Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
30120130405024
30120130405024
30120130405024
30120130405024
30120130405024
30120130405024
30120130405024
30120130405024
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

30120130405024

98

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
98
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) © IAEME AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013), pp. 208-215 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJMET ©IAEME INVESTIGATION OF EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF SI ENGINE GENSET FUELLED WITH PETROL-KEROSENE BLENDS Mr. Sumit Kumar1, Dr.Vishal Saxena2, Mr. Arun Kumar3 1 Student, M.Tech, Mechanical Engineering Department, IFTM University, Moradabad, India Professor & Head, Mechanical Engineering Department, IFTM University, Moradabad, India 3 Assiatant Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, Dewan V.S Institute of Engineering & Technology, Meerut, India 2 ABSTRACT Due to the continuous consumption of energy resources, the price of conventional fossil fuel is increasing too fast and lead to additional burden on the economy of the importing nations. The scarcity and depletion of conventional petrol sources are cause of great concern worldwide and has promoted research into alternate energy sources for IC engine Spark Ignition Engine is widely used prime mover due to its smooth operation & low maintenance. The Blending of alternative fuel with the conventional fuel may be the solution of scarcity of conventional fuel for the spark ignition engine. The present work is mainly concerned with an experimental investigation to study the petrol engine performance, combustion, noise and emission characteristics using blends of petrol & kerosene. The performance characteristics for different blends are evolved in running the engine under steady state conditions. It is observed that 80 % Petrol and 20 % Kerosene provides the lesser NOX and emission of HC compared to other blends. 20 % and 40 % petrol give higher value of CO at lower load but as the load increases, the concentration of CO by volume decreases, and the 20 % kerosene can be preferred at higher load as it will give less CO emission. With the overall results of engine performance and emission characteristics the optimum percentage of blend of petrol and kerosene is found out to be 80:20 (80% petrol and 20% kerosene). Keyword: Petrol, Kerosene, Emissions, Engine Genset, Blends INTRODUCTION Due to the present energy crisis there arises a need to develop a clean energy system which can solve the purpose of emission reduction and performance enhancement. Several fuel systems like 208
  • 2. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) © IAEME blends of alcohol with diesel, hydrogen with LPG, CNG and blends of kerosene and petrol have turned out be the best alternative to be considered for SI and CI engines without major design change. Recent explorations and experimental investigations have opened the wide area of fuel system for these engines. This work is mainly concerned with the evaluation of the emission characteristics of petrol engine fueled with blend of petrol & kerosene. METHODOLOGY All research work is described is a very brief manner in the form of thesis methodology. All relevant information were analyzed to construct a precise summary of background information which included the history of petrol and kerosene, advantages and limitations of it, physical and chemical properties of petrol and kerosene and their emissions. At the same time, comparison between petrol and kerosene were also noted. The emissions from the tailpipe of the engine such nitrogen oxide (NOx) unburnt hydrocarbon (HC), carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were also being explained. Department to collect emission data from the exhaust engine and simultaneously engine performance was also be recorded. The experiments were conducted using different loads to collect the emission data. All the data were analyzed to make comparisons between petrol and kerosene and their respective blends. A conclusion was made after analyzing the data collected from the experiments. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP & PROCEDURE The main objective of the experiment is to investigate the effects of replacing individual petrol and kerosene with their optimum mixture of blends and to prove the reduction of nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons in a spark ignition engine. The experimental setup consisting of Honda Portable Genset Model E1000K was attached with Di-gas analyzer, load bank and air measurement box devices. Modifications in the engine fuel supply system were done to use the blends of kerosene and petrol. An electrical power load circuit was attached to the test engine to allow variation of the engine power using the bulb switches. Combinations of different values of engine load were used in the experiment to evaluate the performance, pollutant emissions of the engine to compare between petrol and kerosene fuels and their blends. Engine Specifications Table 1.1 Specifications of Honda Genset. Ignition system TCI Starting system Recoil starter Fuel tank capacity (L) (Kerosene Rum) 6.1 Fuel tank capacity (L) (Petrol Rum) .35 Continuing Running Hrs 8.7hrs Frequency (Hz) 50 Rated Output (VA) 650VA Maximum Output (VA) 750VA Dry Weight (Kg) 30 L X W X H (mm) 482 X 328 X 438 209
  • 3. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) © IAEME Control Panel and Load Bank Control panel consists of voltmeter (V), ammeter (A), a digital energy meter. Four electrical bulbs acts as bank and are controlled by switches which are arranged in rows and columns. Two bulbs consume 100W and another two bulbs consume 200W of power and are controlled by a switch. An electrical power load circuit is attached to the engine control panel to provide the engine with output loads used to power the electric bulbs. In this experiment, the output loads were set to be W, 100W, 200W, 300W, 400W, 500W, and 600W. AVL Gas Analyzer The AVL Digas 4000 light is 4/5- gas measuring instrument is used to measure the emissions such as CO, CO2, HC, NOx coming out from the engine during its performance. It meets the requirements for smoke measurement equipment emission of auto ignition combustion engine being tested for approval as stipulated by ministry of Road Transport. EXPERIMENT PROCEDURES The analysis was first performed on the petrol fuel system. The engine was up for around five minutes to reach a steady condition using the original petrol fuel from the fuel tank of the engine. As the engine was ready to run, the throttle of the engine was adjusted to be in a fully open position to allow more petrol fuel be supplied into the test engine, thus ensuring the maximum speed. The engine running at maximum speed had been selected as the reference point to compare the performance between petrol and kerosene. In this experiment, the loads were fixed at 0W, 100 W, 200 W, 300 W, 400 W, 500 W, and 600 W for SI engine as the main application of SI engine are for small personal use and usually loads for 200 W to 400 W are connected to them. Figure 1.1 shows the schematic diagram of experimental set up. All the data collected which included the engine speed, body temperature, exhaust temperature, voltage, current and concentration of emissions were recorded when steady-state is reached for each set of load values. Next loads were applied to the system by operating the electric bulbs. Figure 1.1 Experimental set up. With the help of gas analyzer we get the values of nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, oxygen for kerosene, petrol and their blends at different set of kerosene, petrol and their blends at different set of loads were recorded. After that, the test was performed on the kerosene fuel system. Before kerosene was allowed to flow into the combustion chamber, the 210
  • 4. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) © IAEME remaining petrol in the carburetor had to be drained. Then, different sets of load were added to the system to evaluate the engine performance. Again, the data were recorded at steady state for each set of load values. All the collected data are then analyzer for comparative performance between petrol and kerosene fuel system. Exhaust Temperature Measurement Gas Analyzer Kerosene Petrol Tank Tank Blended Fuel Air Box Engine Control Panel & Load Bank Generator Carbure -tor Weighting machine Figure 1.2 Line diagram of experimental setup Then the same procedure was followed with the blends of kerosene and petrol with values of blend engine from 20% petrol and 80% kerosene, 40% petrol and 60% kerosene, 60% petrol and 40% kerosene, 80% petrol and 20% kerosene. Then, different sets of load were added to the system to evaluate the engine performance. Again, the data were recorded at steady state for each set of load values. Figure 1.2 shows the line diagram of experiment set up used in the experiment. RESULT & DISCUSSION Experiments were conducted on air cooled, single cylinder, spark ignition engine (meant for small generators) using petrol and kerosene as fuels. Different blends of petrol and kerosene were tested. Major parameters like engine performance (brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc), indicated work and efficiency) and emissions (NOx, CO2, CO, and HC) were determined and compared for both the fuels at normal load maximum load. The following graphs were obtained from the data recorded. 211
  • 5. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) © IAEME Figure 1.3 Emission og NOX at vairable load Figure 1.4 Emission og HC at vairable load 212
  • 6. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) © IAEME Figure 1.5 Emission og CO2 at vairable load Figure 1.6 Emission og CO at vairable load SUMMARY With the results of engine performance and emission characteristics the optimum percentage of blend of petrol and kerosene is found out to be 80-20 (80% petrol and 20% kerosene). The properties of this optimum blend are shown in the table 1.2 The following properties of optimum blend are similar to petrol and hence the use of this blend in place of petrol in portable genset is justified. 213
  • 7. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) © IAEME Table 1.2 Properties of optimum blend of petrol and kerosene (80 : 20). Properties Results Method Used Density at 15 0C kg/m3 754.7 P:16 (Density by hydrometer) Total sulphur content % mass 0.0407% IP: 336 (Sulphur by EDXRF) Boiling range 43 0C-242 0C P:18 (Distillation of petroleum fractions) Calorific value 10460 cal/g P:7 (determination of calorific value by calculation) (source: Jalandhar Terminal Laboratory, IOCL Jalandhar) RESULT • • Blend of 80% petrol and 20% kerosene fuel is fully capable of reducing the harmful emissions gases such as nitrogen oxides because NOx emissions of the blend is same as that of petrol and lesser than other blends of kerosene. Blend of 80% petrol and 20% kerosene fuel show average reduction in carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO). Emission of CO2 and CO is less as compare other and is not significantly that of petrol. Same trend is seen in HC also. CONCLUSIONS The objective of this research work was to find the optimum blend of kerosene-gasoline fuel mixture to have least emission. Blending kerosene with gasoline in SI engines is more practical than using kerosene alone. However, before using these blends engines, the performance and emission characteristics must be evaluated. An experimental study has been carried out to evaluate performance and exhaust emissions for various concentration of kerosene addition to gasoline in the engine. Experimental results indicated that using optimum kerosene-gasoline blend, the output torque of the engine increased slightly, the CO and HC emissions decreased dramatically as a result of the leaning effect caused by the kerosene addition, and the CO2 emission increased because of the improved combustion. CO and HC emissions were reduced approximately by 80% and 50%, respectively, while the CO2 emission increased 20% depending on the engine conditions. It is further observed that low fraction kerosene/ gasoline blends can be used in SI engines without any modification. Kerosene gasoline blended fuel may lower HC and CO emissions. The most interesting thing is that kerosene addition to gasoline improves the SI engine cold start and lower CO and HC emissions significantly. REFERENCES 1. Abdulghani A., AI- Fareayrdhi, AI- Dawood A.M. and Gandhidasan P. (2004), “Effects of blending MTBE with unleaded gasoline on exhaust emissions of SI Engine”, ASME, Vol 122, pp 239-247. 2. AI- Baghdadi M.A.S. (2003) “Hydrogen-ethanol blending as an alternative fuel of spark ignition engines”, Renew Energy; 28:1471-8. 3. AI- Farayedhi, AI-Dawood A.M. and Ggandhidasan P. (2004), “Experimental investigation of SI engine performance using oxygenated fuel”, ASME, Vol. 126, pp 178-191. 4. AI-Hasan M. (2003), “Effect of ethanol-unleaded gasoline blends on engine performance and exhaust emissions”, Energy Convers Manage; 44:1547-61. 214
  • 8. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) © IAEME 5. Bivek Baral (2006) “Effects of fuel adulteration on the performance and emissions of spark ignition engines”, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy and Fuels Research Unit, the University of Auckland. 6. Bayraktar H. and Durgun O. (2004), “Development of an empirical correlation for combustion duration in spark ignition engines”, Energy Convers Manage; 45:1419-31. 7. Bernardo Ribeiro, Jorge Martins and Antonio Nunes (2007), “Generation of entropy in spark ignition engines”, Int. J. of Thermodynamics ISSN 1301-9724 Vol. 10 (No. 2), pp. 53-60. 8. Chan Lai Kuan (2005), “Reducation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) using Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) in Spark Ignition (SI) engine, University of Southern Queensland.” 9. D’ Ambrosio Stefano, Spessa Ezio and Vassallo Alberto (2005), “Methods for specific emission evaluation in spark ignition engines based on calculation procedures of air-fuel ratio: development, assessment and critical comparison”, ASME, Vol. 127, pp 869-882. 10. D’ Andrea T, Henshaw P.F. and Ting D.S.K. (2004), “The addition of hydrogen to a gasoline fuelled SI Engine”, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol 29 pp 1541- 1552. 11. Kailas M. Talkit and D.T.Mahajan, “Studies on Physicochemical Properties of Soybean Oil and its Blends with Petroleum Oils”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 511 - 517, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. 12. S Raviteja, Shashank S N and Kumar G N, “Computational and Experimental Study of Engine Characteristics using N-Butanol Gasoline Blends”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 209 - 221, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. 13. Sanjay Patil, “Theoretical Analysis of Compression Ignition Engine Performance Fuelled with Honge Oil and its Blends with Ethanol”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 366 - 372, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. 14. Ajay K. Singh and Dr A. Rehman, “An Experimental Investigation of Engine Coolant Temperature on Exhaust Emission of 4 Stroke Spark Ignition Multi Cylinder Engine”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 217 - 225, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. 15. Suhas B.G, Shivaprasad K.V and Kumar G.N, “Experimental Investigation of Single Cylinder 4s SI Engine with Hydrogen Blends”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 84 - 95, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. 215

×