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    • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 375-382 © IAEME 375 ECOLOGY DIMENSION IN CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT C. Akin* *(Department of Civil Engineering, Hindustan Institute of Technology & Science, Chennai) ABSTRACT Construction engineering and management techniques are being integrated now-a-days with computing and internet being the catalyst for making this more and more popular. But many times the focus of this integration has been either cost or time or manpower. Recent times, environmental effects are getting prominent and people's awareness on the consequences of pollution is increasing. Keeping this in view the present paper focuses attention on introducing 'ecology' as a dimension in construction from two perspectives- one from energy and another from recycling. Energy consideration as one of the objectives in planning and execution and use of waste materials like fly ash or plastic wastes during construction are introduced in the construction and management model and a typical case study is given to demonstrate the idea and advantages. Keywords: Energy, Recycled Materials, Fly Ash, Quantity, Co2 Emission. 1.0 INTRODUCTION As an integrated system the construction engineering and management plays a major role for reducing cost, time and manpower. But recent times the environmental effects made people’s awareness towards the consequences of pollution. The focus here is introducing ecology as a dimension in construction management, specifically from two perspectives - one from the energy and the other from the recycling materials like fly ash. The Co2 emission is less in fly ash when compared to the regular building materials such as cement, bricks, etc. Perturbation in the global carbon cycle over the past century has exerted a serious influence on the global climatic change, leading to warmer temperatures, increased ice melts, especially in the polar region and rise in sea levels. It is now evident that the rise in Co2 concentration within the atmosphere is one of the main causes for the apparent rise in the average global temperature. India, being a fast developing country with high growth rate of industrial developing, is experiencing a dramatic rise in Co2 emissions and INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET) ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 375-382 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.9290 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCIET ©IAEME
    • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 375-382 © IAEME 376 has become the world’s fourth largest Co2 emitter in the world. The construction industry is one of the major sources of pollution. Construction-related activities account for quite a large portion of Co2 emissions. Contribution of building industry to global warming can no longer be ignored. Modern buildings consume energy in a number of ways. Energy consumption in buildings occurs in five phases. The five phases corresponds to the manufacturing of building materials and components, which is termed as embodied energy. The second and third phases correspond to the energy used to transport materials from production plants to the building site and the energy used in the actual construction of the building, which is respectively referred to as grey energy and induced energy. Fourthly, energy is consumed at the operational phase, which corresponds to the running of the building when it is occupied. Finally, energy is consumed in the demolition process of buildings as well as in the recycling of their parts. We have found the alternate construction technologies, which apart from reducing cost of construction by reduction of quantity of building materials through improved and innovative techniques or use of alternate low energy consuming materials, can play a great role in reduction of Co2 emission and thus helps in the protection of environment. 1.1 Objective and Scope The main objective of the present paper is to introduce the ‘ecology’ as a dimension in construction management. There are five dimensions in construction management such as man, money, material, machinery and management in which it is a regular type without considering the effects of environment and the living beings. Therefore, consider ecology as one of the dimension in construction management. The ecological management will be done by comparing the regular building materials such as cement, steel and concrete with the recycled materials such as fly ash or plastic wastes with cement, sand, steel and concrete. The quantity of materials and the Co2 emission are the two aspects which are compared for regular building and the recycled building. Therefore, this study aims to quantify energy and Co2 emission caused by a 46.2 m2 building units subjected to major construction materials consumed by the building. 2.0 METHODOLOGY 2.1 Use of recycled material - fly ash in India: Use of fly ash is mandatory for the Indian state government buildings from September 1, 2013. With fly ash accumulation emerging a big threat to environment, the State government has made mandatory for use of fly ash bricks in all government buildings located within a radius of 100 km of fly ash generating units. It had been made compulsory to meet 50 per cent of brick requirement in government buildings from fly ash bricks. In 2011-12, fly ash generation was 23.57 million tons per annum (mtpa). Of which 12.77 mtpa could be utilized in various sectors such as land filling, road construction, cement manufacturing and fly ash brick making. At present only 50 per cent of the fly ash generated from coal burning could be utilized, while the rest is stored in ash ponds. The cumulative accumulation of fly ash after its utilization stood at 93.86 mtpa (since the year 2000). Brick making constitutes only 3.25 per cent of the utilization, while bulk of the fly ash is being disposed of in land filling or mine void filling. The State government has been insisting on utilization of fly ash in brick making, but it had got little success. Finally, it came out a notification making it mandatory in the construction of government buildings. The use of fly ash for building construction is yet to be picked up in villages. People would follow once the fly ash bricks started to be used in construction of government buildings. Going by projection on thermal power generation in the State, the Odisha State Pollution Control Board (OSPCB) has predicted that fly ash generation may even touch 150 million ton per annum if all are installed and proposed thermal power plants go into full capacity production.
    • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 375-382 © IAEME 377 2.2 Co2 emission during production of construction materials Production of ordinary and readily available construction materials requires huge amounts of energy through burning of coal and oil, which in turn emit a large volume of green house gases. Reduction in this emission through alternate technologies/practices will be beneficial to the problem of global warming. To deal with this situation, it is important to accurately quantify the Co2 emission per unit of such materials. In India, the main ingredients of durable building construction are steel, cement, sand and brick. Emission from crude steel production in sophisticated plants is about 2.75 t carbon/t crude steel. We may take it as 3.00 t carbon/t of processed steel. The actual figure should be more, but is not available readily. Cement production is another high energy consuming process and it has been found that about 0.9 of Co2 is produced for 1 t of cement. Sand is a natural product obtained from river beds, which does not consume any energy, except during transport. Brick is one of the principle construction materials and the brick production industry is large in most Asian countries. It is also an important industry from the point of view of reduction of green house gas emissions as indicated from the very high coal consumption and the large scope that exists for increasing energy efficiencies of brick kilns. In a study by GEF in Bangladesh, an emission of 38 t of Co2 has been noted per lakh of brick production. 2.3 Case study on 46.2 m2 building: The 46.2 m2 building floor areas do not include public areas as corridors, staircases and parking areas. Fig. 2.3 shows the floor plan and the layout of the 46.2 m2 building unit. The materials for the construction include machinery, engineering materials, building construction materials and landscape architectural materials. The major construction materials are classified into three categories such as structural materials, finishing materials and equipment materials. There are thirteen different materials commonly used in the construction of building based on total mass. The structural materials include steel bar (reinforcing rod), ready-mix concrete and plywood mold. The finishing materials include concrete pile, room carpet (laminated paper finishing), tile, cement, clear glasses and plaster board. The equipment materials include copper pipes, plastic pipes, electric wires and lighting fixtures. The building is a 2BHK includes Kitchen-K, Living room-L, Bathroom-B, Bed room-R. Table 2.3 shows that the amount of major construction materials required for 46.2 m2 building unit. The dimension of the building is in millimeter (mm). Fig 2.3: Plan of 46.2 m2 building
    • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 375-382 © IAEME 378 Table 2.3: Amount of major construction materials required for 46.2 m2 building Materials units quantities Structural materials Concrete pile ea 3.1 Concrete kg 84,169.4 Steel bar kg 4173.1 Plywood mold kg 2536.1 Finishing materials Cement kg 1801.3 Tile m2 32.1 Clear glass m2 13.7 Plaster board Sheet 46.8 Carpet m2 46.9 Equipment materials Copper pipe kg 11.6 Plastic pipe m 126.6 Electric wire m 426.3 Lighting fixtures Set 8.7 3.0 ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 3.1 Analysis of quantity of energy required: The first aspect of ecology is the quantity of energy required for the regular as well as recycled building. For a regular building of the plan of 46.2 m2 , Fig. 3.1(a) shows the quantity of energy required for foundation level, wall level and the roof level. Let us take only cement, steel and concrete among all the thirteen different materials of different levels of the building. Therefore the estimated quantities of 46.2 m2 building will be cement - 1801.3 kg, steel – 4173.1 kg and concrete – 84,169.4 kg for a regular or virgin building. For recycled building of the plan of 46.2 m2 let us take fly ash as a recycled material added with cement and concrete. Fig. 3.1(b) shows that the quantity of energy required for different levels of building for foundation level, wall level and roof level. Therefore the estimated quantities of recycled building will be cement – 1080.65 kg, steel – 2503.65 kg, concrete – 50501.49 kg for the fly ash building or recycled building. Table 3.1 shows the energy required for different levels of building. In recycled building, the fly ash saves 40% of energy than the regular building. In regular building, 100% pure cement, reinforcement steel and concrete is used. But in recycled building only 60% of cement is used and remaining 40% is fly ash. Since fly ash has the property of high compressive strength, the size of the reinforcement steel can be reduced. Therefore 16 mm steel rod is reduced to 12 mm reinforcement steel rod and 12 mm is reduced to 8 mm reinforcement steel rod. In concrete, the composition will be 60% cement and remaining 40% fly ash is used, and 60% natural sand and 40% quarry dust is used, and 60% aggregate and remaining 40% demolition waste. Therefore, the quantity of energy required for Recycled building will be given as the quantity of energy required for Regular building x 60%. Energy required for Recycled building (kg) = Energy required for Regular building (kg) x 60%
    • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 375-382 © IAEME 379 Table 3.1: Energy required for Regular and Recycled building of 46.2 m2 Description Regular building (kg) Recycled building (kg) Foundation level Cement 900.65 540.325 Steel 1854.6 1112.7 Concrete 42084.7 25250.75 Wall level Cement 300.21 180.105 Steel 927.3 556.35 Concrete 14028.23 8416.91 Roof level Cement 600.44 360.22 Steel 1391 834.6 concrete 28056.46 16833.83 900.65 600.44 300.21 1854.6 927.3 1391 42084.7 14028.23 28056.46 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 Foundation level Wall level Roof level Quantity of Energy required for Regular building in Kg Buildinglevels concrete steel cement Fig 3.1(a): Energy required for Regular building Fig 3.1(b): Energy required for Recycled building The comparison of the regular building and recycled building from the Fig 3.1(a) and Fig 3.1(b) shows that the quantity of the energy required for the 46.2 m2 building is low in the recycled
    • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 375-382 © IAEME 380 building of all building levels than the regular building. Fig 3.2(c) shows the result of quantity of energy required for both regular and recycled building. Fig 3.1(c): Comparison of Energy required for both Regular and Recycled building 3.2 Co2 emission analysis results This is the other aspect of ecology in construction management. The Co2 emission of cement is 0.32 kg-Co2/kg, steel bar is 3.51 kg-Co2/kg and concrete is 0.07 kg-Co2/kg. The area of 46.2 m2 , the embodied energy was about 6.3 ton of oil equivalent (TOE), and Co2 emission was assessed to be 24.3 ton-Co2. For regular building, Fig 3.2 shows the result of the assessment for Co2 emissions in 46.2 m2 building. The Co2 emission of regular building in cement is 576.416 kg-Co2 (1801.3 x 0.32), steel is 14647.581 kg-Co2 (4173.1 x 3.51) and concrete is 5891.858 kg-Co2 (84,169.4 x 0.07). For recycled building, Fig 3.2 shows the result of the assessment for Co2 emissions in 46.2 m2 building. The Co2 emission of recycled building in cement is 345.808 kg-Co2 (1080.65 x 0.32), steel is 8787.8115 kg-Co2 (2503.65 x 3.51) and concrete is 3535.1043 kg-Co2 (50501.49 x 0.07). Fig 3.2: Co2 emission analysis result
    • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 375-382 © IAEME 381 The comparison of the regular building and recycled building from the Fig 3.2 shows that the Co2 emission of 46.2 m2 building is low in the recycled building than the regular building. 4. CONCLUSION The ecological dimension of construction management is done by considering the quantity of energy and Co2 emission where recycled building with fly ash consumes less energy and less Co2 emission. Now it is the task of construction project managers and engineers of our country to popularize the technology, so that India can significantly contribute to reduction in Co2 emission and saves energy from its huge and rapidly growing construction sector. For reducing Co2 emission, and its various potential effects on the earth, various building technology and construction materials have been developed and applied into fieldwork. For these reasons, it is important to secure substantial data on Co2 emissions in the building sector in order to efficiently respond to the demands of the UNFCCC. Through this effort, greenhouse gas reduction plans in the building sector should be established and performed. We have solutions in hand to reduce global warming. We should act now through use of clean and innovative eco-friendly technologies, and evolve policies to encourage their adoption by the statutory bodies to stop global warming. Along with other key sectors, this relatively ignored construction technology sector can also play a major role in reduction of Co2 emission and mitigate global warming. Hence ecology dimension plays a major role in construction management. REFERENCE 1. Kempton, “W. Will Public Environmental Concern Lead to Action on Global Warming? ”, Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 18, (1993): 217-245. 2. Report, “Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center”, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA; Retrieved from www.cdiac.ornl.gov 3. Gunter, W. D., Perkins, E.H. and McCann, T.J., “Aquifer disposal of Co2 rich gases: Reaction design for added capacity”, Energy Convers. Manage, 1993, 34, 941-948. 4. Geologic storage of carbon dioxide with monitoring and verification, “In Carbon dioxide Capture for storage in Deep Geologic Formations” - Results from the Co2 Capture Project, Vol. 2 (ed. Benson, S. M.), Elsevier, UK, 2005, pp. 665-672. 5. Oldenburg, C. M., Stevens, S. H. and Benson, S. M., “Economic feasibility of carbon sequestration (CSEGR) with enhanced gas recovery”. Energy, 2004, 29, 1413-1422. 6. Fly ash is mandatory in India. Retrieved from http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp- national/tp-otherstates/use-of-fly-ash-bricks-for-state-buildings-made- mandatory/article4940089.ece 7. Vasudevan, D. and Rao, T. M., “The high grade schistose rocks of the Nellore schist belt”, Andhra Pradesh and their geologic evolution. Indian Mineral., 1975, 16, 43-47, 8. Radhakrishna, B.P. and Vaidyanadhan, R., “Geology of Karnataka”, Geological Society of India, Bangalore, 1997, pp.15-140. 9. Farouk Saif Yahya Ahmed, “Construction Project and Change Order Management: Contemporary Affirmation of the Recent Literature and Future Research Directions”, International Journal of Management (IJM), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 135 - 144, ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSN Online: 0976-6510. 10. Radhakrishna, B. P., Archean granite-greenstone terrain of the South Indian Shield. “In Precambrian of South India, Proceedings of the First Indo-US Workshop”, 12-14 January 1982, Hyderabad, Geological Society of India, Bangalore, 1983, Mem. 4, pp. 5-29. 11. Energy efficiency, http://beeindia.in/content.php?page=schemes/schemes.php?id=3
    • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 375-382 © IAEME 382 12. Rogers, J. J. W. and Giral, R. A., “The Indian Shield, Greenstone Belts (eds De Wet, M. and Ashwel, L. D.)”, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1997, pp.620-635. 13. Shaik Abdul Khader Jeelani, Dr. J.Karthikeyan and Dr. Adel S.Aldosary, “Performance Evaluation of Design-Build (D-B) Projects with and without Agency Construction Management”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 265 - 278, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 14. Properties of fly ash, retrieved from http://www.flyash.com/flyashenvironment.asp 15. Verma, R. K., Gravity Field, “Seismicity and Tectonics of Indian Peninsula & Himalayas”, Oxford Publishers, UK, 1991, p.66. 16. Ch.Mahesh and K.Sridevi, “Implementing Eichelay Formula in Govt. Construction Projects” International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 63 - 72, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 17. Kump, L. R., Brantley, S. L. and Arthur, M. A., “Chemical weathering, atmosphere Co2 and climate. Annu”. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 2000, 28, 611-667. 18. Kojima, T., Nagamina, A., Ueno, N. and Uemiya, S., “Absorption and fixation of carbon dioxide by rock weathering”. Energy Convers. Manage. Suppl., 1997, 38, S461-S466. 19. Anand, M. “Cost-Benefit Analysis of Energy Efficient Measures in Residential Construction”, M.S. Thesis, Arizona State University, 1999.