALYTICAL METHOD IN CALCULATION OF SPEED VEHICLES “TOYOTA LAND CRUISER” AND “VW GOLF” This method is based on the law on maintaining the quantity of motion for vehicles “Toyota Land Cruiser” and “B” before and after the crash. According to this law have: K T + K VW = K 'T + K 'VW , K 'T − K T = I T dhe d K dt s = F = 0 → K '− K = I, K 'VW − K VW = I VW , (1) I T = − I VW (2) K T = mT ⋅ vT - quantity of motion of “Toyota Land Cruiser” before collision, (3) K 'T = mT ⋅ v 'T - quantity of motion of “Toyota Land Cruiser” after collision, (4) KVW = mVW ⋅ vVW - quantity of motion of “VW Golf” before collision, (5) K 'VW = mVW ⋅ v'VW - quantity of motion of “VW Golf” after collision. (6) mT = m aT + m n + 2 ⋅ m p = 2080 + 75 + 2 ⋅ 75 = 2305[ kg ] -weight of passangers. “Toyota Land Cruiser” with mVW = m aM + m n + 4 ⋅ m p = 1055 + 75 + 4 ⋅ 75 = 1430 [ kg ] - weight of “Toyota Land Cruiser” with passangers. 71
  4. 4. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME K VWx = mVW ⋅ vVWx = mVW ⋅ vVW ⋅ cos 90 = 0 K VWy = mVW ⋅ vVWy = mVW ⋅ vVW = 1715 ⋅ vVW (7) , (8) K Tx = m T ⋅ v Tx = m T ⋅ v T ⋅ sin 21 o = 2305 ⋅ v T ⋅ 0 . 35 = 806 . 75 ⋅ v T , (9) K Ty = m T ⋅ v Ty = m T ⋅ vT ⋅ cos 21 o = 2305 ⋅ vT ⋅ 0 . 93 = 2143 . 6 ⋅ v T . (10) a’2Tasf=5.0 [m/s2]- break of “Toyota Land Cruiser ” after collision in asphalt a’2Tdh=4.0 [m/s2]- break of “Toyota Land Cruiser ” after collision in street earthy. Speed of “Toyota Land Cruiser” and “VW Golf” after collision : v 'T = v 'VW = 2 ⋅ a ' 2 asf ⋅S Tasf + 2 ⋅ a ' 2 dh ⋅S T dh = 2 ⋅ a ' 2 asf ⋅ S VWasf = 2 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 4 + 2 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 7 ≈ 10 [ m / s ] = 36 [ km / h ] (11) 2 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 2 = 4 . 4 [ m / s ] = 15 [ km / h ], (12) K 'Tx = mT ⋅ v 'Tx = mT ⋅ v 'T ⋅ cos 30 o = 2305 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 0 .86 = 198213 [ kg ⋅ m / s ] K 'Ty = mT ⋅ v 'Ty = mT ⋅ v 'T ⋅ sin 30 o = 2305 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 0 .5 = 11525 [ kg ⋅ m / s ] , (13) , (14) K 'VWx = mVW ⋅ v 'VWx = mVW ⋅ v 'VW ⋅ cos 50 o = 1430 ⋅ 4 .4 ⋅ 0 .64 = 4026 [ kg ⋅ m / s ] K 'VWy = mVW ⋅ v 'VWy = mVW ⋅ v 'VW ⋅ sin 50 = 1430 ⋅ 4 .4 ⋅ 0 .76 = 4782 [ kg ⋅ m / s ] 72 . , (15) (16)
  5. 5. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME Figure 2. Graphics of maintaining quantity of motion for vehicles From grafics is measured KVW=331cm= 33100[kg·m/s] and KT = 638cm = 63800[kg·m/s]. From (3) ⇒ vT = vT = KT , mT KT 63800 [ kg ⋅ m / s ] = ≈ 27 [ m / s ] ≈ 97 [ km / h ] mT 2305 [ kg ] From (5) ⇒ vVW = V VW = (17) KVW , mVW K VW 33100 [ kg ⋅ m / s ] = = 23 [ m / s ] ≈ 83 [ km / h ]. m VW 1430 [ kg ] (18) 2.2. RESULTS OBTAINED WITH SOFTWARE METHOD FOR CALCULATION OF SPEEDS OF VEHICLES“TOYOTA LAND CRUISER” AND “VW GOLF” With simulations software “PC-crash” based in final positions of vehicles “Toyota Land Cruiser” and “VW Golf” after crash, are acquired results of velocities as follows : 73
  6. 6. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME Figure 3. Speeds and final positions of vehicles “Toyota Land Cruiser” and “VW Golf” after collision- by software 3. ANALYSIS OF SECOND CASE OF ROAD ACCIDENT In the second case of accident are involved two vehicles“DAF” (truck) and “Mercedes 200”. Vehicles before the crash have been moving in the opposite direction with one another. Collision between vehicles is made as in figure.4. Fig.4. Positions of vehicles “DAF” and “Mercedes 200” at the moment of collision 74
  7. 7. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME Figure. 5. Final positions of vehicles “DAF” and “Mercedes” before and after collision Results obtained for this vehicles by graphical-analytical method and software method are showed in table2. Table 2. Results of speeds v [km/h] Graphicalanalytical method Software method Vehicles DAF Mercedes 75 108 75 105 4. ANALYSIS OF THIRD CASE OF ROAD ACCIDENT In the third case of accident are involved two vehicles: “Opel Astra” and “Ford Eskord”. Vehicles before the crash have been moving in the direction as a fig.6. Position of collision and positions of vehicles after collision are showed in figure 7. Figure 6. Positions of vehicles “Opel Astra” and “Ford Escord” at the moment of collision 75
  8. 8. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME Figure 7. Final positions of vehicles “Opel Astra” and “Ford Escort”after collision Results obtained for this vehicles by graphical-analytical method and software method are showed in table 3. Table 3. Results of speeds v [km/h] Graphicalanalytical method Software method Vehicles Ford Escort Opel Astra 79.9 25 79.4 20.4 5. CONCLUSIONS Results of velocities by graphical-analytical method and software method , for the three cases of accidents analysis, summary are showed in table 4. Table.4. Results of velocities by graphical-analytical method and software method , for the three cases of accidents analysis Vehicles Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Toyota Land Cruiser Results of speeds V[km/h] Graphical- analytical method Softwaremethod 97 100 VW Golf DAF Mercedes Opel Astra 83 75 108 25 82 75 105 20.4 Ford Escort 79.9 79.4 76
  9. 9. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) © IAEME Differences between results obtained of velocities through two methods used (graphicalanalytical method and software method) for vehicles with different technical characteristics and involved in different cases of fatal road accidents are shown on Diagram 1. Diagram1. Comparing the results As seen from the comparison of results obtained in diagram 1, deviations between the results obtained by graphical-analytical method and software method are quite small. Based of this may conclude that graphical-analytical method is a quite accurate method for calculating the velocities of motion of vehicles before the crash. Especially in case of accidents when lacking sufficient data for the way that the accident occurred and when and when known only the final positions of vehicle, graphics method is more advantageous to use. 5. REFERENCES [1] [2] Prof.dr. Frankko Rotim “Elementi sigurnosti cestovog prometa”, svenska 3, Zagreb, 1991. Prof.dr. Franko Rotim “Elementi sigurnosti cestovog prometa” (Kinetika vozila), sveska 2, Zagreb, 1991. [3] Dr.sc.Ahmet Geca “Siguria në komunikacion,” , Prishtinë, 2009. [4] Dr.sc.Heset Cakolli “Teoria e lëvizjes së automjeteve”, Prishtinë, 2010. [5] Dr. Steffan Datentechnik “PC-CRASH - A Simulation Program for Vehicle Accidents”, Linz, Austria, November 2008 . [6] Forbes, T. W.: Human Factors in Highway Traffic safety Research, Toronto, 1972. [7] Ing. Artur Sulçe, ing. Edmond Kazazi: Metodika e llogaritjes së aksidentit rrugor, Tiranë, 2006. [8] Dhimitër Sotja “Mekanika e automjeteve”, Tiranë, 2005. [9] Mr.ing. Ahmet Geca: Nelinearne oscilacije vozila “Zaztava 101” u nestacionarnim uvjetima kretanja (Doktorska disertacija), Prishtinë, 1987. [10] Sanjay H. Sawant and Dr. J. A. Tamboli, “Analysis and Comparison of Vehicle Dynamic System with Nonlinear Parameters Subjected to Actual Random Road Excitations”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 284 - 299, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. 77

×