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  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 41-50 © IAEME 41 ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR EUPHRATES RIVER WITHIN BABYLON PROVINCE, IRAQ DURING THE PERIOD 2007-2013 Hadeel Ali Abdulhussein Al Saleh Department of civil engineering/ college of engineering Babylon University/Hillah, Iraq ABSTRACT This paper deals with the quality of Euphrates river for drinking purposes by determining the water quality index WQI. Fourteen physic-chemical water quality parameter from four water quality- monitoring stations along Euphrates river were monthly monitored during the study period (2007- 2013) to compute the WQI in order to assess the suitability of the river water for drinking and human consumption. The water quality index provides a simple method for estimating the water quality for different uses and it is very important for river quality monitoring. Water bodies are usually taken as the sink for dumping domestic, agriculture and industrial wastes, therefore, a regular monitoring for maintaining acceptable quality of these resources is of important human health and environmental concerns. The water quality index in this study was calculated to evaluate the water quality at four sampling stations. The results of mean WQI were lower than 68 during the period of study for all stations, the lowest WQI values were observed in Saddat Al-Hindiyah and Hashmia stations. Euphrates river water quality is generally rated "good", range (50-100) except in year 2012, the water quality of Euphrates river tends to be “excellent”, mean annual WQI values ranged from 50.53 at 2012 to 79.15 at 2013. The highest water quality was in January and February for years (2007, 2009, 2011 and 2012) with WQI values less than 50 which makes the river water quality considered as “excellent”, while the lowest water quality was in September 2007 and June 2013 during the whole study period with results of 101.66 and 111.49 which classify The river water quality as “poor water” Key words: water quality index, water quality, weighted arithmetic index, physic-chemical parameters. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET) ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 41-50 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.9290 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCIET ©IAEME
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 41-50 © IAEME 42 1. INTRODUCTION Over the years of time, river has been subjected to human interference regularly and water quality was to be getting deteriorated profoundly. Major anthropogenic activities practiced in and around the river: agriculture, abstraction of water for irrigation and drinking, washing cloths and utensils, discharging of sewage waste, sand dredging, boating, and fishing activities along the river were generating serious threat to the biota by altering the physicochemical and biological concentration of the river system [1]. Polluted river water means affected physico-chemical parameters, which will have drastic negative impact on the health of community residing in the nearby region and using this water for various purposes. So it is must to monitor river water time to time to observe its pollution status and pollution causing factors. Such studies can be of much significance in making the mass aware of deteriorating river water quality and about their use of water for various purposes [2]. In addition, once the surface water is contaminated, its quality cannot be restored by stopping the pollutants from the source. It therefore becomes imperative to regularly monitor the quality of the water and to device ways and means to protect it [3]. Assessment of surface water quality can be a complex process undertaking multiple parameters capable of causing various stresses on overall water quality. Bharti and Katyal, 2011, [4] so conventional approaches to assess water quality based on a comparison of experimentally determined parameter values does not readily give an overall view of the spatial and temporal trends in the overall water quality in a watershed [5]. Water quality index is one of the most effective tools to communicate information on the quality of water to the concerned citizens and policy makers. It thus, becomes an important parameter for the assessment and management of surface water [6]. The objective of an index is to turn multifaceted water quality data into simple information that is comprehensible and useable by the public. Water quality index was first formulated by Horton (1965) and later on used by several workers for the quality assessment of different water resources [7]. Water quality index can also be used to aggregate data on water quality parameters at different times and in different places and to translate this information into a single value defining the period of time and spatial unit involved [8]. Water quality index method (WQI) is one of the most widely used ways to assess the quality of surface as well as underground water. Many researchers have used this method worldwide to assess the quality of water in various fields such as rivers and surface waters [9, 10], aquifers and underground water [11, 12]. In Iraq, many studies have been conducted to assess the surface water quality, Shaymaa and Ayad in 2012 [13], made a study to predict the quality of Euphrates river water, Ahmad et. al. in 2012 [14] determined the WQI for Qalyasan stream in Sulaimani city/ Kurdistan region of Iraq, raw and treated water quality of Tigris river within Baghdad was evaluated by [8]. Euphrates River is of particular importance in the evaluation of surface water quality in Iraq because the anthropogenic and recreational activities bringing about considerable change in the river water quality and pose a serious threat on the river water quality. The aim of this study is to determine temporal and spatial changes in the quality of Euphrates River water in Iraq using the Water Quality Index method to analyze some selected physic-chemical parameters in order to assess the suitability of water for drinking purposes for a monitoring period of seven years (2007-2013).
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 41-50 © IAEME 43 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS 2.1. STUDY AREA Iraq is a country with relatively abundant renewable and non-renewable water resources. Nevertheless, during the past 30 years, Iraq has shifted from being water secure to a water-stressed country. The water resources in Iraq are composed of surface water, groundwater, rain and snow fall, marshlands, lakes and reservoirs, and drainage water [15]. Euphrates River is one of two major rivers flowing through Iraq. It originates in Turkey, runs through Syria, entering Iraq from the western border and discharge in Shat Al-Arab. It travels a distance of 2,700 kilometers before flowing into the Arab Gulf. The water of the river is used for drinking, irrigation, recreation and fishing. Unfortunately, the seasonal distribution of the availability of water does not coincide with the irrigation requirements of the basin. In an average year, the river reaches its peak flow in April and May as the winter mountain precipitation melts [16, 17]. Four sampling stations for water quality monitoring were established along the river course in Babylon governorate (Musayib, Saddat Al-Hindiyah, Hillah and Hashmia) as shown in Figure (1). The details of sampling stations are listed in Table (5). Fig. (1): Map of the study area showing the locations of water quality monitoring stations along Euphrates river within Babylon proviance 2.2. WATER QUALITY DATA The water quality data used in this study were provided by (Ministry of Environment– Department of Protect and Improve The Environment in The Middle Euphrates Region), which cover a period of (7) years from 2007 to 2013 and comprised the monthly average values for (14) water quality parameters, include ( pH value, Total Alkalinity(Alk), Orthophosphate (PO4), Nitrate (NO3),
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 41-50 © IAEME 44 Sulphate (SO4), Chloride (Cl), Total Hardness (TH), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Turbidity (Tur.), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)). 2.3. METHODOLOGY OF CALCULATING WATER QUALITY INDEX (WQI) The Water Quality Index (WQI) for Euphrates River was calculated using the Weighted Arithmetic Index method based on the calculations adopted by [6, 14, 18, and 19]. In the first step, the quality rating scale (qi) for each parameter was computed by using the equation: Quality rating, Qi = 100 [(Va -Vi) / (Vs -Vi)]………….. (1) Where, Qi = Quality rating of ith parameter for a total of n water quality parameters Va= Actual value of the water quality parameter obtained from laboratory analysis Vi = Ideal value of that water quality parameter, all the ideal values (Vi) are taken as zero except for pH=7, DO=14.6 mg/L. Vs = Recommended Iraqi standards of the corresponding water quality parameter. Secondly, the Relative (unit) weight (Wi) was calculated by a value inversely proportional to the recommended standard (Si) for the corresponding parameter. Wi = 1/ Si ……………………………………………(2) Where, Wi = Relative weight for ith parameter Si= Standard permissible value for each parameter Finally, the overall WQI was calculated by aggregating the quality rating (Qi) with the Relative unit weight (Wi) linearly by using the following equation: WQI = ΣQiWi/ ΣWi ………………………………. (3) Generally, WQI is discussed for a specific and intended use of water. In this study the WQI for human consumption is considered and permissible WQI for the drinking water is taken as 100, table (1) explains water quality classification based on WQI value [19] while table (2) shows the recommended standards and the relative weight for each water quality parameter. Table (1): Water Quality Classification Based On WQI Value (Bhaven et. al., 2011) WQI Value Water Quality <50 Excellent 50-100 Good water 100-200 Poor water 200-300 Very Poor water >300 Water unsuitable for drinking
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 41-50 © IAEME 45 Table (2): Water Quality Parameter Standards And Their Corresponding Relative Weights Water quality parameters Standard value (Si) Relative Weight (wi) PH 8.5 0.117647 ALK 200 0.005 CL 350 0.002857 T.D.S 1000 0.001 T.H 500 0.002 Ca 150 0.006667 Mg 100 0.01 Na 200 0.005 K 10 0.1 NO3 50 0.02 PO4 0.4 2.5 SO4 400 0.0025 DO 5 0.2 TUR 5 0.2 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In the present study the Water Quality Index was calculated using the Weighted Arithmetic Index method based on (14) physical and chemical water quality parameter at four stations located along the Euphrates river which include pH, Total Alkalinity, Chloride, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Dissolved Oxygen , Nitrate, Orthophosphate, Sulphate and Turbidity. These parameters were studied according to their importance for water quality. The Iraqi standards are followed for water quality parameter values. The results of the computed monthly WQI values along Euphrates river obtained from this study are shown in table (3) and figure (2). The highest water quality was in January and February for years (2007, 2009, 2011 and 2012) with WQI values less than 50 which makes the river water quality considered as “excellent” , while the lowest water quality was in September 2007 and June 2013 during the whole studied period with results of 101.66 and 111.49 which classify the river water quality as “poor water” and so unsuitable for drinking, this may be related to the extensive uses of the river water during the hot summer months in the human activities leading to increasing city sewage discharge. Other WQI values ranged from 50 to 99. Fig. (2): Monthly WQI variations along Euphrates river within Babylon province during the study period
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 41-50 © IAEME 46 Table (3): Monthly WQI along Euphrates River within Babylon province during 2007-2013 Year, Month 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Mean WQI 1 44.37 62.42 46.96 61.01 46.01 45.94 58.69 52.20 2 48.72 62.58 50.42 57.79 48.32 44.47 74.21 55.21 3 61.59 87.69 57.39 77.99 51.48 69.22 75.88 68.75 4 59.32 74.23 49.17 65.89 55.25 49.12 74.70 61.10 5 54.53 75.46 57.22 69.88 57.60 48.77 69.33 61.83 6 80.00 78.46 58.87 99.03 58.45 47.23 111.49 76.22 7 68.95 74.11 66.45 73.90 52.07 43.38 89.76 66.94 8 82.24 73.11 78.79 68.83 53.06 49.18 75.41 68.66 9 101.66 83.15 79.33 69.77 45.72 53.37 69.55 71.79 10 87.36 92.82 78.32 70.41 54.45 41.49 74.88 71.39 11 84.25 82.48 66.07 73.72 60.19 51.58 73.60 70.27 12 70.27 46.05 61.48 75.00 51.69 53.62 75.72 61.98 Mean 70.27 74.38 62.54 71.93 52.86 49.78 76.94 65.53 The mean monthly WQI variation ranged from lower value 52.2 at January and higher value 76.22 at June along Euphrates river which indicate that the river water is within the permissible limits for drinking water “good water”, (50-100) as can be seen in figure (3). Fig. (3): Mean monthly WQI along Euphrates river within Babylon province during the study period Table (4) shows the variations of the WQI values in the selected stations on Euphrates river. It can be seen that the water quality of the sampling stations tends to be in “good water” class during the whole study period, showing that the Euphrates river water quality is generally "good", range (50-100) except in year 2012, the water quality of Euphrates river tends to be “excellent” with WQI values less than or near 50, also showing that none of the stations water quality are categorized under " Poor Water ", range (>100), station Hashmia had the lowest WQI value of 44.77 in 2012 and the highest 89.82 in year 2013. The spatial and temporal variations of WQI along Euphrates river are shown in Figure (4). Mean WQI results were lower than 68 during the period of study for all stations, figure (5), the lowest WQI values were observed in Saddat Al-Hindiyah and Hashmia stations, this may be attributed to the low population and thus low human activities in these cities.
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 41-50 © IAEME 47 Table (4): Summary of anual water quality index values for all sampling stations along Euphrates River within Babylon province during the study period 2007-2013. Year , Stations 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Min. Max. Mean WQI Musayib 80.06 77.11 63.51 76.22 52.22 48.2 70.85 48.2 80.06 66.88 Saddat Al- Hindiyah 55.87 75.19 59.67 81.03 50.97 59.93 74.19 50.97 81.03 65.26 Hillah 78.08 75.45 66.37 70.63 54.24 49.22 81.72 49.22 81.72 67.96 Hashmia 75.73 52.97 44.77 89.82 44.77 89.82 65.82 Min. 55.87 75.19 59.67 70.63 50.97 44.77 70.85 44.77 80.06 65.26 Max. 80.06 77.11 66.37 81.03 54.24 59.93 89.82 50.97 89.82 67.96 Mean 71.34 75.92 63.18 75.90 52.60 50.53 79.15 48.29 83.158 66.48 Fig. (4): Anual WQI values of all sampling stations along Euphrates River within Babylon province during the study period 2007-2013 Fig. (5): Mean anual WQI values of the sampling stations within Babylon province during the study period 2007-2013
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 41-50 © IAEME 48 Table (5) shows the location and classification of the water sampling stations according to their respective quality category which indicates that water quality of all sampling stations is within the category “good water”, (50-100), range for the whole study period based on WQI criteria presented in table (1). figure (6) represents the mean annual values of WQI along Euphrates river throughout the studied period 2007-2013. It can be observed that mean annual WQI values ranged from 50.53 at 2012 to 79.15 at 2013 which indicate the water quality of the river is considered of good quality. Table (5): Desription of the water sampling stations and classification of their water quality during 2007-2013 Station Coordinates Mean WQI description N E Musayib 32°29′0′′ 44°26′0′′ 66.88 Good water Saddat Al-Hindiyah 32°42′56′′ 44°16′43′′ 65.26 Good water Hilla 32°46′43″ 44°17′24″ 67.96 Good water Hashmia 32°13'32" 44°22'33" 65.82 Good water Fig. (6): Mean anual WQI along Euphrates River within Babylon province during 2007-2013 4. CONCLUSIONS The results obtained from this study indicate that Euphrates river water quality within Babylon province is generally categorized as "Good" and suitable for drinking uses and human consumption in the period from 2007 to 2013 without any treatment for the whole studied period. However, the results obtained from the study reveals that the WQI method is useful in assessing the drinking water quality of the river and in comparing the water quality of sampling stations and it appears to be helpful for public and decision makers to understand the drinking water quality. 5. REFERENCES [1] Venkatesharaju K., Ravikumar P., Somashekar R. K., Prakash K. L., (2010), “Physico- Chemical And Bacteriological Investigation On The River Cauvery Of Kollegal strerch In Karnataka”, Kathmandu University Journal Of Science, Engineering And Technology, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 50-59.
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 41-50 © IAEME 49 [2] Khanna D.R., R. Bhutiani, Bharti Tyagi, Prashant Kumar Tyagi and Mukesh Ruhela, (2013), “Determination Of Water Quality Index For The Evaluation Of Surface Water Quality For Drinking Purpose”, International Journal of Science and Engineering, Volume 1, Number 1, PP-09-14. [3] Bina Patel, 2011, “Development Of Water Quality Index: A Case Of Sabarmati River Front Development Project”, Conference on Inclusive & Sustainable Growth, Role of Industry, Government and Society, Conference Proceedings: 2011. [4] Bharti N, Katyal.D, 2011, “Water Quality Indices Used For Surface Water Vulnerability Assessment”, International Journal Of Environmental Sciences, Volume 2, No. 1, pp. 154-173. [5] Aadil Hamid, Naseer Ahmad Dar, Sami Ullah Bhat and Ashok K. Pandit, 2013, “ Water Quality Index: A Case Study of Vishav Stream, Kulgam, Kashmir”, International Journal of Environment and Bioenergy, 5(2): 108-122. [6] Yisa J. and T. Jimoh, 2010, “Analytical Studies On Water Quality Index Of River Landzu” , American Journal of Applied Sciences 7 (4): 453-458. [7] Mohammad Alam and J.K. Pathak, 2011, “Rapid Assessment of Water Quality Index of Ramganga River,Western Uttar Pradesh (India) Using a Computer Programme”, Nature and Science, 8(11). [8] Abdul Hameed M. Jawad Alobaidy, Bahram K. Maulood and Abass J. Kadhem, 2010, “Evaluating Raw And Treated Water Quality Of Tigris River Within Baghdad By Index Analysis”, J. Water Resource And Protection, 2, 629-635. [9] Babak Jafari Salim, Gholamreza Nabil Bidhendi And Amir Salami, 2009, “Water Quality Assessment Of Gheshlagh River Using Water Quality Indices”, Environmental Sciences, Vol. 6, No. 4, 19-28. [10] Pradyusa Samantray, Basanta K. Mishra, Chitta R. Panda and Swoyam P. Rout, 2009, “Assessment of Water Quality Index in Mahanadi and Atharabanki Rivers and Taldanda Canal in Paradip Area, India”, J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 153-161. [11] Vaishnav M.M. and Dewangan S, 2011, “Assessment of Water Quality Status in Reference to Statistical Parameters in Different Aquifers of Balco Industrial Area, Korba, C.G. INDIA”, Research Journal of hemical Sciences, Vol. 1(9), 67-72. [12] Paul Supantha and Mishra Umesh, 2011, “Assessment Of Underground Water Quality In North Eastern Region Of India: A Case Study Of Agartala City”, International Journal Of Environmental Science, Volume 2, No, 2, 850-862. [13] Shaymaa A.M. Alhashimi and Ayad Sleibi Mustafa, (2012), “Prediction Of Water Quality Index For Euphrates River, Iraq”, International Journal of the Environment and water, Vol. 1, Issue 2, pp. 114-128. [14] Ahmad I. Khwakaram, Salih N. Majid and Nzar Y. Hama, 2012, “Determination Of Water Quality Index (Wqi) For Qalyasan Stream In Sulaimani City/ Kurdistan Region Of Iraq”, International Journal Of Plant, Animal And Environmental Sciences, Vol. 2, Issue 4, 148-157. [15] Radhwan K Abdul Halim and Mary K. Halim, (2012), “Status and New Developments on the Use of Brackish Water for Agricultural Production in the Near East”, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Regional Office for the Near East (RNE), Iraq Country Report. [16] Mohammed Abdulkhaleq Ibrahim, 2012, “Assessment of Water Quality Status for the Euphrates River in Iraq”, Eng. & Tech. Journal, Vol. 30, No. 14, 2536-2549. [17] Awatif Soaded Alsaqqar , Basim Hussein Khudair and Ali Abdullah Hasan, 2013, “ Application of Water Quality Index and Water Suitability for Drinking of the Euphrates River within Al-Anbar Province, Iraq”, Journal of Engineering, Volume 19, Number 12, 1619- 1633. [18] Shinde Deepak and Ningwal Uday Singh, 2013, “Water Quality Index for Ground Water (GWQI) of Dhar town, MP, India”, International Research Journal of Environment Sciences, Vol. 2(11), 72-77.
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 41-50 © IAEME 50 [19] Bhaven N. Tandel, Dr. JEM Macwan and Chirag Soni, 2011 , "Assessment of Water Quality Index (WQI) of small lake in South Gujarat region, India", International Conference on Ecological, Environmental and Biological Sciences , 235-237 ,Integrated Society for Engineering and Management. [20] Ministry of Environment– Department of Protect and Improve the Environment in the Middle Euphrates Region [21] Kadhim Naief Kadhim, “Feasibility of Blending Drainage Water With River Water For Irrigation In Samawa (IRAQ)” International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp. 22 - 32, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. [22] Kadhim Naief Kadhim, “Application of Inverse Routing Methods To Euphrates River (IRAQ)” International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 97 - 109, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. [23] R. S. Sapkal and Dr. S. S. Valunjkar, “Development and Sensitivity Analysis of Water Quality Index For Evaluation of Surface Water For Drinking Purpose” International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 119 - 134, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316 [24] Abdulmuhsin S. Shihab, Waleed M.Sh. Al-Abidrabah and Ahmad Kh. Ibrahim, “Statistical Analysis of Groundwater Quality Parameters In Selected Sites At Ninavah Governorate/ Iraq” International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 5, Issue 4, 2014, pp. 57 - 70, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316 [25] Nibedita Pattnayak, “Water Quality of Budhabalanga River In The Vicinity of Balasore Town By Correlation and Regression Method” International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 5, Issue 2, 2014, pp. 156 - 162, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499.