International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINE...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
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20320140501010 2-3

  1. 1. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET) ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), pp. 111-124 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCIET ©IAEME COMPUTERIZE RCRA, EWC AND BC HAZARDOUS WASTES CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM USING VISUAL BASIC- 6 LANGUAGE Prof. Dr. Mohammad Abid Moslim AL-Tufaily, Wisam Sh. Jabir AL- Salami College of Engineering, Babylon University, Hilla, IRAQ ABSTRACT The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is a 1976 amendment to the Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA). RCRA (the common reference to the amended SWDA) addresses the management of municipal and industrial solid waste and provides a "cradle-to-grave" system for managing hazardous waste. Basel Convention of 1989 was in response to a series of incidents involving dumping of hazardous wastes in developing countries in Africa and Asia. The hazardous wastes originated in developed countries and were transported, in some cases, under false representation. In 1994, the first European Waste Catalogue and hazardous waste list were published as two separate documents. The lists were used by the Environmental Protection Agency for the compilation of waste data from 1995 and were adopted into Irish legislation by the Waste Management Act, 1996. The aim of this research is to build a computer program in vb6, this program including an easy ways to classify the wastes under RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act), EWC (European Waste Catalogue) and BC(Basel Convention) systems and output the steps in forms including control tools and shows the classification results in diagram containing all classification steps as the user path in addition to emergency response suggested to protect environment from pollution. Keywords: RCRA, Hazardous Wastes, Classification System. INTRODUCTION One environmental issue is generation and treatment of hazardous wastes. Hazardous materials emerge as wastes and as side product in many industries and some old worn out products contain hazardous substances. The dangers of these substances are often not fully recognized for many reasons.[2] 111
  2. 2. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Hazardous Waste Identification Process under RCRA Proper hazardous waste identification is essential to the success of the hazardous waste management program. The RCRA regulations at 40 CFR §262.11 require that any person who produces or generates a waste must determine if that waste is hazardous. In doing so, §262.11 presents the steps in the hazardous waste identification process: • Is the waste a "solid waste"? • Is the waste specifically excluded from the RCRA regulations? • Is the waste a "listed" hazardous waste? • Does the waste exhibit a characteristic of hazardous waste? Hazardous waste identification begins with an obvious point: in order for any material to be a hazardous waste, it must first be a waste. But, deciding whether an item is or is not a waste is not always easy. For example, a material (like an aluminum can) that one person discards could seem valuable to another person who recycles that material. EPA developed a set of regulations to assist in determining whether a material is a waste. RCRA uses the term "solid waste" in place of the common term "waste." Under RCRA, the term "solid waste" means any waste, whether it is a solid, semisolid, or liquid. [3] RCRA definition of the term "Solid Waste" RCRA Section 1004(27) defined solid waste as: Any garbage, refuse, sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility, and other discarded material, including solid, liquid, semisolid, or contained gaseous material, resulting from industrial, commercial, mining, and agricultural operations and from community activities. [4] The Exempted Solid Wastes under RCRA Solid wastes listed in 40 CFR 261.4(b) are excluded from the definition of hazardous waste and consequently are not regulated under Subtitle C of RCRA These wastes include: 12- Household waste. Wastes generated by the growing and harvesting of agricultural crops or the raising of animals, which are returned to the soils as fertilizers 3- Mining overburden returned to the mine site 4- Fly ash waste, bottom ash waste, slag waste, and flue gas emission control waste. 5- Drilling fluids, produced wastewater, and other wastes associated with the exploration, development, or production of crude oil, natural gas, or geothermal energy. 6- Certain wastes from the extraction, beneficiation, and processing of ores and minerals (including phosphate rock and overburden from the mining of uranium ore). 7- Cement kiln dust waste. [4] [5] 8- Trivalent chromium wastes 9- Arsenical treated wood. 10- Petroleum contaminated media and debris from underground storage tanks (USTs) 11- Used chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants. 12- Used oil filters. 13- Used oil distillation bottoms. [4] 112
  3. 3. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME RCRA definition of the term "Hazardous waste" RCRA definition the Hazardous Waste as: A solid waste, or combination of solid waste, which because of its quantity, concentration, or physical, chemical, or infection characteristics may (a) cause, or significantly contribute to, an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible, illness; or (b) pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, or disposed of, or otherwise managed. [3] RCRA Hazardous Waste Lists There are four lists of specific chemicals and industrial processes that define hazardous wastes found at 40 CFR part 261 subpart D. These are the F-list, K-list, P-list, and U-list. These wastes have been listed because they either always exhibit one of the four characteristics described below or they contain one or more toxic constituents known to be harmful to human health or the environment. [6] F-list The F-list contains hazardous wastes from non-specific sources, that is, the waste may have been generated by various commercial or industrial processes. [6] K-list The K list of hazardous wastes designates particular wastes from specific sectors of industry and manufacturing as hazardous. The K list wastes are therefore known as wastes from specific sources. [7] P- and U- lists The P- and U-lists contain discarded commercial chemical products, off-specification chemicals, container residues, and residues from the spillage of these chemicals. [8] Hazardous Wastes Characteristics A waste that exhibits one or more hazardous characteristics is considered hazardous for each characteristic. The four characteristics are: ignitability, corosivity, reactivity, and toxicity. [6] Delisted wastes under RCRA These regulations set out a procedure and standards by which persons may demonstrate that a specific waste from a particular generating facility should not be regulated as a listed hazardous waste. Under these regulations, any person may petition EPA to remove its waste from regulation by excluding it from the lists of hazardous wastes. [8] 113
  4. 4. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Are the wastes solid wastes yes Are the wastes exempted yes No Are the wastes included under F- or K- or P- or U-lists yes No Are the wastes included one or more of the RCRA hazardous characteristics yes No Are the wastes Delisted yes Not hazardous wastes No Hazardous wastes Fig(1): RCRA classification system diagram The computer program A computer program was written by using Visual Basic 6.0 Language, this program included the required procedures of classification of different types of pollutants according to the RCRA classification systems. the procedures of the program could be as follows: For RCRA classification system there are eight routes were included as follows: □ Solid wastes checking. □ The excluded wastes checking. □ F-list checking. □ K-list checking □ P-list checking □ U-list checking. □ Delisted checking. □ RCRA characteristics checking. RCRA classification system: When the button (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ( RCRA)) is chosen the next page Automatically appears to check the wastes if solid wastes under RCRA or not as shown in figure (3) and the same page contains in the middle of it the definition of solid wastes under RCRA . If the user presses "No" button, the RCRA Classification diagram page appears as shown in figure (4). If the user presses the button "yes" , the next page appears to check the wastes with the exempted RCRA wastes as shown in figure (5). 114
  5. 5. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Fig (3): Solid wastes page Fig (4): RCRA diagram page Fig (5): exempted wastes page Fig (2): program flow chart Fig (6): RCRA diagram page 115
  6. 6. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME In the exempted wastes page, if the user press the "Yes" button, the page which contains the RCRA classification diagram appear to show the wastes is not hazardous wastes under RCRA classification system as shown in figure (6). If the user press the "No" button, the next page appears to the user to check the wastes under the F-list as shown in figure (7). The F-list checking page contains the seven wastes types that including the wastes listed in the F-list, if the checking wastes found under one of these seven wastes types the user clicks on this wastes, the page then will show a new wastes sub-list and the user chooses the wastes there. If the wastes found under F-list, the program asks the user to check the wastes if delisted or not, if the user Presses "No", RCRA classification diagram page appears and show the wastes as " hazardous wastes " as shown in figure (8). Fig (7): F-list page If the user presses "Yes" (delisted), the delisted page appears as shown in figure (9) then if the wastes have one or more of the hazardous characteristics contained in these page, the RCRA classification diagram page appears and shows the wastes as hazardous wastes". If the wastes not found under F-LIST, the user press then on "Check with K_LIST" button and the next page automatically appears to check the wastes with K-LIST as shown in figure (10). Fig (8): RCRA diagram page Fig (9): Delisted page The K-list page contained the fourteen industries types that included the wastes listed in the K-list, the way of checking was similar as F-list so if the wastes found under one of this fourteen industries types the user clicks on this industry, the page then will display a new wastes sub-list and the user chooses the wastes there. 116
  7. 7. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME If the wastes found under K-list, the user chooses if the wastes delisted or not as in F-list procedure then RCRA classification diagram page appears with the final classification result of the wastes. If the wastes not found under K-list, the user then should click on the "Check with P-LIST" button. The P-list page as shown in figure (11) contains two ways of search: one is by substance name and other by chemical abstract service (CAS) number, if the wastes found under P-list, the page asks the user if the wastes delisted or not and then the page of RCRA classification diagram appears with the result of classification. Fig (10): K-list page Fig (11): P-list page If the wastes not included under P-list, the user press on "Check with U-LIST" button to show the U-list page, the user then checks the wastes in the same ways as P-list page. If the wastes not found under any one of the RCRA hazardous four lists, the user can press on " Check Characteristics" to check if the wastes contain one or more of the four RCRA hazardous characteristics (ignitibility, reactivity, corosivity and toxity). The page has two way to search substances, by names or by cas numbers and the results displaying by the textbox in the middle of the page. After selecting the substance and show the results, the user can press on the "Show Diagram" button to show the classification results. Hazardous Waste Identification Process under EWC The EWC contains 20 chapters that are based upon the sources that generated the wastes or upon the type of waste, these chapters are : [11] There are three types of entry in the List:  “Absolute” hazardous  “Mirror” hazardous  Non-hazardous [12] Absolute entry A number of wastes covered by hazardous entries on the EWC are deemed to be hazardous regardless of their composition or the concentration of any “dangerous substances” within the wastes. [13] 117
  8. 8. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Mirror entry Some wastes can be either hazardous or not, depending on whether it contains “dangerous substances” at or above certain levels. Non-Hazardous: It is neither Absolute Hazardous nor Mirror Hazardous where waste does not appear in the List with an asterisk it is not hazardous, for example 03 01 01 waste bark and cork. [14] Fig (12): EWC classification diagram Computerize EWC classification system When the (Europe Wastes Catalogue (EWC)) is chosen, the next page automatically appears to check the wastes with chapters (1 to 12) and (17 to 20) as shown in figure (14), If the wastes are not found under EWC chapters (1-12) and (17-20), the user can choose "Other (Not found above)" below the combo box in the page to check the wastes with chapter (13,14 and 15) as shown in figure (15) and if the wastes are not found, the user chooses "Wastes not otherwise specified in the list" to check the wastes with chapter (16). 118
  9. 9. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME The user also can type a part of the checking wastes name in the (fast search textbox) and then the program displays numbers of results in the combobox bottom the page, then the user will select the suitable one and the program then displays the chapter and sub-chapter1 for that selected wastes to help the user in the search operation. If the user found the suitable chapter to the checking wastes and choose this chapter, the next page appears to check the wastes with first sub-chapters (the four digits chapters) which are a routes from the selected chapter in the first, the user then selects the suitable sub-chapter1 to the checking wastes and the next page appears to check the wastes with the second sub-chapter (absolute or mirror or neither absolute nor mirror entry). Fig (13): EWC classification flowchart If the wastes are mirror entry, the page of mirror entry appears as shown in figure (16) to check if the wastes contained dangerous substances with one or more of the EWC (H1-H14) hazardous wastes characteristics. After the user chooses the second sub-chapter, then the EWC classification diagram page appears with classification results as shown in figures (17). 119
  10. 10. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Fig (14): first searching of EWC chapters Fig (15): second searching of EWC chapters Fig(16): mirror entry page Fig (17): EWC classification diagram Identification of Hazardous Wastes under BC The definition of the term Wastes in the Basel Convention is: "Wastes" are substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of national law. [15] Lists of hazardous wastes for transboundary movement control are shown in Annex VIII List A and annex IX List B: List A: wastes are characterized as hazardous under Article 1, paragraph 1(a) of the Convention and with the use of hazardous characteristics according to Annex III to classify their hazard classes. List B: wastes are not covered by Article 1, paragraph 1(a) unless they contain Annex I material to an extent causing them to exhibit hazardous characteristics according to Annex III. [16] Computerize BC classification system When the user clicks on the "BC classification button", the next page appears with the four general wastes types under Basel Convention, the user then selects one of these wastes which included the checking wastes, the next page appears then to check the wastes with the annex VIII 120
  11. 11. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME LIST- A wastes as shown in figure (19). If the wastes found under LIST A, the next page appears with the BC classification diagram to give the results of classification to the user as shown in figure (22), if the wastes still not found under the LIST A, the user then selects "other wastes (not found here)" to show the next list of wastes (annex IX LIST B) to check the wastes as shown in figure (20). Fig (18): BC classification flowchart If the wastes found under LIST B, the mirror page appears to check if the wastes contains one or more of the BC (H1-H13) hazardous properties as shown in figure (21), then the page of BC classification diagram appears with classification results. If the wastes still not found under LIST B, the page of checking the wastes with BC (H1H13) appears, then the results appear in the BC classification diagram. The user also can type a part of the wastes name in the (keyword textbox) then the program will search about the suitable results and the next page appears with LIST A search results, if the wastes not found in the results, the user can press on the "Other wastes (not found here)" in the list, then the program will search the keyword in LIST B and show the results in a list. After the user finished of selecting the wastes, the BC classification diagram appears with the classification results. 121
  12. 12. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Fig (19): search list A Fig (20): search list B Fig (21): search BC hazardous properties Fig (22): BC classification diagram The program contains also "General Search" button, When the user clicks on it the next page appears as shown in figure (23), the user can search about the substance name by typing one letter or more in its first part or any part of it. After the user selects the substance, the page displays the EPA transportation placard and the NFPA storage shape of this substance and the UN number and the UN hazard class. If the user finishes the classification in any type of the three classification types, a button "General info./ Response" appears and when the user presses it a new page appears and contains: 1. "general properties" button which shows the properties of the substance like (solubility, density, flash point, heat of fusion and other properties) 2. "Health effects" button which contained the exposure, ingestion, inhalation and skin/ eyes effects. 3- "Description and Uses" button 4- "Incompatibility" button 5- "Stability and Decomposition" button 6- "Response" button 122
  13. 13. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME When the user press the "Response" button, six new button appears: 1- "Fire" button which contained the fire fighting, fire potential, fire hazards and combustion products. 2- "Dangerous and protection" button which contained the handling, storage, protection and small spills/leaks 3- "Potential hazards" button 4- "Public Safety" button 5- "Emergency Response" button 6- "First Aid" button Fig (23): general search page Fig (24): general info. page REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Office of Real Property Disposal (2007) "Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Real Property Disposal", Office of Real Property Disposal, U.S. General Service Administration (GSA). Prasanna Srinivasan (2001), "The Basel Convention of 1989- developing country’s perspective", Liberty Institute, India. Jens Brodersen and others (2002), "Hazardous waste generation in EEA member countries", European Topic Centre on Waste, European Environment Agency, Kongens Nytorv 6, DK-1050 Copenhagen K, Denmark. Prof. Dr. rer. pol. habil H. Wiesmeth and others (2006) "Guideline for Hazardous Waste", partners of SACODI Project, Co-financed by the European Union, Part II. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2005) "Introduction to Hazardous Waste Identification", Solid Waste and Emergency Response, (5305W), EPA530-K-05-012, Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) (1998) "Solid and Hazardous Waste Exclusions Guidance Document", Hazardous Materials and Waste Management Division, (303) 692-3300, First Edition. U.S. Department of Energy (1993) "Exclusions and Exemptions from RCRA Hazardous Waste Regulation", Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-231-034/0593,U.S.A. Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) (2006) "Hazardous Waste Generator Handbook", Division of Environment, Bureau of Waste Management, 1000 SW Jackson, Suite 320, Topeka, KS 66612-1366 (785) 296-1600. 123
  14. 14. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment(CDPHE) (2008) "Hazardous Waste Identification Guidance Document", Second Edition. The Government Printing Office’s Electronic Code of Federal Register (e-CFR) (2008) "Hazardous Waste Listings", User-Friendly Document. Environmental Protection Agency (2002), "European Waste Catalogue and Hazardous Waste List", Johnstown Castle Estate, County Wexford, Ireland. Environmental Agency (2005), "A Guide to the Hazardous Waste Regulation (Incorporating the List Wastes Regulation)", HWR01, Version 2.1, England. Environmental Agency Hazardous Waste (2003), "Interpretation of the definition and classification of hazardous waste", Environmental Agency, Rio House, Water Side Drive, 2nd edition v2.2. Environment & Heritage Service (2008), "The Classification of Hazardous Waste", A guide to the Hazardous Waste Regulations and the List of Wastes Regulations, Version No.1, HAZGUIDE NI 03, Northern Ireland. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (2011), "Hazard and Risk", http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/hsprograms-/hazard_risk.html Piyanee Thangtongtawi (2007), "Measures and Implementation to the Basel Convention in Thailand", Competent Authority for the Basel Convention, Department of Industrial Works, Ministry of Industry, Bangkok, Thailand. Anurag Ohri and Dr. P.K.Singh, “Gis Based Secondary Storage and Transportation System Planning For Municipal Solid Waste”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 1, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 108 - 130, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. Ishwar Chand Sharma, Prof.Naresh Chandra Saxena, “Environmental Hazard and Disaster in Disposing Marble Slurry”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 62 - 66, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 124

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