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  • 1. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 94-100 © IAEME 94 STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE USING GGBS AND ROBO SAND M. Vijaya Sekhar Reddy1* , M. Seshalalitha2 1* HOD and Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering Srikalahasteeswara Institute of Technology, Srikalahasti, and Research Scholar at Sri Venkateswara University College of Engineering, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India 2 Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering Srikalahasteeswara Institute of Technology, Srikalahasti ABSTRACT Concrete is considered as durable and strong material, reinforced concrete is one of the most popular materials used for construction around the world. Reinforced concrete is exposed to deterioration in some regions especially in coastal regions. Therefore researchers around the world are directing their efforts towards developing a new material to overcome this problem. This scenario leads to the use of additive materials to improve the quality of concrete. As an outcome of the experiments and researches, cement based concrete which meets special performance with respect to workability, strength and durability known as “High Performance Concrete” was developed. High performance concrete (HPC) is a concrete meeting special combinations of performance and uniformity and normal mixing. This leads to examine the admixtures to improve the performance of the concrete. On the other side, cost of concrete is attributed to the cost of its ingredients which is scarce and expensive, this leading to usage of economically alternative materials in the production. This requirements is drawn the attention of investigators to explore new replacements of ingredients of concrete. The present experimental study focuses on the mechanical properties of M60 HPC concrete with partial replacement of Cement by Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) and fine aggregate by Robo sand (crusher dust) with the addition of superplasticizer. Keywords: High Performance Concrete, Compressive Strength, Granulated Blast Furnace Slag, Robo Sand, Superplasticizer. 1. INTRODUCTION High Performance Concrete (HPC) is that which is designed to give optimized performance characteristics for the given set of materials, usage and exposure conditions, consistent with requirement of cost, service life and durability. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET) ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 94-100 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.9290 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCIET ©IAEME
  • 2. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 94-100 © IAEME 95 The American Concrete Institute (ACI) defines HPC “As concrete which needs special combinations and uniformity requirements that cannot always be achieved routinely by using conventional materials and normal mixing, placing and curing practices”. High performance in a broad manner can be related to any property of concrete. It can mean excellent workability in the fresh state like self leveling concrete or low heat of hydration in case of mass concrete, or very rigid setting and hardening of concrete in case of sprayed concrete or quick repair of roads and airfields, or low imperviousness of storage vessels, or very low leakage rates of encapsulation containments for contaminating material. The SCMs such as flyash, Blast furnace slag, silica fume and metakiolin which are generally very fine, may be finer than cement, when added to concrete in right proportion can improve the strength and durability of concrete drastically and high strength and high performance concrete is obtained in this manner. One major concern about the concrete is its sustainability. Every tone of cement produces equal amount CO2 through consumption of fuel in burning and decomposition of CaCO3 thus control of Green House gas emission is major issue in the context of sustainable concrete. Use of SCM, especially other industrial by-product such as blast furnace slag, flyash in concrete to reduce OPC clinker consumption is currently being considered as a major step towards achieving sustainability of concrete. Composite cements containing more than one SCM can be used where ever appropriate. 2. MATERIALS USED IN THE TEST PROGRAM 2.1 Cement Cement is a binding material, which is the combination of two raw materials called calcareous and argillaceous materials. Zuari-53 grade ordinary Portland cement confirming to IS: 12269 -1987 were used in concrete. The physical properties of the cement are listed in Table .1 Table 1: Physical Properties of Zuari 53 Grade Cement S.no Properties Test results Limits as per is 12269:1987 1. Fineness (m2 /kg) (Specific surface) 290 >225 2. Initial setting time(minutes) 160 >30 3. Final setting time(minutes) 260 <600 4. Soundness(mm) by Lechatlier by autoclave 1 0.03 <10 <0.8 5. Compressive strength(MPa) 3 days 39 >27 7 days 48 >37 28 days 60 >53
  • 3. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 94-100 © IAEME 96 2.2 Aggregates A crushed granite rock with a maximum size of 20mm was used as coarse aggregate. Natural sand from Swarnamukhi River in Srikalahasti was used as fine aggregate. The fineness modulus is 3 for fine aggregate and for coarse aggregate is 7.18 individual aggregate were blended to get the desired combined grading. The specific gravity of aggregates is given in Table. 2. The individual sieve analysis of aggregate is given in Table. 3 & 4. Table 2: Specific Gravity of Aggregates Table 3: Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregate Table 4: Sieve Analysis of Coarse Aggregate IS sieve size (mm) Weight retained(gm) % weight retained Cumulative % weight retained % passing 80 0 0 0 100 40 0 0 0 100 20 956 19.12 19.12 80.88 10 4.24 80.48 99.6 0.4 4.75 20 0.4 100 0 2.36 0 0 100 0 1.18 0 0 100 0 600 0 0 100 0 300 0 0 100 0 150 0 0 100 0 Total Cumulative % Of Weight Retained 718.72/100 = 7.18 Specific gravity of coarse aggregate 2.74 Specific gravity of fine aggregate 2.62 S.no IS Sieve size (mm) Weight retained in (gm) % of weight retained Cumulative weight retained in(gm) % cumulative weight retained % of finer 1 4.75 12 2.4 12 2.4 97.6 2 2.36 85 17 97 19.4 80.6 3 1.18 135 27 232 46.4 53.6 4 0.6 47 9.4 279 55.8 44.2 5 0.425 50 10 329 65.8 34.2 6 0.3 132 26.4 461 92.2 92.2 7 0.15 19 3.8 480 96 96 8 0.075 18 3.6 498 99.6 0.4 9 Pan 2 0.4 500 100 0
  • 4. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 94-100 © IAEME 97 2.3 Water Portable water was used for mixing and curing of concrete cubes. 2.4 Supplementary Cementing Materials 2.4.1 Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Ground granulated blast furnace slag is the granular material formed when molten iron blast furnace slag is rapidly chilled by immersion in water. It is a granular product with very limited crystal formation, is highly cementitious in nature and, ground to cement fines, and hydrates like Portland cement. It has been supplied by M/S Thosila Pvt Limited in Vizag and the physical & chemical properties are listed below in the Table.5 Table 5: Physical & Chemical Composition of GGBS Chemical & Physical properties GGBS Fineness(m2 /kg) 275 Soundness(mm) 10 Initial setting time(min) 230 Insoluble residue 1.5% Magnesia 14% Sulphur 2.50% Loss of ignition 3% Manganese 2% Chloride 0.1% Moisture 1% Glass 67% Compressive strength at 7 days (MPa) 12 Compressive strength at 28 days (MPa) 32.5 2.5 Robo Sand (Crusher Dust) Robo sand is the sand manufactured in the stone quarries. It is a substitute for the river sand used in the construction. Robo sand or crusher dust obtained from local granite crushers was used as partial replacement of fine aggregate in the present investigation to cast the concrete cubes. The fineness modulus of Robo sand is 3.02. The specific gravity of Robo sand is 2.62 respectively. Table 6: Sieve Analysis of Robo Sand S.No IS Sieve Size (mm) Particle Size (mm) Weight Retained in (gm) % of Weight Retained Cumulative Weight Retained in (gm) % Cumulative Weight % of Finer 1 4.75 4.75 6.0 1.2 6.0 1.2 98.8 2 2.36 2.36 93 18.6 99 19.8 80.2 3 1.18 1.18 124 24.8 223 44.6 55.4 4 0.6 0.6 44 8.8 267 53.4 46.6 5 0.425 0.425 61 12.2 328 65.6 34.4 6 0.3 0.3 108.5 21.7 436.5 87.3 12.7 7 0.15 0.15 44.5 8.9 481 96.2 3.8 8 0.075 0.075 16 3.2 497 99.4 0.6 9 Pan Pan 3.0 0.6 500 100 0.0
  • 5. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 94-100 © IAEME 98 2.6 Chemical Admixture VARAPLAST PC 100: A High performance concrete superplasticizer based on modified polycarboxilic ether supplied from M/S Akarsh Specialities, Chennai. The properties are listed in the Table. 7. Table 7: Properties of Superplasticizer Supply forms Liquid Colour Brown Specific gravity 1.08 Chloride content Nil 3. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM The High Performance Concrete cubes of size 150mmx150mmx150mm were tested for Compressive strength at 7 & 28 days in the Compression testing machine of maximum capacity 2000 tons in accordance with IS: 516-1959. Table 8: Mix Proportion for M60 HPC Materials Cement Fine aggregate Coarse aggregate Water Weight Cement = 385 kg/m3 GGBS (SCM)= 165 kg/m3 699.36 kg/m3 1114.4 kg/m3 140 kg/m3 Total = 550 kg/m3 Ratio 1 1.27 2.02 0.25 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS In the present investigation, importance has been given to study the mechanical properties like workability characteristics & compressive strength for M60 HPC mix with different percentage replacement of Fine aggregate and Cement by Robo sand and GGBS respectively. The results of high performance concrete samples are compared with controlled concrete (100 OPC). The compressive strength results are represented in the Table .9 and the corresponding bar chart is represented in Fig 1.
  • 6. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 94-100 © IAEME 99 Table 9: Test Results for M60 Grade Concrete S.no Grade of concrete Trail Workability slump range 75-100 (mm) Compressive strength of 7 days (MPa) Compressive strength of 28 days (MPa) 1. Controlled concrete T1 100 38.2 62 2. M60+GGBS (30%) + ROBO sand (5%) T2 100 39 62.8 3. M60+GGBS (30%) + ROBO sand (15%) T3 100 40.3 64.7 4. M60+GGBS (30%) + ROBO sand (25%) T4 100 39.5 63.2 5. M60+GGBS (40%) + ROBO sand (5%) T5 100 40 63 6. M60+GGBS (40%) + ROBO sand (15%) T6 100 40.6 65.3 7. M60+GGBS (40%) + ROBO sand (25%) T7 100 40.2 64.2 8. M60+GGBS (50%) + ROBO sand (5%) T8 100 38.1 62.5 9. M60+GGBS (50%) + ROBO sand (15%) T9 100 39.3 63.4 10. M60+GGBS (50%) + ROBO sand (25%) T10 100 38.5 62.9 Fig 1: Variation of Compressive Strength for 7and 28 Days of M60 HPC Mix 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 CompressivestrengthN/mm2 TRIAL MIXES 7 days 28 days
  • 7. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 94-100 © IAEME 100 5. CONCLUSIONS In M60 grade of concrete as the water-cement ratio of 0.25 is insufficient to provide the good workability, hence superplasticizer is necessary for the development of HPC. It is observed that the maximum compressive strength achieved in M60 grade of concrete is 65.3 MPa with 40% replacement of cement by Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag and 15% replacement of Fine Aggregate by Robo sand. From the experimental results the Robo sand can be used as an alternative material for the fine aggregate and GGBS can be partially replaced with the cement. The scope scope for using high performance concrete in constructional activities are more such as precast, prestressed bridges, multistoried buildings, bridges and structures on coastal areas. To affect this change, we will have to revive the designing of structures by encouraging use of high performance concrete mixes. REFERENCES [1] Bhattacharjee B, Misra A, Rai HS. Specifications for High Performance Concrete in India. In proceedings of the International UKIERI Concrete Congress, New Delhi, India, 8-10 March 2011. [2] Venu Malagavelli et. Al “HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE WITH GGBS AND ROBO SAND”/International journal of engineering and science and technology/ vol. 2(10), 2010, 5107-5113. [3] Swamy R.N, High Performance Durability Through Design. International Workshop on High-performance Concrete, ACI-SP, Vol.159 (14), pp. 209-230, 1996. [4] AITCIN P.C "High performance concrete" E&FN Spon –1998 Page- 5. [5] IS: 12269-1987, Specification for 53 Grade Ordinary Portland Cement, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India, 1989. [6] IS: 383-1970: specifications for Coarse and Fine Aggregates for natural sources of concrete, Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi. [7] IS: 10262-2009: Concrete Mix Proportioning-guidelines, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi. [8] IS: 516-1959: Methods of tests for strength of concrete, Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi. [9] Dr. P.Muthupriya, “An Experimental Investigation on Effect of GGBS and Glass Fibre in High Performance Concrete”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 29 - 35, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. [10] V.S.Tamilarasan, Dr.P.Perumal and Dr.J.Maheswaran, “Experimental Study on Water Permeability and Chloride Permeability of Concrete with GGBS as a Replacement Material for Cement”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 25 - 40, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. [11] V.S.Tamilarasan, Dr.P.Perumal and Dr.J.Maheswaran, “Workability Studies on Concrete with GGBS as a Replacement Material for Cement with and without Superplasticiser”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 11 - 21, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499. [12] M. Vijaya Sekhar Reddy, Dr.I.V. Ramana Reddy and N.Krishna Murthy, “Experimental Evaluation of the Durability Properties of High Performance Concrete using Admixtures”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 96 - 104, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499.