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1. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET) ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December, pp. 252-260 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCIET ©IAEME CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF PILA SPI AND INJANA SEDIMENTARY FORMATIONS, AT SHAQLAWA AREA, NORTH IRAQ Ahmed Shehab Al-Banna, Dhahir Khalil Ali, Hamed Hassan Abdullah ABSTRACT The Geotechnical properties are an import aspect of civil engineering projects. So many construction and mining companies interest with such studies. In the present study, 18 limestone samples from Pila Spi formation and another 19 sandstones samples from Injana formation were collected from two limbs of a syncline situated northeast Shaqlawa city, north Iraq. The vp and vs velocities with some geotechnical properties of these samples were investigated. It is concluded that the geotechnical properties of the samples are varied depending on many significant factors include water saturation, the relative location of the sample within the syncline limbs and lithology as well. Each syncline limb has different geotechnical properties than the other due to the nature and degree of stresses influencing each limb. Keywords: Poisson's Ratio, Material Index, Pila Spi Formation, Injana Formation. INTRODUCTION Many studies discuss the direct relations of longitudinal and transverse wave velocities with elastic modulus (Wyllie, 1954 and Dobrin, 1976). Other studies deal with the relation of wave velocities with the geotechnical properties, that are required for civil engineering purpose (Al-Salihi, 1999; Keary et al. , 2002; Al-Banna et al., 2006; Ezdin et al., 2007; Al-khafaji, 2010; Al-kharsan et al., 2011;Yagin , 2011; Al-Awsi, 2012; and Tezcan and Ozdemir, 2012). The present study is an attempt to investigate the characteristic of samples of Pila Spi and Injana Formations, that exposed at Shaqlawa area, northern Iraq with respect to geotechnical properties (Figure -1 ). Such this study is use to encourage the engineer to design a suitable building structure, through definition the proper basement rock which eventually leads to select a better building material for constructions. It also gives an idea of the environmental impact (water saturation) on the geotechnical parameters of rocks. 252
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (IJCIET), (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME Figure -1: Location map of the study area 253
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME TECTOINC AND GEOLOGY Tectonically, the study area belongs to the low folded zone according to the tectoinc divisions of Iraq. This zone contains many formations exposed to the surface of Neogene sedimentary rocks. The core of most anticlines in the folded zone include a sedimentary rocks of upper Cretaceous and Eocene. Pila Spi Formation is lagoonal facies belongs to the late lower Eocene –upper Eocene. The upper part of the formation is well bedded crystalline limestone, while the lower part shows well bedded hard, porous, limestone (Buday, 1980). Injana (formally upper Fars) formation is accepted as upper Miocene in age. This formation is variable from silty marlstone or claystone, medium to coarse grained sandstone (Jassime and Goof, 2006). SAMPLE COLLECTION AND PROCESSING Samples were collected from two limbs of the syncline which is situated at the northeastern side of Shaqlawa city (Figure-1). The number of samples have been collected from the two formations within the syncline are shown in table- 1. Table-1: Number of Collected Samples in the Study Area, Northeast of Shaqlawa City Location Pila Spi Formation Injana Formation Northeastern limb 9 11 Southwestern limb 9 8 All the samples were processed to measure the physical properties. A cylindrical samples are introduced with diameter of 7.6 cm and length range (8-16) cm. The surface of the two sides of each cylindrical sample is smoothed using a special Grinder, according to ASTM 1987, in order to measure the seismic wave velocity. Ultrasonic device (New sonic viewer model- 5217A) is used to measure the P-wave and Swave in the laboratories of the Department of Geology in the University of Baghdad. The longitudinal velocity (Vp) and transverse velocity (Vs) for all the samples are measured in two stages. The first stage where the samples are dry, whereas the second where they are fully saturated with water. The samples were considered fully saturated after they immersed in water for more than 48 hours. The theoretical relations of considered parameters The theoretical relations between the seismic velocity of longitudinal and transverse waves and some geotechnical properties are modified to obtain the average value of the considered formations. The present study focuses on the determining of Poisson's ratio (σ), Material index (Im), and the effective angle of internal friction (ϕ ). Poisson's ratio (σ) is the ratio of frictional transverse contraction to the fractional extension (Bowles, 1984). The parameters calculated using the following equation: .ହሺ୮⁄ୱሻ^ଶିଵ ሺ୮⁄ୱሻ^ଶିଵ Poisson's ratio (σ) = (Dominco, 1984) 254
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME The equation above is a graph of Vs2 (x-axis ) and Vp2 (y- axes) ,for each case was plotted the modified as below to obtain the average values of Poisson's ratio (σ). .ହሺ௦ሻିଵ Poisson's ratio (σ) = ௦ିଵ Material index (Im): It respect the degree of material efficiency . It is influenc by material content , degree of the consolidation , joints, fracture and existence of liquid in pore, which influence the elasticity of materials. (Abdel Rahman et al, 1994). ଷି ሺ୮⁄ୱሻ^ଶ Material index (Im)= ሺ୮⁄୮ሻ^ଶିଵ The slope of the graph of Vp2/Vs2 was used to modified the equation above in another form(as below ) To obtain the average value of material index (Im). ଷି௦ Im =௦ିଵ The effective angle of internal friction (ϕ ) Is an important geotechnical properties. It is possible to measure this angle in the laboratory by using Mohr's circles in triaxial test . This angle is use for evaluat the engineering properties of soil and rocks. Sin ϕ = 1 െ ቀ Thus ሺ୮⁄ୱሻ^ଶିଶ ሺ୮⁄ୱሻ^ଶ ቁ ିଶ Sin ϕ = ሺ୮⁄ ୱሻ^ଶ As the slope of the plotted graph between Vp2 and Vs2 represent Vp2/Vs2 the Sin ϕ was calculated according to the following equation . ିଶ Sin ϕ = ௦ RESULT AND DISCUSSION The longitudinal and transverse wave velocities of the considered samples were measured and plotted for Vp2 versus Vs2 for both case dry and fully saturated samples . The results of the dry and saturated sample of Pila Spi formation on both limb are illustrat in figures- 2, Figure- 3 show the results of sandstone samples collected from Injana formation in case of dry and saturated samples on both side of the syncline. The mean values of all the studied cases were computed and summarized in Table- 2. 255
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME 20000000 (m/sec)^2 24000000 14000000 12000000 16000000 Vp^2 Vp^2 (m/sec)^2 16000000 10000000 12000000 8000000 8000000 3000000 3500000 4000000 4500000 Vs^2 5000000 5500000 6000000 4000000 5000000 (m/sec)^2 6000000 7000000 8000000 Vs^2 (m/sec)^2 PilaspiFn Pilaspi Fn. Dry case Dry case Southwestern limb Northeastern limb Slope= Vp2 = 3.00667952 * Vs2 - 2816826.024 Slope=Vp2 = 2.785257566 * Vs2 - 772244.5231 Corr. Coeff. = 0.95 Corr. Coeff.= 0.98 13000000 18000000 16000000 12000000 Vp^2 (m/sec )^2 Vp^2 (m/sec)^2 14000000 12000000 11000000 10000000 10000000 9000000 8000000 6000000 8000000 2000000 3000000 4000000 5000000 6000000 Vs^2 (m/sec)^2 2000000 2400000 2800000 3200000 3600000 4000000 Vs^2 (m/sec )^2 PilaspiFn PilaspiFn Saturated case Saturated case Southwestern limb Northeastern limb Slope=Vp2 = 2.881541654 * Vs2 + 942619.3444 Slope=Vp2 = 2.785722779 * Vs2 + 2167125.688 Corr. Coeff. =0.96 Corr. Coeff. =0.97 Figure -2: Relationship between Vp2/Vs2 for Pila Spi formation of the syncline (east of Shaqlawa) displays the average values of the Geotechnical properties . 256
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME 8000000 8000000 6000000 Vp^2 ( m/sec)^2 Vp^2 ( m/sec)^2 6000000 4000000 4000000 2000000 2000000 0 400000 800000 1200000 1600000 2000000 400000 800000 1200000 Vs^2 ( m/sec)^2 1600000 2000000 Vs^2 ( m/sec)^2 InjanaFn Injana Fn. Dry case Dry case Southwestern limb Northeastern limb Slope= Vp2 = 3.941537118 * Vs2 - 2769.435304 Slope=Vp2 = 4.405610867 * Vs2- 426360.3182 Corr. Coeff. = 0.99 Corr. Coeff.= 0.98 2500000 2000000 2000000 Vp^2 (m/sec)^2 Vp^2 ( m/sec)^2 1600000 1500000 1000000 1200000 800000 500000 0 400000 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 100000 200000 Vs^2 ( m/sec)^2 300000 400000 500000 600000 Vs^2 (m/sec)^2 InjanaFn InjanaFn Saturated case Saturated case Southwestern limb Northeastern limb Slope=Vp2 = 3.605746746 * Vs2 - 15912. Slope=Vp2 = 3.819683643 * Vs2 - 55488.2537 Corr. Coeff. =0.99 Corr. Coeff. =0.98 Figure -3: Relationship between Vp2/Vs2 for Injana formation of the syncline (east of Shaqlawa displys the average values of the Geotechnical properties) 257
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME Table -2: Summary of the ratio of Vp2/Vs2 and mean values of the considered Geotechnical properties for limestone samples of Pila Spi formation and sandstone samples of Injana formation, northeast of Shaqlawa city Parameters Mean values Vp2/Vs2 Poisson's Material The effective ratio (σ) index (Im) angle of internal friction Sample (ϕ ) Type Location and station Pilaspi (Lst.) NE, dry 2.8266 0.226 +0.094 45° Pilaspi (Lst.) SW, dry 3.0066 0.251 - 0.0032 42° Pilaspi (Lst.) NE, saturate 2.7857 0.2199 +0.120 45.9° Pilaspi (Lst.) SW, saturate 2.8815 0.234 +0.0629 44° Injana (S.st.) NE, dry 4.4056 0.3431 - 0.412 27° Injana (S.st.) SW, dry 3.9415 0.3299 - 0.3199 30° Injana (S.st.) NE, saturate 3.81968 0.3226 - 0.2905 31.6° Injana (S.st.) SW, saturate 3.6057 0.3081 - 0.2324 33.7° The results shown in table-2 were interpreted, then the conclusions can be conclude as follows: 1- Generally the mean values of the ratio Vp2/Vs2 in limestone samples of Pila Spi formation is lower than that value in sandstone samples of Injana Formation 2- The Poisson's ratio of limestone of Pila Spi formation is lower than that of sandstone of Injana formation which indicat that the limestone rocks is stronger than sandstone rocks in the study site. 3- The mean value of Material index (Im) of sandstone samples of Injana formation were classified within the category (I) according to Abdel Rahman (1989) classification , which indicates relatively weak rocks. The mean values of Material index (Im) of limestone Pila Spi formation were considered within the category (III) according to Abdel Rahman (1989) that indicat relatively hard rocks. 258
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME 4- The effective angle of internal friction of limestone of Pila Spi formation is greater than that of sandstone of Injana formation indicating relative weakness of sandstone comparing with the limestone. 5- The mean values of Vp2/Vs2 and Poisson's ratio (σ) decrease in the saturated samples relative to the dry samples for both formations. 6- The mean values of Material index (Im) and the effective angle of internal friction (ϕ) increase with the saturated samples relative to the dry samples for both formations. 7- The samples on the two limbs of Syncline shows a slight variation in the Geotechnical properties. Generally, limestone samples of Pila Spi formation shows an increase in the values of Vp2/Vs2and Poisson's ratio (σ) at the southwestern limb relative to the northeastern limb. The Material index (Im) and the effective angle of internal friction (ϕ) decrease in the southwestern limb of syncline. On the other side, the mean value of Vp2/Vs2 , Poisson's ratio and Material index (Im) for sandstone samples of Injana formation decreases at the southwestern limb of the syncline relative to the other limb. The effective angle of internal friction (ϕ) shows increase values at the southwestern limb relative to the northeastern limb of the study syncline northeast of Shaqlawa city. Finally, it is easily concluded that the geotechnical properties are varied relative to the lithology and saturation. The important conclusion obtained from the present study is the variance of Geotechnical values on the opposite side of the syncline. The last conclusion may be related to the relative stresses which effect to the structure. In the present study, the stresses cause the syncline structure effecting the northeast side more than the southwest side, considering the line of collision of Arabian and Iranian plates at the northeastern side of the studied area. So, It is recommended to carried out an individual study for each site on the field, in order to obtain the actual physical or Geotechnical properties rather than using theoretical values which concealed many effective parameters. The authors believe that the physical properties actually changed from one meter to another, relative to the lithology, saturation, stresses and other unknown factors. REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Abdel Rahman M. (1991), Rock material competence assessed by seismic measurement with emphasis competence scale and application in some urban area in Yeman, E.G.S., proceedings of 9th Ann. Meet, p206-228. Al-Awsi,M.Dh.(2012), Geotechnical evaluation of Tikrit university site using geophysical methods, Ph.D. thesis, university of Baghdad, 170p. Al-Banna, A.Sh., Al-khafaji, A.J. and Banno, E.S.(2006), Seismic refraction and cross-hole technique for investigate the top soil and water table beneath the high pumping station Hall of Al-Hussian water supply station, Kerbala, Iraq. Journal of Kerbala university, vol.4, No.4, pp33-42. Al-khafaji, A.J. (2010), Geophysical and Geotechnical investigation of soil underneath the foundation of Al-Abbas holy shrine site in KerbalaGovernorate, Ph.D. thesis, university of Baghdad, 163p. Al-Kharsan ,E.,Khorshid ,S.Z. and Faraj, H.H.(2011), Determination some of physical and Geotechnical properties of calcareous rock in Kufa quarry using Ultrasonic velocities , Iraq, National J. of Earth sciences , vol.11, No.2,pp11-36. 259
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Al-Salihi, M.A.(1999) Measurmentsof some Geotechnical properties by using refracted Pwave and S-wave for selected site between Baiji and Samarra, M.Sc. thesis (in Arabic), university of Baghdad, 153p. Bowles, J.E.(1984), physical and Geotechnical properties of soil, McGraw Hill, international Book company, London, 578p. Buday , T.(1980), The regional Geology of Iraq, 1: Stratigraphy and Palaeogeography, Dar Al-Khutib publishing House , Baghdad ,Iraq. 445p. Cernica ,J.N.(1995), Geotechnical engineering soil mechanics , USA, 435p. Dobrin, M.B.(1976), introduction to geophysical prospecting , McGraw Hill, Book company ,Third edition ,New York , 6308p. Dominco, S.N.(1984), Rock lithology and porosity determination from shear and compressional wave velocity , Geophysics,vol.49,pp1188-1195. EzEldin ,M.A., Tang ,H.,Bahwi, N. and Faraw, A.G.(2007), Geological soil and rock mass evaluation for proposed hydroelectric power Plant at Sennar Dam, Sudan , Journal of applied science , vol.7, No.22,pp3477-3484. Holtz, R.D. and Kovacs, W.D.(1981), An introduction to Geotechnical engineering, Pergamon press, 733p. Jassim, S.Z. and Goof.(2006), Geology of Iraq, Dolin, Prague and Moravia, Brno, Czech Republic, pp 71-83. Kearey, Ph., Brooks, M. and Hill, I.(2002)an introduction to geophysical exploration, Blackwell Publishing company, 262p. Tezcan, S.S., and Ozdemir, Z.(2012), Allowable bearing pressure in soil and rocks through seismic wave velocities. Earth science Research vol.1, No.1, www.ccsenet.org/esr. Wyllie, M.R., Gregory, A.R. and Gardner, G.H.(1958), An experimental investigation of factor affecting elastic wave velocities in porous media , Geophysics vol.23, pp 459-493. Yagin,S.(2011), P- wave velocity test for assessment of Geotechnical properties of some rock materials, Bull.Mater.Sci.vol.34, No.4, pp 947-953. Indian Academy of science. Sivaramulu Naidu.D, Madan Mohan Reddy.K and Vijaya Sekhar Reddy.M, “Studies on Chemical and Geotechnical Properties of Marine Sand”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 75 - 80, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499. H.P. Singh, “Effects of Surcharge Loads on Liquefaction Parameters of Pond Ash Improved with Stone-Sand Columns”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 225 - 235, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 260
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