20320140501004

296 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
296
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

20320140501004

  1. 1. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET) ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), pp. 35-46 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCIET ©IAEME STUDY OF THE QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT THE EUPHRATES RIVER (SHATT AL-HILLA) FOR CIVIL PURPOSES AND AGRICULTURAL Udai Adnain Jahad Assistant lecturer, Engineering College /University of Babylon ABSTRACT This research has been prepared to assess the quality of water of the Euphrates River (Shatt Al- Hillah) for civilian use (drinking water) and agricultural (irrigation water). Models collected on a monthly basis for a period of two years 2010 - 2011 of four stations on the Euphrates River in the province of Babylon, stations are Hindia barrage, Musayyib, Hilla and Al- Hashemeyeh. Samples taken by repeat each month and adopted average. The results showed that the quality of water of the Euphrates River (Shatt Al- Hillah) for civilian use meets the requirements of standard specification by the Iraqi high and the requirements of WHO, with the exception of sulfates, while failing to achieve the requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. EPA. As for the quality of water for agricultural purposes, the study has shown that there is problem salinity by different classifications, while there is no problem regarding the risk of danger sodium chlorine, the water is considered mild -to-moderate damage. Keywords: Water Quality, Drinking Water, Irrigation Water, Water Standards, Water Pollution. INTRODUCTION With the beginnings of the century atheist century became the subject of water from strategic matters crucial in most regions of the world including the Middle East In Iraq, there are a significant reduction in the discharge of the Tigris and Euphrates due to climatic changes of the lack of rain and high temperatures on the rates in addition to the policies of the neighboring countries of the establishment dams and reservoirs on the headwaters of rivers and not to give Iraq its share of water has been accompanied by adequate water scarcity this problem of declining water quality where the marked increase in the percentage of salinity on the rates , which greatly affect the public " on the possibility of water use for different purpose. The specifications of the river water are changing in general, depending on "for the period of time that conducted the study and the amount of runoff into the river and the nature of the contaminants from the drains, sewage, industrial waste, and others. Has conducted several studies on the Euphrates River , including the Shatt al- Hilla (Jalut, 1998) and 35
  2. 2. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME (Najah et. al., 1999) as well as on the Shatt al- Kufa ( Abdul-Abbas , 2009 ) and ( Abdul-Abbas and 2012 ) and on the Shatt al- Diwaniya ( Al- Yassin , 2009) and on the Tigris River (Al-Khafaji, 1985) and (Al-Mesri, 1986 ) and (Mohammed, 1988) has concluded that those studies to determine significant increases in the concentrations of different variables from study to another according to the " period of the study and the nature of the flow in that period . Comes this research to determine the quality of water in the Euphrates River (Shatt Al- Hillah) through the study of physical and chemical properties of river water on a monthly basis for the period from 2010 to 2011 and from four stations are Hindia barrage, Musayyib, Hilla and AlHashemeyeh and then compared those characteristics with the standard specifications for domestic use as well as classifications water quality for the irrigation uses. THE CASE STUDY Focus group study of qualitative variables that govern the quality of water for domestic use and the irrigation in the Euphrates River (Shatt Al Hillah) and compare it with the standard specifications of different to see how they conform to those specifications. SAMPLING AND MEASUREMENT METHODS The samples were collected from four stations within the province of Babylon stations are Musayyib E8, Hindia barrage E9, Hilla EH1 and Al- Hashemeyeh EH2 as shown in Figure (1). The samples were collected on a monthly basis for a period of two years (2010-2011) at the rate of two samples per month taken the rate of their findings have included tests of physical and chemical both the pH and electrical conductivity Ec and dissolved salts TDS and brackish TH as CaCO3, calcium, Ca, Mg, Cl, sulfate So4, nitrate NO3 Na, sodium, potassium K and turbidity. Used a Multi parameter (YSI 556M) in the measurement of both the pH and electrical conductivity Ec and dissolved salts TDS was measured brackish manner burette using EDTA solution and guide Erchrome black T was measured calcium Ca way burette using EDTA solution and guide Muroxide used method calculations in measuring magnesium Mg depending " on the concentration of each of the top ten and calcium were measured chloride Cl way burette using a silver nitrate solution AgNO3 0.1 N and guide Dichromate potassium were measured in each of the sulphates SO4 and Turbidity using the method colorimetric device (WTW) was measured nitrate NO3 using a spectrum chromatography (Spectrophoto meter) The sodium and potassium KNa have been measured spectrum to a flame (Flamephoto meter). APPROVED SPECIFICATIONS First ": the quality of drinking water: Has been the adoption of three standard specifications to compare the values of qualitative variables to the Shatt Al-Hilla is standard Iraqi No. 417 for the year 2009 issued by the Central Agency for Standardization and Quality Control and Specification by WHO and updated up to 2006, in addition to the specification and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA and updated up to 2008. Second ": the quality of irrigation water: The criteria adopted for assessing the quality of irrigation water should identify the variables that have the ability to cause adverse changes in soil properties or detrimental effect on the growth of the crop has been dependable in this study on the three indicators to assess the quality of irrigation 36
  3. 3. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME water is the risk of salinity (Salinity Hazard) and the risk of sodium (Sodicity Hazard) in addition to Hazard) the risk of chlorine (Chloride Hazard). Figure (1) study sites stations on the Shatt Al-Hilla Al 1- The risk of salinity (Salinity Hazard sk Hazard) The effect of salinity due mainly to the effort osmosis and its impact on crop growth and effort salinity associated with a concentration of total dissolved salts (TDS) rather than to the components of these salts. In this study, adopted a set of classifications are classified laboratory salinity American who is one of the more classifications prevalent in the world and is made up of four grades as well as ho the classification (1972, Taylor & Ashcroft), which consists of four grades as well as well to classification (Todd 1980) and (2003, Fipps) and two coincide and consists of five degrees. coincide 2-The risk of sodium (Sodicity Hazard) The Affect sodium in the soil making them tend to be distractions for the crust coherent when drought leading to difficulty penetrating seedling Earth's surface and reduce the gro growth of plants (Ismail, Laith Khalil, 1988). The account is the effect of sodium in irrigation water through the sodium adsorption ratio (Sodium Adsorption Ratio) (SAR), which is calculated according to the following equation: SAR = Na / √ ((Ca + Mg) / 2( ………….. (1) There are many international rankings of irrigation water on the basis of the proportion of the adsorption of sodium in this study adopted classification laboratory salinity U.S. which classifies irrigation water to four degrees on the basis of the value of (SAR) which is different borders within the class one by the value of conductivity electrical Ec was such a classification scheme of the U.S. salinity Laboratory (Figure 2 ), which is used extensively worldwide to determine the qualit of quality irrigation water . In addition, it has adopted rating (Todd, 1980) , which divides the irrigation water into five sections according to the value of the proportion of adsorption of sodium SAR as well as the classification (Fipps, 2003) , which divides the irrigation water into four categories according to the value of SAR. 37
  4. 4. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Figure (2) U.S. Salinity Laboratory scheme for the classification of irrigation water 3- The risk of chlorine Chloride Hazard There ion of chlorine in irrigation water with different concentrations of chlorine is evident effect on the plant by burning the edges of the leaves and rainfall early this stock (Ismail, Laith Khalil 0.1988). Classified as irrigation water for the level of chlorine into four categories according to the classification (1972, Taylor & Ashcroft). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 1- The quality of drinking water Was to clarify the results of the analysis of samples which represent the Shatt al Hillah through Figures (3 ) to ( 14) as illustrated in Figure (3) the level of the top ten overall during the study period for the four plants is observed from the figure that the level of the top ten overall in the Shatt al Hillah less than the maximum allowable in the specification of the Iraqi standard specification and the World Health Organization with the exception of the month of September 2010 in Jordan Station , reaching the limit value of a (mg / l 500) recommended by the specifications . The specification and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, which determines the maximum allowable (mg / l 250), it is clear that the values of both brackish and stations and the entire study period had exceeded that value. As Figure 4 shows the level of turbidity in the Shatt Al- Hillah and notes from the figure that the level of turbidity and most months was higher than the maximum level surveys by a (5 NTU) by three specifications adopted in this study. The reason for the high level of turbidity is due to that the samples represent the raw water any specifications river natural affected by the spread of drains and rainfall and the movement of sediments and other natural conditions to those sewer Obviously, the low values of turbidity to become within the permissible limits through water treatment plants filter before pumping it in water distribution networks. 38
  5. 5. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Figure (3) Total hardness Figure (4) Turbidity Figure 5 shows the ion concentration of nitrates in the Shatt Al- Hilla and notes from the Al figure that most of the values are confined between (0.5 - 1.5 mg / l) with the exception of four values exceeded (1.5 mg / l), reaching a maximum value (2.14 mg / l) and this values meet the requirements of the specification in Iraq while not specify all of Specifications (EPA / WHO) limits for nitrate concentration. The pH of the stations of different has been shown in Figure (6) notes that different the values of pH were within the permissible limits (05/06 to 05/08) according to the specification of the Iraqi and American and (05/06 to 05/09) By Specification WHO for all stations and for the whole study period. The importance of pH comes from the fact that many of the chemical reactions are affected by this function, although the basal or high acidic unacceptably high due to problems with corrosion in the pipe carrier and the potential difficulties in water treatment (Tebbutt, 1998). water 39
  6. 6. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Figure (5) Nitrates Figure (6) PH Figure 7 shows the values of conductivity electrical (Figure 8) shows the values of dissolved salts college to the Shatt al- Hilla and four plants and two major benefits are to estimate the salts in two different ways the first electric and second grains did not specify the three specifications ays approved limits for conductivity electrical while set values for the salts dissolved notes Figure (8) focusing levels variable for most months the study and all four stations between (800 stations (800-1000 mg / l) with the exception of 30% of those values has exceeded the barrier (1000 mg / l) and thus be dissolved salts has achieved the requirements of WHO fully and requirements Iraqi specification by 70 % while completely failed to achieve the requirements specification and the U.S. Environmental chieve Protection Agency. The figure shows (9) the values of chloride Cl in the Shatt al Hillah has identified specification Iraqi maximum allowed (350 mg / l), while identified WHO maximum allowa allowable (250 mg / l) did not specify the EPA limits for this variable and note form, all sandwiched between the values (120 -180 mg / l), and thus the specifications have been met in full. 180 40
  7. 7. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Figure (7) Electrical conductivity Figure (8) Total dissolved salts Figure (9) Chloride 41
  8. 8. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Sulphates in the Shatt al Hillah illustrated in Figure (10) notes that the values confined between (300 n (300400 mg / l) for most months has exceeded the barrier (400 mg / l) 10% of the readings reaching the highest value (448.9mg / l) in the station Hilla for the month of April 2010, and these values are specification (EPA / WHO) in unrealized all readings either specification Iraq has achieved on 90%. Figure 11 shows the concentration of calcium in the Shatt al- Hilla and notes from Figure A , al variable values ranged between (80 -140 mg / l) for all readings and these values check specification Iraqi except station of Jordan for the month of August 2010 , reaching (159 mg / l) does not There are limits in specification (EPA / WHO). Sodium values shown in Figure (12) It is noted that the concentration of sodium ranged between (80 -140 mg / l) for most values, which is lower than the ed , maximum allowable (mg / l 200) specification by the Iraqi standard specification and the World Health Organization. The values are set out in the form of potassium (13) ranged between (4 - 6 mg / l) for most of the values which did not exceed the upper limit allowed by the specification of the Iraqi standard (mg / l 10. (Finally, "the values of magnesium has been clarified in the Figure (14) ranged between (20 - 60 mg / l) and has thus achieved specification Iraqi adult (100 mg / l) l). Figure (10) Sulphates Figure (11) Calcium 42
  9. 9. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Figure (12) Sodium Figure (13) Potassium Figure (14) Magnesium 43
  10. 10. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Figure (1 Sodium adsorption ratio (15) 2- The quality of irrigation water The study of the quality of irrigation water will be in accordance with the standards of the three that have been previously referred to "a risk of salinity and the risk of sodium and chlorine risk: and 1-Salinity Hazard To deduce the risk of salinity in the water are relying on all of conductivity electrical Ec Figure (7) and dissolved salts TDS Figure (8) and through these two Figures indicates a rise in the values of these two variables and the reason for this rise to re- water drains into the river bed in the upper regions of the river in addition to the processing of large quantities of water stored in the reservoirs of the Haditha Dam , reservoir Tharthar and others to the river to make up the shortfall in the rates of flow required It is well known that the water stored in the reservoirs increase the he concentrations of salts which are generally due to evaporation during storage and water ( Abdul AbdulAbbas , Mohamed Abdel Majid ,2012(. And determine the quality of the Shatt al Hilla through alclassifications global quality of irrigation water adopted in this research where found that the classification of laboratory salinity U.S. based " on the values of conductivity electrical Ec and dissolved salts TDS puts the Shatt al Hilla, within the third category brine The rating scale Taylor alput it depending "on the values of each of the electrical conductivity and total dissolved salts within the third category (average water damage) . Each rating of Todd and Phipps by electrical conductivity and total content of dissolved salts agenda puts water Shatt Al -Hillah average between Hillah Class B and Class C damage severe damage. 2-Sodicity Hazard Is determined by the risk of sodium through adsorption ratio of sodium SAR Figure (15 who SAR (15), observed him to SAR values ranged between (3 - 1.5) and comparing these values with the ) classifications that have been adopted in this study, found that the classification laboratory salinity U.S. puts water Shatt Al- Hilla, within the first category S1 ( little damage) and through the scheme laboratory salinity U.S. Figure (2) which is based in the classification on all the risk of salinity and the risk of sodium, the Shatt al- Hilla, fall within the category (C3-S1) was too salty - a little damage. (C3 The rating scale Todd then formulate the Shatt al Hillah within the first category (Excellent rating, (Excellent) as well as Phipps, which puts the Shatt al Hillah within the first category (small damage) (small damage). 44
  11. 11. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 3-Chloride Hazard The standard adopted in danger of chlorine is the concentration of the ion in the Shatt AlHilla, shown in Figure (9), who observed him to the values of ion chloride ranged between mg / l (180 -120) and by reference to the classification Taylor to the risk of chlorine, found that the waters of the Shatt Al- Hilla, located between the product II (moderate damage) and class III (average damage). CONCLUSIONS I-The quality of drinking water 1- Shatt Al- Hilla, Iraq has achieved the requirements of the specification for the drinking water of the variables that have been studied in full with the exception of total dissolved salts check 70% of the readings and sulfates by 90 % of the readings. 2- Shatt al- Hilla achieved the requirements of the World Health Organization of the variables that have been studied in full except where sulfates failed 100% achieved. 3- Shatt al- Hilla failed to achieve the requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection variables that have been studied in full with the exception of the pH achieved 100%. II - The quality of irrigation water 1- Salinity of the Shatt al- Hilla ranged by different classifications adopted in this study between the brine and the average water damage and severe water damage. 2- Is the Shatt al- Hilla water is very safe, "based on" the risk of sodium. 3 - Shatt al- Hilla mild -to-moderate damage in terms of the risk of chlorine. REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Al-Khafaji J. L. A., 1985" Study on dissolved load in Tigris river within Baghdad," M.Sc. thesis. College of Science, Baghdad University, 1985. Abdul-Abbas, Mohammed Abdel Meguid, 2009, "a study evaluating the quality of the Shatt al-Kufa for the irrigation and domestic uses" Iraqi Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Engineering, Special Research Annual Scientific Conference of the First Faculty of Engineering / No. C. Abdul-Abbas, Mohammed Abdel Meguid, 2012, "the study of the impact of water scarcity and water use dams and lakes on the quality of the Shatt al-Kufa for the irrigation purposes," Journal of the University of Babylon / Engineering Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 1. Al-Masri N. A.,1986 "Quality of Tigris river water at Baghdad and suitability for drinking purpose", proceeding of fourth scientific conference, Biological Science Scientific research council, Vol. 5, Part 2. 1986. Al-Yassin, Ahmed Mekki, 2009, "the study of the effect of the amount and concentration of pollutants in the river Diwaniya" Iraqi Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Engineering, Special Research Annual Scientific Conference of the First Faculty of Engineering / No. B. EPA United State Environmental Protection Agency, 2008 "Primary Drinking Water Regulation" U.S.A. 2008. Guy Fipps, 2003, '' Irrigation Water Quality Standards and Salinity Management Strategies '' Department of Agricultural Engineering, the Texas A&M University System, College Station, Texas. 45
  12. 12. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Ismail, Laith Khalil, 1988, "irrigation and drainage" Mosul University. Jalut Q. H. ,1998 " Evaluation of water quality parameters of water supply stations in Babylon Governorate" ,Journal of Babylon University , Engineering Sciences , Vol.3 , No.5 , 1998 . Mohammad S. R. Khorshid, 1988 "Levels of some important elements in drinking water of Baghdad city" Journal of Biological Sciences, Vol. 19. 1988. Najah K. Al-Bedeyry and Abdul-Hassan K. Al-Shukur, 1999" Study of qualitative properties of Shatt Al-Hilla river for domestic , industrial and irrigational uses," Journal of Babylon University , Engineering Sciences , Vol. 4 , No. 5 , October , 1999 . Taylor, S. A. and G. L. Ashcroft, 1972 '' Physical Edaphology '' W. H. Freeman and Co. , San Francisco . Tebbutt T. Y. H., 1998 "Principles of water quality control". Fifth ed., Pergamum press, 1998. The Ministry of Planning and Development Cooperation / Central Agency for Standardization and Quality Control, "the Iraqi standard for drinking water No. 417 of 2009," Baghdad. Todd, D., 1980 '' Groundwater Hydrology '' Second Edition, John Wiley and Sons Inc., N. Y. WHO, World Health Organization, 2006 "Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality" First Addendum to Third edition, Vol. 1, Recommendations, Geneva. 2006. Sunil Ajmera and Dr. Rakesh Kumar Shrivastava, “Water Use Management Considering Single and Dual Crop Coefficient Concept under an Irrigation Project: A Case Study”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 236 - 242, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. Kadhim Naief Kadhim, “Feasibility of Blending Drainage Water with River Water for Irrigation in Samawa (IRAQ)”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp. 22 - 32, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. Mustafa Hamid Abdulwahid and Kadhim Naief Kadhim, “Application of Inverse Routing Methods to Euphrates River (IRAQ)”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 97 - 109, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 46

×