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  • 1. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) © IAEME 63 INFLUENCE OF SOLID LUBRICANT EMULSIONS ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF HARDENED STEEL WHEN MACHINING ON SHAPER K Santa Rao1 Dr. S V Ramana2 Dr. C L V R S V Prasad3 1 Assistant Professor, 2 Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, GMRIT, Rajam 3 Principal GMRIT Rajam ABSTRACT This paper presents, investigations carried out to increase the surface finish of the work piece machined on shaper with addition of composite lubricant. Boric acids, graphite powder in micron and nano range respectively are used as solid lubricants. Liquid lubricant used is SAE40. Boric acid is investigated for four different particle sizes and weight percentages. Performance of Boric Acid is analysed by measuring the Surface Roughness with dry and wet machining. As the particle size is increased, surface roughness decreases, so is the phenomenon when composite lubricant viz. mixture of boric acid and nano graphite is used i.e. as size of nano graphite is increased, Surface Roughness decreases. Weight percentage of the solid lubricant is also found to follow the same trend. Keywords: Composite lubricant, Surface finish, Shaper I. INTRODUCTION Solid lubricant, in micron range, will have a tendency of smooth rolling action without any interlocking between them. This leads to the reduced resistance to the flow of the chip leading to the increase in distance between the chip and tool; and thereby decreasing the frictional force between them. The same phenomenon is expected to be taking place with increase of weight percentage but here as the density increases the cushioning effect also increases resulting in decrease of friction in the chip. With the use of composite lubricants i.e. using of nano graphite with micron level boric acid, it is expected that the nano particles slide along the boric acid particles and fill in the gap or provide excessive cushioning by getting settled over the existing boric acid and hence decreasing the coefficient of friction there by friction. As the frictional force decreases amount of heat liberated INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013), pp. 63-70 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJMET © I A E M E
  • 2. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) © IAEME 64 decreases, thereby preventing the work piece from yielding, hence surface roughness decreases. Figures below illustrate concept stated above. Role of micron sized solid lubricant Role of nano graphite in composite II. RELATED WORK Vamsi Krishna et al [1] investigated the performance of the Boric acid as the solid lubricant in the machining of hardened steel. He varied the size of the particle in the micron range and tested its performance by mixing it with SAE40 oil. The results show improvement in the machining performance with decrease in the particle size of Boric Acid. Zailani et al [2] investigated the performance of graphite with SAE40. He varied the weight percentage of graphite in the machining of mild steel. The results reveal that the use of graphite in cutting fluid provides good surface finish and reduces tool wear. Nikhil Ranjan Dhara et al [3] suggested the minimum quantity lubrication method to combine the advantages of both dry machining and wet machining. Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) refers to the use of cutting fluids of only a minute amount typically of a flow rate of 50- 100ml/hour which is about three to four orders of magnitude less than the amount commonly used in flood cooling condition. This would not only reduce the environmental hazards but also reduce the operating costs of the machining process. S V Ramana [4] analysed a green, petroleum free lubricant that is produced by mixing two environmentally benign components, canola oil and nano-crystalline boric acid with a flow rate of 10ml/minute. The results stated that the surface finish of the work material was improved. III. EXPERIMENTAL WORK METHODOLOGY Experiments have been conducted to study the surface roughness in shaper under different experimental environments viz., dry cutting, oil cutting, mixture of SAE 40 with boric acid (solid lubricant), Composite lubricant (SAE 40+Boric acid+ Nano graphite). Following machining parameters i.e., crank speed, feed rate, depth of cut are kept constant throughout the experiments. The various sizes of boric acid that have been considered for experimentation are 50µm, 100µm, 150µm, 200µm. The different weight percentages that have been considered for the experimentation are 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%
  • 3. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) © IAEME 65 Equipment Set up used Fig. 1 Experimental set up C – Reservoir of the MQL setup P – Pipeline for smooth flow of composite lubricant on worpiece W – Workpiece S - Shaper MACHINING CONDITIONS 1. Work material: Hardened Steel 2. Material size: 210×210×75mm3 3. Tool Material: High Speed Steel 4. Lubricant: SAE 40 5. Solid lubricant: a. Boric acid, b. Nano graphite 6. Cutting conditions: a. Speed: 45rpm, b. Depth of cut: 1 mm
  • 4. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) © IAEME 66 Steps followed in the Experimental Procedure are 1. Commercially available boric acid is segregated into the desired particle sizes using sieves 2. The samples of various sizes of boric acid and nano graphite are separated in accordance to the different weight percentages considered. 3. Composite lubricant (Boric acid+ Nano Graphite) is prepared by adding of boric acid of different particle sizes at 5%weight with 0.5%nano graphite of different particle sizes and mixed with SAE 40 in a magnetic stirrer for 30 min. 4. The experimental set up as shown in Fig.1 is developed for the supply of mixture of SAE 40 with boric acid powder at the machining zone. The solid lubricant i.e. boric acid powder is mixed with SAE 40 in a magnetic stirrer for 30 min and is poured into the reservoir of the MQL setup. From this reservoir synthetic pipe is used to transport the powder and oil mixture to the machining zone.
  • 5. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) © IAEME 67 5. Surface roughness is measured after the machining process is done. For this a portable surface roughness tester is employed. RESULTS 1. Effect of variation of boric acid particles on Surface Roughness The graphs below illustrate the variation of surface roughness value with variation of particle size of boric acid maintaining a constant 5wt%, 10wt%, 15wt%, 20wt%.
  • 6. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) © IAEME 68 These figures compare the surface roughness (Ra) of the machined surface for all the cases investigated. The average surface roughness measured while machining with 50ìm sized solid lubricant is more than that of the 200ìm sized particle size of the same weight percentage. Here by the results indicate high surface roughness with reduced particle size of the solid lubricant for the same weight percentage that was employed for machining 2. Effect of variation of boric acid weight percentage on Surface Roughness The graphs below illustrate the variation of surface roughness value with variation of weight percentage of boric acid with various particle sizes of 50µm, 100µm, 150µm and 200µm. These figures compare the surface roughness (Ra) of the machined surface for all the cases investigated. The average surface roughness measured while machining with 5wt% solid lubricant is more than that of the 20wt% of the same particle size. Here by the results indicate high surface roughness with reduced weight percentage of the solid lubricant for the same particle size that was employed for machining. 3. Effect of use of composite lubricant on Surface Roughness The graphs below illustrate the variation of surface roughness value with the usage of composite lubricant i.e. usage of micron level boric acid of 5wt% with nano graphite of 0.5wt% These figures clearly illustrate that the usage of nano graphite along with boric acid decreases the surface roughness. It may be due to better cushioning effect provided by the nano particles rather than boric acid alone. Interestingly these nano particles size also affects the surface roughness in the same way as that of micron level particles, but the percentage change is lower in the case of nano particles.
  • 7. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) © IAEME 69 CONCLUSIONS Analysis of experimental data of this study led us to reach the following conclusions regarding the variation of particle size, weight percentage of boric acid and the usage of composite lubricant. 1. Effect of variation in particle size: Surface roughness of the work material decreases when using solid lubricant as compared to that of dry cutting and is found to vary significantly with particle size; it increases as particle size is reduced from 200ìm to 50ìm. 2. Effect of variation in weight percentage: Surface Roughness varies significantly with change of weight percentage and is better than that of dry cutting. It is also observed that surface roughness increases as the weight percentages are reduced from 20 to 5. 3. Effect of usage of composite lubricant: With the usage of composite lubricant, as particle size is increased Surface Roughness decreases, and better results compared to boric acid are obtained.
  • 8. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) © IAEME 70 REFERENCES 1. D.NageswaraRao, P.Vamsi Krishna, “The influence of solid lubricant Particle size on machining parameters in Turning”, International Journal of machine Tools and Manufacturing, 48, 2008, 107–111. 2. Z.A. Zailani, R. Hamidon, M.S Hussin, M.F.M.A Hamzas, Hasnul Hadi, “The influence of solid lubricant in machining parameter of milling operation”, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST), Vol. 3, No. 6, June 2011, 5221-5226. 3. Nikhil Ranjan Dhara, Sumaiya Islama, Mohammad Kamruzzamanb, “Effect of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) on Tool Wear, Surface Roughness and Dimensional Deviation in Turning AISI-4340 Steel”, G.U. Journal of Science, 20(2), 2007, 23-32. 4. S V Ramana, K Ramji and B.Satyanarayana, “Influence of nano-level variation of solid lubricant particle size in the machining of AISI 1040 steel”, International Journal of Materials Engineering Innovation, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2011, 16-29. 5. P. Govinda Rao, Dr. C L V R S V Prasad, Dr.D.Sreeramulu, Dr.V. Chitti Babu and M.Vykunta Rao, “Determination of Residual Stresses of Welded Joints Prepared Under the Influence of Mechanical Vibrations by Hole Drilling Method and Compared by Finite Element Analysis”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 542 - 553, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. 6. B.Satyanarayana, G. Ranga Janardhana and D. Hanumantha Rao, “Modeling and Optimization of Cutting Parameters in High-Speed Dry Machining of Inconel 718 Alloy”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 242 - 252, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499. 7. K. Leo Dev Wins and A. S. Varadarajan, “Optimization of Surface Finish During Milling of Hardened AISI4340 Steel with Minimal Pulsed Jet of Fluid Application using Response Surface Methodology”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 2, Issue 1, 2011, pp. 12 - 28, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499. 8. P.Govinda Rao, Dr.CLVRSV Prasad, Dr.S.V.Ramana and D.Sreeramulu, “Development of Grnn Based Tool for Hardness Measurement of Homogeneous Welded Joint Under Vibratory Weld Condition”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 50 - 59, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499.