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20320140501014 2

  1. 1. International Journal JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH Technology (IJARET), INTERNATIONAL of Advanced Research in Engineering and IN ENGINEERING ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSNAND – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 0976 TECHNOLOGY (IJARET) ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print) ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), pp. 123-137 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJARET ©IAEME HIGHLY SECURED CIPHERED - WATERMARKED BIOMEDICAL IMAGES Ali E. Taki El_Deen1, Mohy E. Abo-Elsoud2, Salma M. Saif3 1 2 (IEEE senior member, Alexandria University, Egypt) (IEEE senior member, Electronics and Communications Dept, Mansoura University, Egypt) 3 (Electronics and Communications Dept, Mansoura University, Egypt) ABSTRACT With the rapid development of digital technology, the treatments for digital data such as copyright protection and ownership demonstration are becoming more and more of greater importance. This paper presents two forms of data protection; digital watermarking and cryptography. Digital watermarking is used to enhance medical images security. The proposed system used is cryptography with watermarking in order to provide high security. In this paper a digital watermarking using LSB or DWT or DWT-SVD-DCT methods is used and then encrypting the result using AES encryption algorithm. The experimental results are evaluated with respect to mean square error, peak signal-to-noise ratio, correlation coefficient, and watermark-to-document ration. It’s known that the LSB is one of the best ways to achieve the data hiding requirements and authentication in medical images. Keywords: AES, Cryptography, Digital Watermarking, DWT, DWT-SVD-DCT, LSB. 1. INTRODUCTION Multimedia contents are easily spread over the Internet. Due to the ease of delivery and modification of digital files, the copyrights might be infringed upon. To deal with this problem, digital rights management (DRM) systems can prevent users from using such contents illegally. In DRM systems, encryption and robust watermarking are two major schemes for applications [1]. 123
  2. 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Digital watermarking is a technology that embeds information, in machine-readable form, within the content of a digital media file. By extracting these secret messages, it can protect the copyright of and provide authentication to digital media [2]. Cryptography is the science of secret writing with the goal of hiding the meaning of a message [6]. This paper is organized as follow: Section (2) provides background about watermarking. Section (3) presents cryptography. Section (4) provides the discussion of the experimental results. Finally the paper is concluded in Section (5). 2. WATERMARKING Digital watermarking techniques derive from steganography, which means covered writing (from the Greek words stegano or “covered” and graphos or “to write”). Steganography is the science of communicating information while hiding the existence of the communication. The goal of steganography is to hide an information message inside harmless messages in such a way that it is not possible even to detect that there is a secret message presents [3]. Some general and very common watermarking requirements [4]: 1. The watermark should be accessible only to the authorized users. This issue is referred as security of the watermarking procedure and it is generally achieved by using cryptographic keys (Security). 2. The watermark detect ability should be assured regardless of the conventional signal processing or malicious attacks that may be applied (Robustness). 3. Generally, although one should provide an irremovable watermark, it should be imperceptible within the host data (Perceptual transparency). 4. The watermark should convey a sufficient amount of information. We are going to work on digital image watermarking in both spatial and transformed domain and our consideration will be the generation of imperceptible and robust watermark. Applications of Watermarking [5]: 1. Content labeling and hidden annotations. 2. Broadcast monitoring. 3. Integrity control. 4. Data hiding. 5. Device control. 124
  3. 3. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Types of watermarking: According to working domain Spatial domain Ex.: LSB, CDMA, Correlation Transformed domain Ex.: DCT, DWT Watermarking According to type of document Text Image Audio Video According to human perception Fragile Visible Semi - fragile Invisible Robust Figure 1: Types of watermarking 3. CRYPTOGRAPHY Cryptography is the science of keeping secrets secret [7]. The fundamental objective of cryptography is to enable two people, usually referred to as Alice and Bob, to communicate over an insecure channel in such a way that an opponent, Oscar, cannot understand what is being said. This channel could be a telephone line or computer network, for example [8]. Cryptography can be used to provide [9]: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Privacy or confidentiality: keeping information secret from all but those who are authorized to see it. Data integrity: ensuring information has not been altered by unauthorized or unknown means. Entity authentication or identification: corroboration of the identity of an entity (e.g., a person, a computer terminal, a credit card, etc.). Message authentication: corroborating the source of information; also known as data origin authentication. Non-repudiation: preventing the denial of previous commitments or actions. 125
  4. 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Types of cryptography: DES Symmetric Key AES Block ciphers Blowfish Stream ciphers RC4 RC6 A5 Cryptography RSA ElGamal Asymmetric Key ECC Diffi-Hellman Figure 2: Types of cryptography We are going to encrypt the image using AES encryption algorithm after watermarking it. We will work on biomedical images but our work can cover many other fields such as space community, military applications, and mobile systems. 4. WORKING AREA Cryptography is the most common method of protecting digital content and is one of the best developed sciences. However, encryption cannot help the seller monitor how a legitimate customer handles the content after decryption. Digital watermarking can protect content even after it is decrypted. I. Least Significant Bit: 1. Using LSB and 128- bits AES: LSB method selects a number of pixels from the cover image, and modifies their luminance to carry watermark bits [10]. The embedding of the watermark is performed choosing a subset of image pixels and substituting the least significant bit or bits of each of the chosen pixels with watermark bits. Extraction of the watermark is performed by extracting the least significant bit of each of the selected image pixels. 126
  5. 5. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME A. Watermarking using LSB: Figure 3: Original image, original watermark, and watermarked image B. Encryption and decryption using 128-bits Advanced Encryption Standard (AES): AES is a symmetric-key block cipher. AES operates on 128-bit data blocks and accepts 128-, 192-, and 256-bit keys. It is an iterative cipher, which means that both encryption and decryption consist of multiple iterations of the same basic round function. In each round, a different round (or internal) key is being used. In AES, the number of cipher rounds depends on the size of the key. It is equal to 10, 12, or 14 for 128-, 192-, or 256-bit keys, respectively [11]. AES encryption round employs consecutively four main operations: Sub Bytes, Shift Rows, Mix Columns, and Add Round Key. The inverse transformations are called InvSubBytes, InvShift Rows, InvMix Columns, and InvAddRoundKey. Please note that the last transformation of an encryption round, Add Round Key, is equivalent to a bitwise XOR and therefore is an inverse of itself [11]. The whole encryption and decryption block diagrams of AES algorithm are showed in figure 4. The whole operations are presented in figures 5, 6, and 7. Figure 8 shows the watermarked image, the encrypted – watermarked image, and the recovered watermarked image. Figure 4: AES block diagram 127
  6. 6. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Figure 5: Byte substitution process Figure 6: ShiftRows and its inverse processes Figure 7: Mixcolumns operation with its matrix Figure 8: Watermarked image, encrypted – watermarked image, and recovered watermarked image 128
  7. 7. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME C. Watermark recovery Figure 9: Recovered watermarked image and recovered watermark 2. Using LSB and 192- bits AES: A. Watermarking using LSB: Figure 10: Original image, original watermark, and watermarked image B. Encryption and decryption using 192-bits AES: Figure 11: Watermarked image, encrypted – watermarked image, and recovered watermarked image C. Watermark recovery: Figure 12: Recovered watermarked image and recovered watermark 3. Using LSB and 256- bits AES: A. Watermarking using LSB: Figure 13: Original image, original watermark, and watermarked image 129
  8. 8. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME B. Encryption and decryption using 256-bits AES: Figure 14: Watermarked image, encrypted – watermarked image, and recovered watermarked image C. Watermark recovery: Figure 15: Recovered watermarked image and recovered watermark II. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT): In this technique we will perform watermarking of the input image by decomposing the image using haar wavelet. 1. Using DWT and 128- bits AES: A. Watermarking using DWT: Figure 16: Original image, original watermark, and watermarked image B. Encryption and decryption using 128-bits AES: Figure 17: Watermarked image, encrypted – watermarked image, and recovered watermarked image 130
  9. 9. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME C. Watermark recovery: Figure 18: Recovered watermarked image and recovered watermark 2. Using DWT and 192- bits AES: A. Watermarking using DWT: Figure 19: Original image, original watermark, and watermarked image B. Encryption and decryption using 192-bits AES: Figure 20: Watermarked image, encrypted – watermarked image, and recovered watermarked image C. Watermark recovery: Figure 21: Recovered watermarked image and recovered watermark 3. Using DWT and 256- bits AES: A. Watermarking using DWT: Figure 22: Original image, original watermark, and watermarked image 131
  10. 10. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME B. Encryption and decryption using 256-bits AES: Figure 23: Watermarked image, encrypted – watermarked image, and recovered watermarked image C. Watermark recovery: Figure 24: Recovered watermarked image and recovered watermark III. Combined DWT-DCT-SVD Digital Image Watermarking: SVD is a numerical technique used to diagonalize matrices in numerical analysis. It is an algorithm developed for a variety of applications. Matrix M is decomposed into three sub matrices [u, s, v] such that: ; (1) Where U and V are the orthogonal matrices such that Ux UT = I and V×VT= I where I is the identity matrix and S is the diagonal matrix (S1, S2, S3…SN). These values are known as singular values, and matrices U and V are known as corresponding singular vectors. 1. Using DWT-DCT-SVD and 128- bits AES: A. Watermarking using DWT-DCT-SVD: Figure 25: Original image, original watermark, and watermarked image B. Encryption and decryption using 128-bits AES: Figure 26: Watermarked image, encrypted – watermarked image, and recovered watermarked image 132
  11. 11. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME C. Watermark recovery: Figure 27: Recovered watermarked image and recovered watermark 2. Using DWT-DCT-SVD and 192- bits AES: A. Watermarking using DWT-DCT-SVD: Figure 28: Original image, original watermark, and watermarked image B. Encryption and decryption using 192-bits AES: Figure 29: Original image, original watermark, and watermarked image C. Watermark recovery: Figure 30: Recovered watermarked image and recovered watermark 3. Using DWT-DCT-SVD and 256- bits AES: A. Watermarking using DWT-DCT-SVD: Figure 31: Original image, original watermark, and watermarked image 133
  12. 12. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME B. Encryption and decryption using 256-bits AES: Figure 32: Watermarked image, encrypted – watermarked image, and recovered watermarked image C. Watermark recovery: Fig 33: Recovered watermarked image and recovered watermark 5. MEASURING IMPERCEPTIBILITY An important way of evaluating watermarking algorithms is to compare the amount of distortion introduced into a host image by a watermarking algorithm. In our study, the widely used methods are mean square error, peak signal to noise ratio, correlation coefficients, and watermark to document ratio. 1. Mean Square Error: (2) Where: • (M, N) are the image dimensions, • X(i, j) is the pixel value of original (host) image • X'(i, j) is the pixel value of the watermarked image. 2. Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio: PSNR in decibels (dB) is represented as shown: (3) 134
  13. 13. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Where: • MSE is the mean square error between the original image and the watermarked image. • MAX is the maximum pixel value of the image which is equal to 255 in our implementations since pixels were represented using 8 bits per sample. 3. Correlation Coefficients: The correlation factor measures the similarity between the original watermark and the watermark extracted from the attacked watermarked image (robustness). It take values between 0 (random relationship) to 1 (perfect linear relationship). The correlation factor is computed as follow: (4) Where: • (N) is number of pixel of the image, • (Xi) is the pixel value of the original image, • ( X ) is the average of all pixels value of the original image, • (Yi) is the pixel value of the modified image, • ( Y ) is the average of all pixels value of the modified image. 4. Watermark-to-Document Ratio (WDR): (5 ) Where: • (M, N) are the image dimensions, • X(i, j) is the pixel value of the original image, • X'(i, j) is the pixel value of the watermarked image. Figure 34: PSNR and WDR 135
  14. 14. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Figure 35: MSE and Correlation Table 1: MSE and PSNR of the decrypted watermarked image WATERMARKING, ENCRYPTION MSE PSNR TYPES 128 BITS AES 3.5986 98.0197 3.5986 98.0197 3.1778 99.2632 192 BITS AES 3.1778 99.2632 256 BITS AES 3.1778 99.2632 128 BITS AES 3.0120 99.7992 192 BITS AES 3.0120 99.7992 256 BITS AES DWT-DCTSVD 192 BITS AES 128 BITS AES DWT 98.0197 256 BITS AES LSB 3.5986 3.0120 99.7992 6. CONCLUSION In this paper, different watermarking techniques such as LSB, DWT, and DWT-DCT-SVD have been introduced. Also a brief description of AES encryption algorithm has been presented. This Paper provides highly secured biomedical images by using the mixture of both watermarking and encryption. Here we connected the watermarking techniques with 128-bits AES, 192-bits AES, and 256-bits AES encryption algorithms. This provides a more secured algorithm because digital watermarking can protect content even after it is decrypted. We have also measured the imperceptibility of the watermarked image and the results showed that DWT-DCT-SVD technique is better than LSB and DWT techniques. 136
  15. 15. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME REFERENCES Books: [1] [2] [3] [4] Jeng-Shyang Pan, Hsiang-Cheh Huang, and Lakhmi C. Jain (Eds.), “Information Hiding and Applications”, ISBN: 978-3-642-02334-7, 2009. Anthony T.S. Ho Yun Q. Shi H.J. Kim Mauro Barni (Eds.), “Digital Watermarking”, ISBN10: 3-642-03687-2 Springer Berlin Heidelberg NewYork, 2009. Chun-Shien Lu, “Multimedia Security: Steganography and Digital Watermarking Techniques for Protection of Intellectual Property”, ISBN: 1-59140-192-5, 2005. Srdjan Stankovic´, Irena Orovic´, Ervin Sejdic, “Multimedia Signals and Systems”, ISBN: 978-1-4614-4207-3, 2012. Theses: [5] Ahmet BAŞTUĞ, “Watermarking Capacity Improvement by Low Density Parity Check Codes”, Boğaziçi University, 2002. Books: [6] [7] Christof Paar, Jan Pelzl, “Understanding Cryptography”, ISBN: 9783642041006, 2010. Hans Delfs, Helmut Knebl, “Introduction to Cryptography: Principles and Applications”, Second Edition, ISBN-13: 978-3-540-49243-6 Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York, 2007. [8] Kenneth H. Rosen, Ph.D., “Cryptography: Theory and Practice”, Third Edition, ISBN-10: 158488-508-4, 2006. [9] Alfred J. Menezes, Paul C. van Oorschot, Scott A. Vanstone, “Hand Book of Applied Cryptography”, 4th Edition, ISBN: 9780849385230, 2010. [10] Feng-HsingWang, Jeng-Shyang Pan, and Lakhmi C. Jain, “Innovations in Digital Watermarking Techniques”, ISBN: 978-3-642-03186-1, 2009. [11] C¸ etin Kaya Koc, “Cryptographic Engineering”, ISBN: 978-0-387-71816-3, 2009. 137

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