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  • International Journal JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH Technology (IJARET), INTERNATIONAL of Advanced Research in Engineering and IN ENGINEERING ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET) ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print) ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), pp. 45-51 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJARET ©IAEME STUDY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF LEATHER SCRAPS IN FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT SYSTEM P. Balamurugan1, Dr. A. Ilanthirayan2, S. Boobathiraja3, K. Vinusha4. 1&3 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engg, Erode Sengunthar Engineering College, Erode, India 2 Assistant Professor, Department of Geography, Governments Arts College, Karur, India 4 Sr.Design Engineer, L&T, Chennai, India ABSTRACT Weak soils are most likely to cause damage to all structures including road pavements. The losses due to extensive damage to highways running over weak soil subgrades are estimated to be in crores of rupees every year. Various remedial measures like soil replacement, pre-wetting, moisture control, lime stabilization have been practiced with varied degree of success. However, these techniques suffer from certain limitations respect to their adaptability like longer time periods, pulverization, mixing and high cost for hauling suitable refill material for soil replacement. Reinforced earth technique has been gaining popularity in the field of pavement due to its high versatility and flexibility. The growing interest in utilizing waste materials in civil engineering applications has opened the use of waste such as waste plastics, waste tire shreds and waste Glasses in pavements. In this project waste leather scraps is used as one such reinforcing material, in subgrade and subbase of flexible pavement system Keywords - Pavement, Leather Scraps, CBR , UCC I. INTRODUCTION The soil reinforcement technique is well established and is used in variety of applications such as construction of retaining walls, embankments, earth dams, and foundation beds for heavy structures on soft grounds. The investigations done earlier on fiber reinforced soil indicate that strength properties of fiber-reinforced soils consisting of randomly distributed fibers mainly depend on fiber content and fiber-surface friction. Random reinforcement of soils with natural fiber and synthetic fibers is potentially an effective technique for increasing soil strength. 45
  • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME The interest in utilizing waste materials in civil engineering applications has been growing. It opened the possibility of constructing reinforced soil structure with industrial waste. In recent years, applications of industrial wastes in road construction are studied with great interest. The use of these materials in road making is based on technical, economic, and ecological criteria. The lack of traditional road materials and the protection of the environment make it imperative to investigate the possible use of these materials carefully. Further the cost of extracting good quality of natural material is also increasing. It has become essential to look for alternative materials for highway construction. Materials such as fly-ash from thermal power plants and other coal fired industries, blast furnace slag from steel industries, cement kiln dust from cement related industries, phosphogypsum from phosphatatic fertilizer industries, waste plastics, waste tire shreds, waste Glasses and pumice stone and many other solid wastes have already proved to be useful for road construction by increasing the load carrying capacity of the pavement structure. This increase in load carrying capacity results in either an improved service life or cost savings due to reduced layer requirements. The possible use of these materials will provide two-fold benefits: (a) (b) It will help clear valuable land of huge dumps of Wastes. It will also help to preserve the natural reserves of aggregates. In this project waste leather scraps was used as one such reinforcing material, in subgrade and subbase of flexible pavement system. Tamilnadu has a large network of leather industries located in different parts of the state and many more are planned in near future. In this project the effect of leather scraps in subgrade were studied. .Subgrade soil used for test was collected from a pit at Government College of Technology. The basic properties of soil were determined .To study the effect of leather scraps, Standard Proctor Compaction test, Modified Proctor Compaction test , CBR tests and UCC with light and heavy energy of compaction are performed in the subgrade soil reinforced with various percentages of leather namely 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. 2. METHODOLOGY 1) Soil samples for the test were collected from a pit at Government College of Technology. 2) Leather Scraps were collected from leather industries at Erode. 3) Necessary laboratory test were conducted with the collected soil sample to identify the soil type and properties. 4) General properties of leather scraps were determined. 5) Modified Proctors Compaction test were carried out. 6) Test samples were prepared .CBR tests and UCC tests was done on both reinforced and unreinforced soil to determine the optimum leather content. 3. RESULTS 3.1 Soil Properties The tests were carried out as per IS norms. Type of subgrade soil collected for the project is cohesive soil predominantly clay. The samples are collected from pit at Government College of Technology at a depth of about 1m to 1.5m.The Various Properties of the subgrade soil is summarized in Table 1. 46
  • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 3.2 Leather Properties The leather wastes used for the test were collected from leather industries at Erode. The scraps passing through 20mm sieve and retaining on 4.75 mm sieve were used for this project. The Various Properties of the leather are summarized in Table 2. TABLE 1 : Properties Of Soil Test conducted Properties Results Determination of Moisture Content Determination of Specific Gravity Moisture Content 16.17% Specific Gravity 2.73 Percentage of sand Percentage of silt Percentage of clay Soil classification 35.4% 19.96% 44.43% CH Grain Size Distribution Attreberg Limit TABLE 2: Properties of Leather Properties Results 2 Tensile strength 100 kg/cm to 500 kg/cm2 Resistance to wear and tear Tear load carried by 0.8mm thick specimen is > 15 N Resistance to flexing No cracks found after 15000 flexes Durability 20-40 years when burried 3.3 Laboratory Tests and Results A) Proctor Compaction test: Two types of proctor compaction tests namely Standard Proctor Compaction test as per IS:2720(Part7) – 1997 and Modified Proctor Compaction test as per IS:2720(Part8) – 1995 were carried out on the soil, with and without leather scraps .The results obtained are tabulated in Table 3. B) California Bearing Ratio test: The test was conducted as per IS:2720(Part 16) – 1997.The soil samples were prepared and tested for CBR values. The soil samples were prepared with both light and heavy compaction at OMC, with and without leather scraps. The results obtained are shown in Figure 1 and values are tabulated in Table 4. C) Unconfined Compressive Strength test: The test was conducted as per IS:2720(Part 10)– 1995. The UCC test were conducted on the UCC specimen prepared by compacting soil at OMC in proctor mould, with and without leather scraps, mixed with varying leather content. The results obtained are shown in figure 2 and tabulated in Table 5. 47
  • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Table 3 : Results of Proctor Compaction Tests Type of compaction Standard Proctor compaction As per IS:2720(Part 7)– 1997 Modified Proctor Compaction As per IS:2720(Part8)– 1995 Percentage of leather 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 OMC In % 15 15 15 16 16 17 18.5 19 19.6 20.5 MDD g/cc 1.62 1.62 1.62 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.66 1.6 1.49 1.3 Figure1: Load Vs Penetration(Heavy compaction) Table 4 : Results of CBR Tests CBR at CBR at CBR Percentage 2.5mm 5mm of Leather penetration penetration In (%) In (%) CBR test 0 2.26 1.9 on sample 5 2.5 2.5 prepared 10 2.7 2.6 with light 15 2.8 2.6 compaction 20 3 2.7 CBR test 0 2.9 5.1 on sample 5 5.2 7.5 prepared 10 7.2 9.2 with heavy 15 8.5 11.1 compaction 20 10.2 12.6 48 CBR In % 2.26 2.5 2.7 2.8 3 5.1 7.5 9.2 11.1 12.6
  • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Figure 2 : Stress Vs Strain Curve from UCC with heavy compaction Experiment UCC test on sample prepared with light compaction UCC test on sample prepared with light compaction Table 5 : Results of UCC test Percentage of Unconfined leather Compressive Strength KN/m2 0 290 5 312 10 321 15 318 0 379 5 404 10 484 15 442 Cohesive Strength KN/m2 145 156 16 159 189 202 242 221 The optimum amount of leather that gives maximum load carrying capacity can be determined from Figure 3 and Figure 4. Figure 3: CBR Vs % Leather 49
  • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Figure 4: UCC Vs % Leather 4. DISCUSSION From table 4 its clear that the CBR tests on soil sample with 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of leather scraps showed marginal improvement in CBR values under light compaction but significant improvement was obtained in CBR vaues under heavy compaction on. Similarly from table 5 its clear that the UCC values of soil sample with 5% and 10% leather was increased when compared with the UCC value of unreinforced soil and the value got decreased with further increase in leather percentage. Optimum amount of leather which gives maximum load carrying capacity can be determined from Figure 3 and Figure 4. The CBR value of reinforced soil sample is found to increase even with 20% of leather but the UCC value of reinforced soil sample increases with 10% of leather but decreases with addition of 5% of leather. So the optimum leather content which gives maximum load carrying capacity is obtained as 10%. 5. CONCLUSIONS The following conclusions are made from above laboratory tests and results. 1. 2. 3. 4. The soil sample used for this project is classified as CH and the results can be concluded for this type of soil. Waste leather scraps mixed with soil showed significant improvement in CBR value under heavy compaction but the improvement was marginal under light compaction. Waste leather scraps mixed with soil showed significant improvement in UCC values under heavy compaction but the improvement was marginal under light compaction .The UCC value increased upto 10% of leather and decreased with further leather content. With optimum amount of leather the increase in CBR is found to be 4% which reduce the pavement thickness to a greater extend. REFERENCE [1] [2] Ahmed, I., (1993) “laboratory study on-properties of rubber soils”, Report no. fhwa /in /jhrp93/4, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indianapolis. Al-Qadi, I.L. and Bhutta, S.A., (1999): In-situ Measurements of Secondary Flexible Pavement Response to Vehicular Loading., TRR-1652, 206-216. 50
  • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] AlWahab, R.M. and Al- Qurna, H.H., (1995), “Fiber Reinforced Cohesive Soils for Application in Compacted Earth Structures”, Proceedings of Geosynthetics’95, IFAI, Vol.2, Nashville, Tennesse USA, February 1995, pp. 433-446. Bernal, A., Salgado, R. and Lovell, C.W., (1997), “Tire Shreds and Rubber-sand as Lightweight Backfill Material”, accepted for publication as a technical paper in theJournal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Boominathan, A. and Ratna Kumar, J. (1996), “Lime Treated Flyash as embankment material”, proceedings of Indian Geotechnical Conference, IGC – 96, Madras, pp. 523 – 526.Vol. 13, Bund. D 11 Brandon, T.L., Al-Qadi, I.L., Lacina, B.A., and Bhutta, S.A., (1996): Construction and Instrumentation of Geosynthetically Stabilized Secondary Road Test Sections. TRR-1534, pp.50-57. Fletcher, C.S. and Humphries, W.K., (1991), “California Bearing Ratio Improvement of Remolded Soils by the Addition of Polypropylene Fiber Reinforcement”, Proceedings of Seventieth Annual Meeting, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC,USA, pp.8086. Gray, D.H. & Maher, M.H. (1989). “Admixture stabilization of sand with discrete randomly distributed fibers”. Proceedings of XII International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Riode Janeiro, Brazil, pp.1363-1366. Gray, D.H. & Ohashi, H., (1983). Mechanics of Fiber Reinforcing in Sand. Journal of GeoTechnicall Engineering, Vol. 109, No. 3, pp. 335-353. Gray, D.H and .Al-Refeai (1986),”Behavior of Fabric versus Fiber Reinforced Sand”, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Volume112 (8), pp.804-826. Haussmann, M.R. (1990), “Engineering Principles of Ground Modification”, Mc Graw- Hill Book Co., New Delhi. Henry Vidal, (1969), “The Principles of Reinforced Earth”, Highway Research Record, Vol. 282, pp. 1-16. Indian Geo- technical Journal, Volume30, No.3, July 2000. Soil – Flyash Mixtures”, 12th International Conference of International Association for Computer Method and Advances in Geo- mechanics (IACMAG) 1-6, October-2008, PP. 2355-2364. Dr. K.V.Krishna Reddy, “Benefit Analysis of Subgrade and Surface Improvements in Flexible Pavements”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 385 - 392, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. Ravin M. Tailor, Prof. M. D. Desai and Prof. N. C. Shah, “Performance Observations for Geotextile Reinforced Flexible Pavement on Swelling Subgrade: A Case of Surat, India”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 347 - 352, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. Dr. K.V.Krishna Reddy, “Influence of Subgrade Condition on Rutting in Flexible Pavementsan Experimental Investigation”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 30 - 37, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. Muthuraj.M.P and Subramanian. K, “Experimental Investigation on Glass Fibre Reinforced Plasticbridge Decks Subjected to Static and Fatigue Loading”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 321 - 331, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. K.V. Maheshwari, Dr. A.K. Desai and Dr. C.H. Solanki, “Bearing Capacity of Fiber Reinforced Soil”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 159 - 164, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 51