• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
20320130406021 2-3
 

20320130406021 2-3

on

  • 281 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
281
Views on SlideShare
281
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    20320130406021 2-3 20320130406021 2-3 Document Transcript

    • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET) ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December, pp. 208-213 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCIET ©IAEME EVALUATION OF RUNOFF DEPTH FOR AL-ADEEM RIVER BASIN BY USING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUE AND GIS INTEGRATION Dr. GhassanAl-adeem AL-Dulaimi* *Institute of TechnologyBaghdad ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to determine runoff depth for Al-adeem river basin in north eastern part of Iraq by using remote sensing and Geographic information system (GIS) integration. Various data sets were used such as Landsat7-ETM satellite image, 1:25000 standard topographic map and soil map data. The basin area and physical characteristics of the studied area such as slope and aspect maps were determined with the help of DEM (Digital Elevation Model)by using Global Mapper 11 software. Supervised classification process was used in this research to drive the land cover map by using ERDAS 8.4 program. A hydrological model US Soil Conservation Service method or (SCS) method was used to determine curve numbers and runoff depth distribution on the entire studied basin. Results obtained from this research coincide with varying morphology of studied basin. High runoff depth obtained in the middle parts of the basin that consist mainly from soil with low infiltration rate(clayey soil) and pasture land cover that has an ability of high retention. Low runoff depth obtained in the north parts of the basin that consist mainly from soil with high infiltration rate(course sand and gravel soils) and shrub land cover that has an ability of low retention. Keyword: Runoff depth, ERDAS, SCS Model 2. INTRODUCTION For the last years, engineers and planners have been working on the modeling of environmental system. An accurate modeling of basin will require determination of the spatial and temporal distribution of hydrological parameters. Remote sensing and Geographic Information system within creasing the advancement of the computer technology have been applying to extract land surface properties at spatial and temporal scales which are very useful input data for hydrological model. Land use and land cover have several impacts on the hydrological cycle such as floods, droughts, runoff, water-quality. Rainfall-Runoff model play an important role to understand hydrological condition of basin area and predict their behavior over time. 208
    • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME Conventional hydrological model, to estimate runoff model input parameters have to be determined through ground truth measurements which still need huge economic and time labor consuming. Therefore remote sensing can also provide information about runoff input data most cost-effective cost and large-land coverage. Direct measurement of runoff is the accurate way of measurement but in most it is not possible at desired time and location, thus use of hydrological model for estimating run depth has runoff become increasingly popular. Al-adeem River basin lies in the Iraqi land. It originates at mountainous parts in north eastern adeem of Iraq, from the southern foots of (Karadagh), (Skermahdagh), (Tasslugga) and (Shwan) mountains in Sulaymania governorate. The height of these mountains varies from 1400 to 1800m above sea rnorate. level. Studied area is about 13000km²; Al-adeem River is considered one of the main Tigris Al adeem tributaries. It occupies most of Kirkuk governorate area and discharges in Tigris River south of so Ballad city .The basin extends between the two basins of Lesser Zab River at the north and Diyala River at the south in the region located between the latitudes 340 and 350 34’nourh and the longitudes 43030’ and 450 30’ east . The important valleys that the river originates from (Khassa Chai), (Tawok Chai),and (Quri Chai). The area of this region is about (11000km2) which forms (85%) from the whole basin area. The basin has an erodible and weak top soil which is easily washed out towards the stream after rain strea storms, thus causing an increase of sediments loads in River water. So, Al-adeem River peak flow Al adeem badly influences domestic water at Baghdad city, especially when Tigris has low levels because of the difficulties of purifying the water from fine sediments [1]. fin All Iraqi rivers are considered as mixing river where they are fed by rain, ice and ground water, except Al-adeem River which is classified as a rain–fed river due to its main dependence on rainfall adeem rain fed in feeding its basin [2]. 3. MATERIALS AND METHOD A Satellite image of Landsat7 ETM corrected was used in this research as shown in Fig. (1) Landsat7-ETM The satellite data was visually interoperated and accuracy was checked on the ground. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was created using Global Mapper.11 Fig. (2). Fig. (1) Satellite image Landsat 7-ETM 7 for studied basin Fig (2) Digital elevation model (DEM) for studied basin Global Mapper 11 209
    • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME The DEM map used for drive slope map for the catchment area by using the same software (Global Mapper .11), Fig.(3) shows the slope map for the studied catchment area. Fig. (3) Slope map for studied basin Global Mapper 11.1 ERDAS 8.4 software used for produce supervised classification map[3] depending on the produce Hydraulic Soil Group map (HSG) for the catchment area that constructed by using Arc Veiw GIS 3.3 software depending on the soil data for the catchment area as shown in Fig.(4) and Fig.(5). The basin dived into four sub-basins according to the variety in soil type, land cover and divide flow Fig.(6). basins Fig.(4) Hydraulic soil group (HSG) map for studied basin ArcVeiw GIS 3.3 Fig.(5) Supervised classification map for studied basin ERDAS 8.4 210
    • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME The Soil Conservation Model (SCS)[4]was used in this research as a hydrological model to drive the runoff depth in catchment area, the main input data in this model is the rainfall data which collected from Kirkuk metrological station. Average rainfall data found by using Isohyetal method. The soil conservation model (SCS) developed by United states Department of Agriculture (USDA) computes direct runoff through an empirical equation that requires the rainfall and a watershed coefficient as inputs. The SCS has developed an index, which is called the runoff curve number (CN), to represent the combined hydrologic effect of soil, land use, agricultural, land treatment class hydrologic condition, and antecedent soil moisture condition. General equation for the SCS curve number method is as follows [5]: F Q ൌ … … … . . ሺ1ሻ S PെI Where P: rainfall depth (mm), F: actual retention (mm), S: watershed storage (mm), Q: actual direct runoff (mm), I: initial abstraction. From the continuity principle: F ൌ ሺP െ Iሻ െ Q … … … ሺ2ሻ The SCS method defined the value of initial abstraction (I) to be approximately equal to 20% of watershed storage (S). ‫ ܫ‬ൌ 0.2 ൈ S … … … … … … … . ሺ3ሻ Solving equation (1) and (2) simultaneously: ܳൌ ሺܲ െ 0.2ܵሻଶ ܲ ൅ 0.8ܵ … … . . ሺ4ሻ The watershed storage S and curve number CN are related ܵൌ 25400 െ 254 … … … ሺ5ሻ ‫ܰܥ‬ The parameter CN, having a range of value between 0 and 100, called the curve number. In this method a curve number (CN) assigned to each watershed or portion of watershed based on soil type, land use and treatment .Fig.(7) shows curve number (CN) value for each sub-basin depending on soil type and land cover by using SCS tables. 211
    • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME Fig.(7) Curve number(CN) map For studied basin basin Fig.(6) Sub-basin number 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The curve number value (CN) that obtained from Fig. (7) substitute in Equation (5) to obtain watershed storage (S).Runoff depth (Q) calculated by substitute watershed storage (S) and rainfall depth (P) values in equation (4).Table (1) shows the calculation process determine runoff depth for processto each sub-basin, from this table it’s obviously that the value of curve number (CN) have a direct basin, proportion relationship with runoff depth. High runoff depth can be obtained with high curve number value and vice versa. Fig.(8) shows the average runoff depth (Q) for each sub-basin in February month that expect sub basin to be most rainy month. Table (1) Runoff depth (mm) Areal Rainfall (mm) CN S Ia (P-Ia)² Runoff (Q) (mm) 175 65 136 27.2 21844.84 76.97 177 82 55.7 11.14 27509.5 124.16 III 182 68 119.5 23.9 24995.61 90 IV 181 75 84.6 16.92 26922.2 108.26 Subbasin No. month I II Feb. 212
    • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME Fig. (8) Runoff depth map for studied basin 5. CONCLUSION In this research showed that the remote sensing and GIS technique are very useful tools to determine the runoff depth in Al-adeem River basin. The result obtained from this research coincides adeem with the diversity in soil type and land cover of the basin. High runoff depth obtained in sub sub-basin (II) that has a hydraulic soil group Type (D) which specified by a very slow infiltration rates and pasture land cover that has an ability of high retention. Low runoff depth obtained in the north parts of the basin (sub-basin II) that consist mainly from hydraulic soil group Type (A) which specified by a high infiltration rate(course sand and gravel soils) and shrubland cover that has an ability of low retention. REFERENCES 1. Ali, S.H.,The hydrology of Tigris river basin in Iraq, PhD Dissertation, College of Arts , University Of Baghdad , Iraq.1981. ersity 2. Sanad, A .E. Simulation of hydrological processes by using digital computers. Msc. Dissertation .Civil department, College of engineering. University of Baghdad,Iraq. 1985. 3. Kenie T.J.M, Remote sensing in civil engineering, Surrey university press, 1992. engin 4. Ponce,V.M,Engineering Hydrology Principles And Practices, Prentice-HallLondon,1989. Prentice HallLondon,1989. 5. Mccuen R.H.,A Guide To Hydrologic Analysis Using SCS Method,2nded.,University of Maryland, Prentice-Hall,1992. 6. Mohammed Hashim Ameen a Dr. R. K. Pandey, “Delineation of Irrigation Infrastructural, and f Potential and Land Use/ Land Cover of Muzaffarnagar by using Remote Sensing and GIS”, nd sing International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 1 - 11, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 213