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20320130406017
20320130406017
20320130406017
20320130406017
20320130406017
20320130406017
20320130406017
20320130406017
20320130406017
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20320130406017

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  • 1. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering RESEARCH IN ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 7, November – December (2013), © IAEME AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET) ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print) ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 7, November - December 2013, pp. 147-155 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJARET ©IAEME STUDIES ON EFFECTIVENESS OF VARIOUS ION LEACHING TECHNIQUES ON GEOLOGICAL SAMPLES Swapnil C. Parmar1, Ankesh G. Rokad2, Arman G. Rokad3, Dr. Vishal S. Makadia4* 1,2,3,4 Petrography and Mineral Chemistry Laboratory, GMRDS, Block No: 15, Dr. Jivraj Mehta Bhavan, Gandhinagar – 382 010. Gujarat, INDIA. ABSTRACT Leaching of ions from geological samples was carried out by various economically viable methods. Results were compared to evaluate each method in aspects of creating state of art with high yield and economic viability. Study was done on sediments and mica schist from Gujarat state of India. Results show that calcination and boiling water treatment is more effective for K2O leaching while more or less other ions get leached by Acid treatment. Some fruitful conclusions came into focus that certain ions like Mg, Cu, Zn and Sr etc. gets released by calcination treatment. Key Words: Chemical leaching, Ions extraction, Calcination, Sediments, Soil, Mica Schist. 1. INTRODUCTION Chemical leaching of the ions from geological materials is significant issue for economic and social point of view. Nature has enriched certain region with wealth of minerals. While other regions or countries do not contain such valuable geographic formations resulting in big burden on fiscal balance and foreign currency because of essential import of such minerals. These countries have to look towards alternates like low grade minerals or ores having inferior amount of minerals. Chemical leaching is most popular technique when concentration is less in ore. Such minerals like Potash, Titanium Oxide, Vanadium (V) Oxide and Rare Earth Elements are back bone of the developing countries economy. Many of these minerals are present in soil and sediments in various proportions. Detailed study and Development of economically feasible technique is demand of market from long time. Chemical leaching of metallic, non-metallic and metalloid ions from various geological materials is most promising method in resent time.[1-4]Chemical leaching treatment on geological materials are also important for recovery of metallic ions and removal of polluting ions for 147
  • 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 7, November – December (2013), © IAEME environmental aspects.[5-9] Present study has been carried out to study effect of various treatments on leaching process of ions from sediments and mica schist. Study was carried out in five different aspects namely (a) Potash leaching, (b) Titanium Oxide leaching, (c) Vanadium(V) Oxide leaching, (d) Trace ions leaching for facets of removal of polluting ions and (e)Other major ion oxides. 2. EXPERIMENTAL 2.1. Materials Soil Sediment samples were collected from various sites of Kutchh region of Gujarat State, India. Soil Sediments were collected from 50 to 200 cm depth by avoiding over burden contamination. Special care was taken to avoid organic contamination of tree routs. Wooden tools were used for digging out samples instead of tools of metals to eliminate impurities of metals. Samples were collected from non agriculture land to eliminate contaminations from fertilizers and pesticides. Samples from 50 to 200 cm depth was equally mixed and de-lumped by wooden hammer and wooden mortar pastel. Mica schist sample was collected from Dahod of Gujarat State, India. Each sample was crushed and ground up to -200 mesh size by Planetary Ball Mill. Three sediments and one Mica Schist were taken for present study and Abbreviated as KS-A1, KS-A2 and KS-A3 for sediments while MS-GS1 for Mica schist. All Chemicals used in this research were AR grade obtained from Merck S. P. Ltd. and used as received. (i) Boiling Water Solubility Each sample were treated with boiling water by adding 10g sample with 400ml water in 500ml beaker followed by stirring by glass rod to ensure proper mixture. Beaker was kept on hot plate and heated at boiling temperature for 1 hours. Mixture was cooled and filtered. Residues were washed by 500ml distilled water. Residues were dried and collected for further analysis. (ii) Calcination and Boiling Water Solubility 15g samples were taken in porcelain dish and calcined at 1000oC in muffle furnace for 1hr. Calcined samples were found reddish brown in color and partially fused. Sample bits were ground and crushed gently by mortar and pestle. Fine ground sample was collected. Out of that 10g samples were treated by boiling water as mentioned in above procedure (i). (iii) Acid Solubility 10g samples were taken in 500ml beaker and mixed with 400ml 0.1N HCl gently by glass rod. Mixtures were heated on hot plate at boiling temperature for 1 hour. Beakers were removed from hot plate and cooled. Mixtures were filtered and residues were washed with 500ml distilled water. Residues were dried and collected for further analysis. 2.2. Characterization All samples were characterized on XRF instrument (PANalytical, Advance AXIOS). Analyses were carried out by making press pallet of treated and non treated samples by applying 200KN force. Pallets were analyzed in standard conditions with SUPER Q software. Instrument was calibrated by Certified Reference materials/ Standard Reference Materials of Soil/ Sediments namely GSD 2a to 8a, GSD 9 to 12, GSS 3 to 11, STSD 1, 2 and 4, SARM 42. 148
  • 3. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 7, November – December (2013), © IAEME 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Initially samples were analyzed by XRF for determination of chemical composition of raw samples. Treated samples were dried and again analyzed by identical procedure as mentioned earlier in experimental section. Results were compared and calculated to determine leaching ability of each technique in percentage concentration of initial mineral concentrations. An important parameter that determines the effectiveness of a leaching process was calculated by following formula,[10] େ୮ିେ୰ Percentage (%) of element leached = େ୮ ൈ 100 Where, Cp= Initial element concentration in precursor Cr = Element concentration in residue Analysis and comparisons were done in following aspects, K2O Leaching Serious focus was given to Potash leaching because sediments in Kutchh were found potassium reach during XRF analysis (approx. 2.5 – 3 wt. %). Simultaneously it is well known that Mica Schist is also high potash bearing mineral because of its Granatic/Feldspar rock origin. Results gained were compared by bar chart as shown in Figure 1. % Leaching (i) Samples Name Boiling Water Treated Calcination and Boiling Water Treated Figure 1.K2O leaching by various methods 149 Acid Treated
  • 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 7, November – December (2013), © IAEME Potash leaching study shows that in each sample including sediments and mica schist is strongly bound and it is not leachable easily by boiling water. Hence it concluded that easily mobilizable fraction of potassium ion is negligible in all samples. While oxide bound fraction is quit higher in all samples. This results in highly release of potassium ion after calcination. High temperature treatment causes dissociation of major carbonate and some oxide bonds. Meanwhile it is also noticed that acid treatment is also leaching more fraction of potassium that one in boiling water treatment but less fraction that one of Calcination treatment. It can be justified by assuming that each sample contains oxide bonds which are less stable in high temperature. Acid dissociative bond like carbonate bond etc. are holding some of the total fraction but not all. Major fraction is well known residual fraction[11] that is crystalline bound ions. Results show that calcination treatment is more effective and highest yielding method amongst all. V2O5Leaching Leaching behavior of Vanadium(IV) Oxide was also studied and results were compared as shown in Figure 2. Results show that V2O5 leaching behavior is quit similar with each other in the case of sediments. Apart from behavior shown in first case of Potassium ion; Vanadium ion shows little different behavior indicating its different form of bounding present in minerals. % Leaching (ii) Samples Name Boiling Water Treated Calcination and Boiling Water Treated Figure 2.V2O5 leaching by various methods 150 Acid Treated
  • 5. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 7, November – December (2013), © IAEME Results show that significant amount of free mobilized ion fraction is present in sediments while the same is not present in mica schist. In the case of sediments Calcination increases leaching ability up to 18-20 % and acid treatment increases the same up to 35-45 %. But surprisingly mica schist shows different behavior by increasing leachable ions up to 6065% in acid treatment. Considering importance of Vanadium metal in present market mica shiest can immerge as potential alternate of mining and acid treatment is the method yielding most fruitful result in case of Vanadium ion. TiO2 Leaching Present study highlights important feature of TiO2 leaching by various techniques. Study shows that there is small difference between leached ions by boiling water and calcination in the case of sediments and it varies between 10-20 wt. %. While in the case of mica schist negligible amount was leached by boiling water and calcination process. Among with that it is noticed that in all samples acid treatment is most promising and high yielding process. Acid treatment leaches up to 80-90 wt % in sediments and approx. 50 wt % in Mica Schist. It is also noticed that easily mobilizable fraction of Titanium ion is significantly present in sediments while it is nearly absent in Mica schist. Bound fraction of ions in thermally dissociative bond is small as compared to Potassium ions. While Acid leachable fraction of ions bound with various metal oxides is very high in all samples. % Leaching (iii) Samples Name Boiling Water Treated Calcination and Boiling Water Treated Figure 3.TiO2 leaching by various methods 151 Acid Treated
  • 6. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 7, November – December (2013), © IAEME % Leaching Acid Solubility Fe2O3 MgO P2O5 MnO % Leaching Calcination and Boiling Water Solubility Fe2O3 MgO P2O5 MnO % Leaching Boiling Water Solubility Fe2O3 KS-A1 MgO P2O5 KS-A2 KS-A3 MnO GS-MS1 Figure 4. Some Major Oxides leaching behavior of different samples by various methods where samples are as follow 152
  • 7. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 7, November – December (2013), © IAEME % Leaching Acid Solubility % Leaching Calcination and Boiling Water Solubility % Leaching Boiling Water Solubility KS-A1 KS-A2 KS-A3 GS-MS1 Figure 5. Some Trace Ions leaching behavior of different samples by various methods where samples are as follow 153
  • 8. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 7, November – December (2013), © IAEME Results clearly show that all samples are containing significant amount of MgO in form of easily mobilizable fraction. This can be seen in Figure 4 where boiling water leaching of MgO is between 6 to 8.5 wt %. While none of the other major oxide is in easily mobilizable fraction. Upon Calcination changes in crystal form occurs. This complex changes includes breaking of some existing bonds and formation of some new bonds resulting in release of certain ions and trapping of some other ions. As shown in Figure 4MgO becomes more mobilized in case of Mica Schist but it becomes trapped in sediments samples after thermal treatment. In contrast of that P2O5 is more mobilized in sediments after heat treatment and remains unchanged in mica schist. Fe2O3 becomes minute mobilized in mica schist after heat treatment. In addition to that all major oxides become highly mobilized and leachable in acid treatment. This can be because of presence of acid soluble oxide cages in crystal lattice in all samples. All sediments and mica schist samples are containing oxides bonding that are only dissociative by acids and not by heat treatment any more. Along with major oxides, minor ions also encountered in present study. Figure 5 shows results of trace element’s leaching behavior. It is significantly noticed that Mica Schist is containing easily mobilizable fraction of Sr which is nearly 14 wt % While Pb up to 1 wt% but none of the other ions get leached in boiling water. It indicates that all ions are bound in crystal structure and no free ions present in any sample except Sr and Pb in Mica Schist. Thermal treatment releases Cu and Pb ions in sediments while Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Sr gets released up to 35 wt % by thermal treatment. Again here acid treatment releases very high amount of ions nearly 60 to 90 wt % for Cu, Ni, Co, Zn and Pb in all samples and Sr in Mica Schist. Other ions are assumed as trapped in highly bound in strong silica matrix. 4. CONCLUSION Sediments contain small fraction of easily mobilizable fraction which gets extracted by boiling water Calcination is promising treatment for all kind of geological samples for increase in extraction ability of boiling water K2O leaching study indicated that calcination is highest yielding method amongst all while in the case of other ions Acid extraction is highest yielding Along with that certain ions like Sr is leachable in boiling water in mica schist while none of other trace ions are leachable in boiling water. But calcination makes some of the trace ions leachable in boiling water Acid extraction is high yielding procedure that is why this procedure is more promising for extraction. But where economy and environmental issues are important then calcination is also promising alternate. REFERENCES 1. J. RajagopalaRao, R. Nayak, A. Suryanarayana; “Review: Feldspar for Potassium, Fertilisers, Catalysts and Cement”; Asian Journal of Chemistry, 10 (4), 1998, 690-706. 2. A.E. Blum and L.L.Stilling, Feldspar dissolution kinetics in Chemical Weathering Rates of Silicate Minerals Rev. Mineral., 31, 1995, 291-351. 3. A.S.Cushman, P.Hubbard, U.S. Dept. Agr. Office Pub.(Roads Bull., 28 ,1907). 4. Chapter 6, Chemical leaching of mechanically activated minerals, Process Metallurgy, Vol. 10, 2000, 143-193. 5. Removal of mineral matter from bituminous coals by aqueous chemical leaching, Fuel Processing Technology, 9 (3), December 1984, 217–233. 154
  • 9. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 7, November – December (2013), © IAEME 6. T.U. Aualiitia, W.F. Pickering; Sediment analysis—lability of selectively extracted fractions, Talanta, 35 (7), 1988, 559–566. 7. P Pardo, J.F López-Sánchez, G Rauret; Characterisation, validation and comparison of three methods for the extraction of phosphate from sediments, AnalyticaChimicaActa, 376 (2), 1998, 183–195. 8. Ndiba, P., Axe, L.; Risk Assessment of Metal Leaching into Groundwater from Phosphate and Thermal Treated Sediments., J. Environ. Eng., 136(4), 2010, 427–434. 9. A.A. Al-Zahrani, M.H. Abdul-Majid ; Extraction of Alumina from Local Clays by Hydrochloric Acid Process , JKAU: Eng. Sci., 20 (2), 2009, 29-41. 10. M.S. MeorYusoff, Uranium and thorium leaching of malaysian zircon at various heat treatment temperatures, JurnalSainsNuklear Malaysia, 20(1&2), 2002, 48 – 55. 11. JózsefHlavay, Thomas Prohaska, MártaWeisz, Walter W. Wenzel, Gerhard J. Stingeder, Determination Of Trace Elements Bound To Soils And Sediment Fractions, Pure Appl. Chem., 76 (2), 2004, 415–442. 12. C. P. Pise and Dr. S. A. Halkude, “Blend of Natural and Chemical Coagulant for Removal of Turbidity in Water”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 188 - 197, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 13. B. H. Patel, S. B. Chaudhari and A. A. Mandot, “Effect of Urea and Thiourea on PhysicoChemical and Thermal Characteristics of Polyurethane Filament”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 7, 2013, pp. 60 - 70, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499. 14. Sandip T. Mali, Kanchan C. Khare and A.H. Biradar, “Effect of Leachate Recirculation on Organic Waste and Leachate Stabilization in Anaerobic Bioreactor”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 1, Issue 1, 2010, pp. 87 - 101, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 155

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