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  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 97-105 © IAEME 97 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE PERFORMANCE OF POROUS ASPHALT MIXTURE WITH FIBER STABILISATION Muh. Nashir T1 , Herman Parung2 , Nur Ali3 , Tri Harianto4 1 Doctoral Student Graduate School of Civil Engineering Department Hasanuddin University 2,3, 4 Lecturer of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hasanuddin University ABSTRACT The road surface layer with open graded mixture (porous asphalt mixture) has been developed in order to allow water to pass through the pores in the pavement to drain into the sewer. The porous asphalt mixture provides more pores capable of storing more asphalt which will provide more pliability for asphalt concrete. The study aims to investigate the performance of pavement of porous asphalt mixture using petroleum asphalt (pen.60/70) and polymer modified binder stabilised with polypropylene. The use of both types of asphalt mixed with polypropylene is to make it more viscous as to thicken the laminating cover of the surface which will serve as hinges that would secure better layer pliability. The analysis of the performance of porous asphalt mixture was carried out with Marshall Method andparameter tests such stability, cantabro loss, porosity, permeability, and binder drain down and (new to the study) penetration index. The study reveals that the value of stability of the polymer asphalt mixture is 833.78 kg, higher than that of the petroleum asphalt which is 685.85 kg and the cantabro loss (CL)value is 11.62%, lower than that of the petroleum asphalt which is 13.15%. The study concludes that the performance of porous asphalt mixed with polymer experience a significant increase compared to that of petroleum asphalt (pen 60/70) and the polypropylene fiber addition to both mixtures shows an increase in asphalt penetration index with positive value of IP causing the asphalt possessing good stiffness modulus index and resistant to plastic deformation. Keywords: Porous Asphalt Mixture, Polymer, Polypropylene. 1. INTRODUCTION The construction of the pavement of porous asphalt mixture is one of the alternatives of flexible pavement allowing water to penetrate vertically and horizontally the surface layer then channels them through the pavement drainage. Open gradation provides tolerance in each amount INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET) ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 97-105 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 3.7120 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCIET ©IAEME
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 97-105 © IAEME 98 and size of stone so as to result in pores and better pliability (Suhartono, 2010). Porous asphalt mixture is a specifically planned mixture for road pavement when applied in the field sooner after the spreading and hardening may contain pores between 15 to 25%. Larger percentage of pores constitutes the drainage network in the pavement layer to drain water to the side channels.Such mixture has been developed in several countries to provide safety and convenience when driving. National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA) in 2003 had promoted Open Graded Friction Course (OGFC) as a new generation of flexible pavement. The study indicates a good result with pore content of 18%. Porous asphalt mixture has a lot of advantages for the road users and the environment such as drainage function and safety road travel (Sugeng B., 2003). According to Setiawan (2005) asphalt porous mixture of pavement layer is open graded spread on water proof asphalt layer. This porous asphalt layer can provide safety effectively particularly during the rainy season to prevent aquaplaning. Besides, porous asphalt layer better surface roughness which will reduce noise. Porous asphalt mixture has an excellent absorptive function supported by its porosity nature therefore there should be a specific study on its absorption capacity. (Nur Ali, 2012). Kuijpers A. and Bolkland V.(2000) carried out a study of optimum modelling of porous asphalt pavement which was capable of reducing noise 1 to 2 dB(A).The porous asphalt pavement in the road section of Ezeiza – Canuelas, Argentina in 2001 used open graded maximum size of aggregate 19mm resulting in pores between 22% – 25%, while the hydraulic conductivity was far better reducing surface noise and a high friction properties (Pablo. E.B, 2001). The same study has been carried out by Raaberg J, et al (2002). The problem with porous asphalt pavement lies in structural value of the pavement such as low stability value as compared to solid pavement. The efforts to increase the strength ofporous asphalt pavement completeness to made one of them is by fiber stabilisation of the porous asphalt pavement. The type and size of fiber have to be modifiable to increase the performance of the stability of the mixture and to hinder the speed of crackingpavement. The fiber materials in the road pavement are believed by some researchers to be able to increase the pavement’s performance. Jiang et al conducting a study in 1993 stated that polypropylene was capable of reducing reflective crack in asphalt pavement. The study in general used fiber in the pavement with tight gradation therefore it is possible to use fiber in porous asphalt mixture. II. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Open Graded Porous Asphalt Pavement with open graded porous asphalt mixture has been introduced in several countries, most of all in the United States of America. Iowa Stormwater Management(2009) and UNHC (2007) recommended gradation of OGFC (open graded fraction course) as seen in Table 1. Table 1. Gradation of Porous Asphalt Mixture Source : Iowa Stormwater Management (2009) Sieve Size Gradation (%pass) ¾ - 19,0 mm 100 ½ - 12,7 mm 85-100 3/8 - 9,5 mm 55-75 No.4 / 4,75 mm 10-25 No.8 / 2,36 mm 5-10 No.200/0,075 mm 2-4
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 97-105 © IAEME 99 2.2. The Performance of Porous Asphalt Mixture The performance of porous asphalt mixture is obtained though Marshall Test covering the performance of stability, Marshall Quotient, and Marshall Immersion as seen in Table 2: Table 2. Marshall Performance Standard of Porous Asphalt Mixture Performance Standard Stability > 500 Flow 2-6 mm Void in Mix 10% - 25% Marshal Quotient >200 kg/mm Source : Specification for porous asphalt, Australian road standard, 2002 The standard required is related to the standard functional performance of porous asphalt mixture as seen in Table 3: Table 3. Specification Standardof Porous Asphalt Criteria Standard Permeability > 0,01 cm/second Porosity 10-30% Cantabro Loss <15% Binder Drain Down <0,3% Source: Specification for porous asphalt, Australian road standard, 2002 III. STUDY RESULT 3.1 The Aggregate Test Result The test result of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, and stone ash fulfils the specification standard therefore they are usable for the mixture of porous asphalt whose recapitulation can be seen in Table 4: Tabel 4. Recapitulation of Aggregate Characteristic Test Result No Characteristics Test Standard Requirements Result Remark A. Coarse Aggregate 1 Water Absorption SNI 03-1969-1990 max. 3% 1,76% Sufficient 2 Specific Gravity SNI 03-1970-1990 min. 2.5gr/cc 2,612 Sufficient 3 Abrasion Los Angeles Machine SNI 03-2417-1991 max. 40% 21,63% Sufficient 4 Aggregate Stickiness against Asphalt SNI 03-2439-1991 min. 95% 98% sufficient 5 Lamellar Particles ASTM D-4791 max. 25% 18,93% Sufficient B. Fine Aggregate 1 Water Absorption SNI 03-1969-1990 max. 3% 2,43% Sufficient 2 Specific Gravity SNI 03-1970-1990 min. 2.5 2,548 Sufficient 3 Sand Equivalent Value AASHTO T-176 min. 50% 74,51% Sufficient C. Stone Ash 1 Specific Gravity SNI 03-970-1990 - 2,528 Sufficient View slide
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 97-105 © IAEME 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 %PASSING NUMBER OF SIEVE GRAFIC COMBINED OF AGGREGATE POROUS ASPHALT From the result of aggregate combination comes the graph that fulfils the existing tolerant limits. On the result of the gradation design is performed mix design and test bricket is established with asphalt content variations of 4.5% to 6.5%. Figure 1. Combined Gradation 3.2. The Test Result of Asphalt Physical Characteristics The asphalt materials used in the study are petroleum-based asphalt pen.60/70 and Grade E- 55 type of polymer asphalt. The sensitivity of asphalt against the changing temperature can be easily identifiable when the characteristics of asphalt are expressed in penetration index (PI). The PI value of asphalt is between -3 and +7. The asphalt with high PI value will result in asphalt mixture which has stiffness and resistance modulus against high deformation. (Shell, 1995). The complete result of the asphalt 60/70 and polymer tests can be seen in the following Table 5 and 6: Table 5. Physical Test Result of Asphalt 60/70 Penetration No Test Polypropylene Fiber Variation (%) Asphalt Modification Requirement Remark 0% 0,50% 1% 1. Penetration before Weight Loss 64,6 67,4 71,7 50-80 0,1 mm 2. Softening Point 49,54 48 48,5 Min. 48 °C 3. Dactility (25°C, 5 cm/minute) 150 128,5 100,5 Min. 50 cm 4. Solubility in Triclor Ethylene(C2HCL3) 99,57 99,27 99,03 Min. 99 %heavy 5. Nayala Point(COC) 297,27 284,77 282 Min. 225 °C 6. Specific Gravity 1,033 1,0333 1,0299 Min. 1,0 7. Weight loss 163°C, 5 jam (TFOT) 0,31 0,07 0,09 Max. 0,8 % Original 8. Penetration after Weight Loss 78,79 82,01 73,91 Min. 54 % Original 9. Ductility after Weight Loss 82 56,09 51,74 Min. 50 % View slide
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 97-105 © IAEME 101 Table6. The Test Result of Polymer Asphalt(grade E-55) No Test Polypropylene Fiber Variation(%) Require- ment 0% 0,50% 1% 1. Penetration Before Weight Loss (mm) 60,7 62,1 65,7 50-80 2. Softening Point 53 52 51 Min. 50 3. Ductility (25°C, 5 cm/minute) 150 150 134 Min. 50 4. Solubility Triclor Ethylene(C2HCL3) 99,55 99,12 99,76 Min. 99 5. Nayala Point (COC) 320,88 312,55 287,55 Min. 225 6. Specific Gravity 1,038 1,04 1,042 Min. 1,0 7. Weight Loss163°C, 5jam (TFOT) 0,02 0,212 0,428 Max. 0,8 8. Penetration after weight loss 82,7 82,61 82,34 >54% 9. Ductility after weight loss 96% 94,66% 85,05% Min. 54 Tables 5 and 6 reveal the result of physical tests of petroleum-based asphalt 60/70 and polymer asphalt. They indicate that the results have fulfilled the standard of the existing specifications. Both types of asphalt can be used in the porous asphalt mixture or open graded. 3.3. Penetration Index (PI) Analysis The penetration index in Figure 2 is -0.60 in 100% content of petroleum-based asphalt (no added fiber) while in the fiber-added variation in Figure 3 the penetration index changes to -0.50. In Figure 4, Polymer asphalt with 1% fiber added indicates a penetration index of +0.20. The results prove that the penetration index is positive and that the performance of the asphalt shows stiffness and endurance moduli against deformation. Figure 2. PI Petroleum Asphalt Figure 3. PI Petroleum Asphalt (fiber 0%) (fiber 1%)
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 Stabilility(kg) Permeability (cm/dt) 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 0 5 10 15 20 25 Stability(kg) Porosity (%) Figure 4. PI 3.4. Comparison of the type of asphalt The performance of porous asphalt pavement measured from several parameters such as stability, permeability, cantabro loss, and required. Figure 5 to 13 show comparison of type asphalt (asphalt pe.60/70, asphal pen.60/70 + 1% fiber and polymer asphalt + 1% fiber) on standard Figure 5. Stability vs Permeability Figure 7. Stability vs Porosity International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 97-105 © IAEME 102 0.35 0.40 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 0 5 10 15 20 Stability(kg) Cantabro Loss (%) 25 30 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0 5 10 15 20 Permeability(cm/dt) Porosity (%)) PI Polymer Asphalt (optimum fiber 1%) of asphalt used on standard parameters of porous asphalt The performance of porous asphalt pavement measured from several parameters such as cantabro loss, and binder drain down has to fulfil standard specification as 5 to 13 show comparison of type asphalt (asphalt pe.60/70, asphal pen.60/70 + 1% fiber and polymer asphalt + 1% fiber) on standard parameters of porous asphalt mixture. Stability vs Permeability Figure 6. Stability vs Cantabro loss Stability vs Porosity Figure 8. Permeability vs Porosity International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), 25 30 25 30 asphalt mixture The performance of porous asphalt pavement measured from several parameters such as has to fulfil standard specification as 5 to 13 show comparison of type asphalt (asphalt pe.60/70, asphal pen.60/70 + 1% mixture. Cantabro loss Permeability vs Porosity
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 97-105 © IAEME 103 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 BinderDrainDown(%) Porosity (%)) 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 BinderDrainDown(%) Permeability (cm/dt) Petroleum Asphalt Petroleum Asphalt + Fiber 1% Polymer Asphalt + Fiber 1% Limit Standard Specification Polymer Asphalt 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 CantabroLoss(%) Porositas (%) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 CantabroLoss(%) Permeabilitas (cm/dt) 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 BinderDrainDown(%) Cantabro Loss (%) Polymer Asphalt + fiber 1% Petroleum Asphalt + Fiber 1% Petroleum Asphalt Limit Standard Specification Polymer Asphalt Figure 9. BDD vs Porosity Figure 10. BDD vs Permeability Figure 11. Cantabro loss vs Porosity Figure 12. CL vs Permeability Figure 13. Binder drain down vs Cantabro loss In Figure 5, the relationship between stability and permeability standard parameter fulfils all bonding materials both petroleum-based asphalt and polymer one, with a minimal stability standard of 500 kg and minimal permeability standard of 0.1 cm/second. From such relationship it can be said that the type of binder material of polymer asphalt added with polypropylene 1% provides a high
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 97-105 © IAEME 104 stability value compared to petroleum-based asphalt penetration 60/70. In Figure 6, the relationship between the parameter of cantabro loss and the one of stability indicates that the type of polymer asphalt added with 1% polypropylene fiber gives a stability value of > 500 kg and better cantabro loss than any other asphalt type. This is because polymer asphalt has far better power of interlocking in the aggregate. The cantabro loss value in polymer asphalt with 4.5% asphalt content is not met because of the lack of asphalt content in the aggregate mixture. The relationship of the parameters in Figure 7 between stability and porosity fulfils all the existing standards required by the study. This indicates that the mixture of petroleum-based asphalt and polymer one with open graded used with coarser aggregate providing grater space among aggregates. The objective of using porous asphalt is therefore met. The relationship between porosity andbinder drain down in Figure 9 as well asthe relationship between the permeability and binder drain down in Figure 10, indicate that both petroleum-based asphalt and polymer asphalt meet the existing standard. This proves that with sufficient pores in the mixture, water will penetrate through the pavement. The sufficient pores also allow asphalt to cover all aggregate in the mixture with binder drain down standard value no more than 0.3%. In Figure 11, the parameter relationship between cantabro loss and porosity shows that the polymer asphalt type is far better than the petroleum-based asphalt of 60/70 penetration, although asphalt content of 4.5% is not recommended due to its high cantabro loss value. This may be so because the less the asphalt content is and the more the pores exist, the higher the cantabro loss value will be. In Figure 12, the relationship between cantabro loss and permeability parameters as well as cantabro-loss and binder drain down in Figure 13 in terms of polymer asphalt, they both have sufficiently good values but not recommended for 4.5% asphalt content. 3.5. Porous Asphalt Performance in an Optimum Condition The comparison of the performance of porous asphalt mixture of two different types of asphalt (petroleum-based and polymer) being stabilised with optimum fiber of 1% and an optimum asphalt content of 5.75% can be seen in Table 7: Table 7. The comparison of the performance of porous asphalt mixture of different types of asphalt Asphalt Polypropylene Asphalt Porous Asphalt Mixture Paramaters Type Fiber (%) Content (%) Porosity (%) Permeability (cm/sec) BDD (%) Stability (kg) Cantabro Loss (%) Petroleum- based Asphalt Optimum (1) 5,75 16,28 0,175 0,140 685,85 13,15 Polymer Asphalt Optimum (1) 5,75 16,18 0,157 0,091 833,78 11,62 Table 7 shows that the performance of porous asphalt with polymer stabilised with polypropylene fiber is much better particularly of the stability value which significantly increases and Similarly, the cantabro loss value which tends to decrease in the use of polymer asphalt. IV. CONCLUSION The parameter test of the porous pavement mixture using petroleum asphalt and modified polymer asphalt stabilised with polypropylene fiber can be concluded as follow: a. The polymer porous asphalt mixture experiences a significant increase in its performance compared to petroleum-based asphalt (pen. 60/70). b. The use of polymer asphalt stabilized polypropylene fiber will increase the value of the strength of the mixture is characterized by the increased value of the stability of the mixture and the decrease of the cantabro loss value.
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 97-105 © IAEME 105 c. The use of polypropylene fiber in both petroleum-based asphalt and polymer shows an increase in the asphalt penetration index causing the asphalt have stiffness modulus and resistance to deformation. d. The value of penetration index is an important factor in determining the performance of the strength on porous asphalt mixture. V. REFERENCE [1] AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials). Standard Specifications for Transportation Materials and Methods of Sampling and Testing Part I: Specifications, 19th edition, Washington, 1998. [2] Australian Road Standard, Specifications for Porous Asphalt, Australia, 2002. [3] Iowa Stromwater Mangement, Manual Porous Asphalt Pavement, Iowa, 2009. [4] Jiang, Yi., Rebecca S., Mc Daniel. Application of Cracking and Seating and Use of Fibers to Control Reflection Cracking. Transportation Research Record, 1993, 1388 p 150-159. [5] Kuijipers A., and Bolkland V.G. Modeling and Optimization of Two-Layer Porous Asphalt Roads. Hertogenbosh. Netherlans, 2000. [6] National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA). Design, Construction, and Maintenance of Open-Graded Asphalt Friction Courses, NAPA IS-115. Latham, M.D, 2003. [7] Nur Ali, Experimental Study on Effects Flood Puddle to Durability of Asphaltic Concrete Containing Refined Butonic Asphalt, Procedings of the Asia Society for Tansportation Studies, Vol. 8., 2011. [8] Raberg J. et all, Permeability of Double-Layer Porous Asphalt Pavement, Port AV 1525. Revideret 4, Denmarks. 2002. [9] Sarwono D., dan A.K. Wardhani. Measurement of Permeability Properties of Porous Asphalt Mixture, Journal Media Teknik Sipil, UNS, Surakarta, 2007/131. [10] Setyawan Ary, Sanusi. Various Porous Asphalt Properties Observation Gradient with Local Materials, Journal Media Teknik Sipil. Surakarta, 2008. [11] Shell, The Shell Bitumen Industrial Handbook, Shell Bitumen, UK, 1995. [12] Sugeng B., et al. Laboratory Performance of Porous Asphalt Mixture Using Tafpack Super, Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 5, 2009. ]13] Soehartono. Asphalt Technology and Construction of Road Pavement, PT. Mediatama Sapta karya, Jakarta, 2010. [14] UNHSC, Design Specifications for Porous Asphalt Pavement and Infiltration Beds. University of New Hampshire, USA, 2007. [15] M.Satyakumar, R.Satheesh Chandran and M.S. Mahesh, “Influence of Mineral Fillers on the Properties of Hot Mix Asphalt”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp. 99 - 110, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. [16] Dr. Talal H. Fadhil, Salah S. Jasim, Dr. Kahlil E. Aziz and Ahmed S. Ahmed, “Influence of using White Cement Kiln Dust as a Mineral Filler on Hot Asphalt Concrete Mixture Properties”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 87 - 96, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.