International Journal of Civil Engineering andOF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 097...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Vol...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

20320130406010 2

509 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
509
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

20320130406010 2

  1. 1. International Journal of Civil Engineering andOF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET) ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December, pp. 89-100 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCIET ©IAEME SCOPE FOR REUSE OF COPPER SLAG IN CONCRETE – A REVIEW M.Chockalingam*, D.Jayganesh**, J.Vijayaraghavan**, Dr.J.Jegan**** *Assistant Engineer, Highways Department, Natham, TN, India, **Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University College of Engineering, Ramanathapuram-TN, India, ****Professor & Head, Department of Civil Engineering, University College of Engineering, Ramanathapuram-TN, India ABSTRACT Industries produce things with by-product. Proper handling of waste material resulting from the industries has recently become environmental concern besides resource management. The effluent from the copper making manufacturing industry is termed as slag. Numerous research works have been done to evaluate the suitability of copper slag for reuse. In lieu of its physical and mechanical properties, slag is reusable in the applications viz: Cement Clinker Production, Blended Cement, Concrete, Fine aggregate, Replacement for cement, Replacement for both sand and cement, Corrosion resistant and Reduce seismic force and earth pressure A comprehensive review of studies on the reuse of copper slag is presented. Key Word: Copper Slag, Review, Fine Aggregate, Admixture. PREAMBLE Day to day activities of human kind involve production of many things required for consumption and other purposes. Industries form very important units in manufacturing essentials goods. By product, which results from the process of making, invites care in the safe disposal. “Mass can neither be created nor destroyed” is the law of conservation of mass. According to the above law, total mass on the universe remains constant. As the water present in various forms (sea water, clouds, rainwater, ice, water vapour, surface water and groundwater) in the hydrological cycle, raw material used in the manufacturing process appears into product and by-product. The concept of reuse of waste/by-product has now-a-days become both environmental concern and resources management. 89
  2. 2. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME Here an attempt has been made to compile the various studies done on the reuse of copper slag in concrete. The by-product discharged from the copper manufacturing industry is called as slag. About 2.2 tonnes of copper slag result in every ton of copper production. Approximately 24.6 million tons of slag are generated from the world copper industry (Gorai et al, 2003). The copper slag is a by-product of operation of reverberatory furnaces. Impurities form a less dense liquid floating on top of the copper melt. These impurities include iron, lime, silica, and form the slag. The slag is skimmed off the top, while the melted material which has up to 50 percent copper, is called matte. The copper matte goes through a converter to blow forced air into it. The air forces silica back into the copper matte to collect the impurities and make more slag. The slag is skimmed off and air cooled. By virtue of Copper slag’s mechanical and chemical characteristics, it becomes usable material in concrete as a partial replacement for Portland cement or as a substitute for aggregates. Copper slag has a number of interesting mechanical properties such as excellent soundness characteristics, good abrasion resistance and good stability for using as aggregate (Gorai et al 2003). PRODUCTION OF COPPER SLAG In the separation of copper, slag is a by-product obtained during the matte smelting and refining of copper has been reported by Biswas and Davenport (2002). The major constituent of a smelting charge are sulphides and oxides of iron and copper. The charge also contains oxides such as SiO2, Al2O3 CaO and MgO, which are either present in original concentrate or added as flux. It is Iron, Copper, Sulphur, Oxygen and their oxides which largely control the chemistry and physical constitution of smelting system. A further important factor is the oxidation/reduction potential of the gases which are used to heat and melt the charge stated by Gorai et al (2002). As a result of this process copper- rich matte (sulphides) and copper slag (oxides) are formed as two separate liquid phases. The addition of silica during smelting process forms strongly bonded silicate anions by combining with the oxides. This reaction produces copper slag phase, whereas sulphide from matte phase, due to low tendency to form the anion complexes. Silica is added directly for the most complete isolation of copper in matte which occurs at near saturation concentration with SiO2. The slag structure is stabilized with the addition of lime and alumina. The molten slag is discharged from the furnace at 1000-1300ºC.When liquid is cooled slowly; it forms a dense, hard crystalline product, while a granulated amorphous slag is formed through quick solidification by pouring molten slag. Physical and Chemical composition The physical and chemical properties of copper slag, reported elsewhere, are presented in table 1 and 2 respectively. 90
  3. 3. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME Table 1. Physical properties of copper slag Brinda et al, (2010), Brinda and Nagan,(2010) Brinda and Nagan(2011) Arino and Mobasher(2010) Chavan and Kulkarni, (2013) Irregular ---- ---- Black & glassy ---- Type Air cooled ---- pecific gravity 3.91,3.68 3.5 ---- 43.20% ---- ----- 2.08 g/cc, 1.70 to 1.90 g/cc ---- 2.8 to 3.8 g/cc 3.47 ---- ----- 51° 20’ ---- ----- 0.075 mm to 4.75 mm Between 6and 7 11 mg/l Less than 50 mm (<50%) ----- ----Between 6and 7 ----- Physical Properties Particle shape Appearance Percentage of voids Bulk density Fineness modulus of copper slag Angle of internal friction Particle size Hardness Chloride ---- The specific gravity varies from 3.5 to 3.91. Bulk density is in the order of 1.70 to 3.8 g/cc. The Fe2O3 content in the slag fluctuates between 53 % to 68.29%. While the SiO2 content varying in between 25.84% to 35%, the Al2O3 concentration is in the order of 0.22% to 5 %. Table 2 Chemical composition of copper slag (% composition) Sl. No Chemical Compounds Brinda et al, (2010), Brinda and Nagan,(2010) Brinda and Nagan,(2011) 1 Fe2O3 68.29 53 55 53.45 2 SiO2 25.84 35 27 33 3 Al2O3 0.22 5.00 <3.0 2.79 4 CaO 0.15 3.30 1-3.5 6.06 Arino and Meenakshi Sudarvizhi Mobasher, (2010) and Elangovan (2011) Alnuaimi (2012) 5 MgO 0.2 ---- ---- 1.56 6 Na2O 0.58 ----- ----- 0.28 7 K2O 0.23 ---- ---- 0.61 8 Mn2O3 0.22 ----- ----- 0.06 9 TiO2 0.41 ---- ---- 0 10 CuO 1.2 ----- <1 --- 11 LOI Insoluble residue 6.59 ---- ---- ---- 14.88 ----- ----- ---- 12 91
  4. 4. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME CaO content is in the order of 0.15% to 3.30%. It indicates that has low lime content. Slag also exhibits pozzolanic properties since it contains low CaO. Under activation with NaOH, it can exhibit cementitious property and can be used as partial or full replacement for Portland cement. The utilization of copper slag for applications such as Portland cement replacement in concrete, or as raw material has the dual benefit of eliminating the cost of disposal and lowering the cost of the concrete. The use of copper slag in the concrete industry as a replacement for cement can have the benefit of reducing the costs of disposal and help in protecting the environment. Despite the fact that several studies have been reported on the effect of copper slag replacement on the properties of Concrete, further investigations are necessary in order to obtain a comprehensive understanding that would provide an engineering base to allow the use of copper slag in concrete. This slag is currently being used for many purposes. It is a glassy granular material with high specific gravity particle sizes. USES OF COPPER SLAG In order to proper disposal and the management of copper slag, suitability for reuse as a resource management and environmental protection has been evaluated extensively. The copper slag has the following applications Cement Clinker Production Blended Cement Concrete Fine aggregate Replacement for cement, Replacement for both sand and cement Corrosion resistant, and Reduce seismic force and earth pressure Numerous studies have been carried out on the possibilities of reusing the copper slag in the said applications. The findings of the earlier researches with the findings are summarized in tabular form for the quick understanding (Table 3). Table 3. Research studies on copper slag with the experimental parameter and findings Sl.No 1 Authors Chavan abd Kulkarni (2013) Experiment Observations Investigation on the effect of using copper slag as a replacement of fine aggregate on the strength properties Maximum Compressive strength of concrete increased by 55% at 40% replacement of fine aggregate by copper slag, and up to 75% replacement, concrete gain more strength than control mix concrete strength. For all percentage replacement of fine aggregate by Copper slag the flexural strength of concrete is more than control mix. The flexural strength of concrete at 28 days is higher than design mix (Without replacement) for 20% replacement of fine aggregate by Copper slag, the flexural strength of concrete is increased by 14%. This also indicates flexural strength is more for all percentage replacements than design mix. Compressive strength and flexural Strength is increased due to high toughness of Copper slag. 92
  5. 5. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME 2 Alnuaimi (2012) Use of copper slag (CS) as a replacement for fine aggregate (FA) in RC slender columns Replacement of up to 40% of FA with CS caused no major changes in column failure load increasing the ratio of CS to FA reduced the concrete strength and column failure load, and increased concrete slump and lateral and vertical deflections. 3 Brindha, and Nagan (2011) Durability of copper slag admixed concrete The strength of concrete increases with respect to the percentage of slag added by weight of fine aggregate up to 40% of additions and 15% of cement.. 4 Meenakshi Performance of Copper Sudarvizhi.S, slag and ferrous slag as Ilangovan. R (2011) partial replacement of sand in Concrete Up to 80% of CS&FS can be used as replacement of sand. The studies show that total replacement of sand by CS&FS is not advisable. 5 Brindha, and Nagan (2010) The effect of replacing fine aggregate by copper slag on the compressive strength and split tensile strength The percentage replacement of sand by granulated copper slag were 0%,5%,10%,15%,20%,30%,40% and 50%. The compressive strength was observed to increase by about 35-40% and split tensile strength by 30-35%. The experimental investigation showed that percentage replacement of sand by copper slag shall be upto 40%. 6 Brindha, Baskarn and Nagan (2010) Experimental study on various corrosion and durability tests on concrete containing copper slag as partial replacement of sand and cement Compressive strength and split tensile strength have shown that copper slag is superior to corresponding control concrete the corrosion rate of copper slag admixed uncoated rebar is somewhat higher when compared to controlled specimens. But when the rebar is coated with zinc phosphate paint the corrosion rate had become zero. 7 Al-Jabri et al (2009) Performance of high strength concrete with slag as fine aggregate and studied the effect of super plasticizer addition on the properties of HSC made with copper slag A slight increase in the HPC density of nearly 5% with increase of copper slag content, whereas the workability increased rapidly with increase in copper slag percentage. Addition of upto 50% of copper slag as sand replacement yielded comparable strength with that of the control mix. However, further additions of copper slag caused reduction in the strength due to an increase of the free water content in the mix 8 Ishimaru et al (2005) Up to 20% (in volume) of copper slag or class II fly ash as fine aggregates substitution can be used in the production of concrete The fundamental properties of concrete using copper slag and class II fly ash as fine aggregates 93
  6. 6. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME 9 Wu et al (2010) 10 Mobasher et al Effect of copper slag on (1996) and Tixier et the hydration of al (1997) cement-based materials A significant increase in the compressive strength for up to 90 days of hydration. Also, a decrease in capillary porosity and an increase in gel porosity 11 Al-Jabri et al (2002) Effect of copper slag (CS) and cement by-pass dust (CBPD) replacements on the strength of cement mortars. The mixture containing 5% CBPD + 95% cement yielded the highest 90 days compressive strength of 42 MPa in comparison with 40 MPa for the mixture containing 1.5% CBPD + 13.5 CS + 85% cement. The optimum CS and CBPD used was 5%. In addition, it was determined that using CBPD as an activating material would operate better than using lime. 12 Ayano et al (2000) The effects of using several types of slag on mortar and concrete reactions, reinforcing steel corrosion, abrasion, workability and slump, shrinkage, and freezing and thawing characteristics The strength, setting time and durability of concrete mixtures made with copper slag 13 Washington Almeida Moura et al (2007) Investigated the strength Addition of copper slag to concrete results in an increase on the concrete’s axial compressive, splitting tensile strength and decrease in the absorption rate by capillary suction, carbonation depth and hence improved its durability 14 Madhavi et al (2007) 15 16 Dynamic compressive strength of copper slag reinforced concrete Dynamic compressive strength of copper slag reinforced concrete generally improved with the increase in amounts of copper slag used as a sand replacement upto 20%, compared with the control concrete, beyond which the strength was reduced Stabilize the slope in retaining walls against seismic forces using copper slag as backfill material Al-Jabri et al (2011) Effect of using copper slag as a fine aggregate on the properties of cement mortars and concrete The wall constructed with copper slag backfill showed lesser faces deformations compared with sand. Isa Yuksel and Turhan Bilir (2007) Compression strength was decreased slightly, durability characteristics such as resistance of freeze–thaw and abrasion were improved. The results showed that usage of partially fine aggregate of these industrial by-products have more beneficial effects on durability characteristics of plain concrete elements The possible usage of bottom ash (BA) and granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) in production of plain concrete elements. 94 All mixtures with different copper slag proportions yielded comparable or higher compressive strength than that of the control mixture. More than 70% improvement in the compressive strength of mortars with 50% copper slag substitution
  7. 7. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME 17 Ramazan Demirbog and Rustem Gul (2007) The use of Blast furnace slag aggregates (BFSA) to produce high-strength concretes (HSC). Compressive strength of BFSA concretes were approximately 60–80% higher than traditional (control) concretes for different w/c ratios. These concretes also had low absorption and high splitting tensile strength values. Therefore, it was concluded that BFSA, in combination with other supplementary cementitious materials, can be utilized in making high strength concretes. 18 Caroline Morrison et al (2003) Ferro-silicate slag from the Imperial Smelting Furnace (ISF) production of zinc can be used as a replacement for sand in cementitious mixes The replacement of sand in concrete mixes with Ferro silicate slag from the ISF production of zinc (ISF slag) caused a retardation of concrete set. The leaching of lead and zinc ions was increased in high pH solutions. However, the combination of ISF slag and PFA or GGBS reduced leaching, even in highly alkaline solutions containing PFA. 19 Byung Sik Chun et al (2005) Evaluated the applicability of copper slag as a substitute for sand of sand compaction pile method The strength of composite ground was compared and analyzed by monitoring the stress and ground settlement of clay, sand compaction pile and copper slag compaction pile 20 Teik-Thye Lim and Chu (2006) Feasibility of using spent copper slag as fill material in land reclamation The spent copper slag was a good fill material and it can be used as a fill material for land reclamation 21 Mobasher et al (1996 The effect of copper slag on the hydration of cement based materials Fracture properties such as critical stress intensity factor and fracture toughness showed a constant or decreasing trend with the addition slag. 22 Tixier et al (1997) The effect of copper slag on the hydration of cement based materials A decrease in capillary porosity was observed while the gel porosity decreased. A significant increase in the compressive strength was observed. 23 Caijun Shi and Jueshi Qian (1999) Review Copper slag such as blast furnace slag, steel slag, alkali-activated slag and phosphorus slag exhibit not only higher early and later strength, but also better corrosion resistance than normal Portland cement.The production of Portland cement is an energy-intensive process, while the grinding of metallurgical slags needs only approximately 10% of the energy required for the production of Portland cement. Activation of latent pozzolanic or cementitious properties of metallurgical Slags should be a prime topic for construction materials researchers. 24 Arino and Mobasher (1999) The effect of ground copper slag on the strength and fracture of cement-based materials GCS concrete was stronger but more brittle than ordinary Portland cement concrete. Fracture test results confirmed the increased brittleness of concrete due to the use of GCS. Long-term results showed equal or higher strengths for the GCS 95
  8. 8. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME specimens without concern for degradation of other properties 25 Sioulas and Sanjayan (2000) Use of slag-blended cements in the production of HSC The peak and net temperature rise encountered at the center of the columns are substantially reduced with the inclusion of slag into the binder. A progressive reduction in maximum net temperature rise was obtained with increasing slag content. The inclusion of slag into the concrete binder results in a delay in time required to attain peak temperature. The maximum thermal gradients exhibited by the general purpose columns were significantly reduced when slag was incorporated into the concrete. The removal of the formwork at 24 h exacerbated the temperature difference between the center and surface of the columns containing a slag replacement equal to or greater than 50%. 26 Washington Almeida Moura et al 2007 Use of copper slag as pozzolanic supplementary cementing material for use in concrete The addition of copper slag to concrete results in an increase on the concrete’s axial compressive and splitting tensile strengths. It was observed that a decrease in the absorption rate by capillary suction, absorption and carbonation depth in the copper slag concrete tested improved its durability. 27 Ayano Toshiki et al (2000) Problems in using The delay of setting time does not have a negative copper slag as a influence on durability. concrete aggregate. One of them is excess bleeding attributed to the glassy surface of copper slag 28 Ke Ru Wu et al (2001) The effect of copper slag in coarse aggregate type on mechanical properties of high-performance concrete. 29 Alpa and Deveci (2008) Potential use of The mechanical performance of the standard flotation waste of a mortars prepared from the FWCS clinkers was copper slag as iron found to be similar to those of the iron ore clinkers source in the production of Portland cement clinker 30 Mostafa Khanzadi and Ali Behnood (2009) The feasibility of using copper slag as coarse aggregates in high-strength concrete 96 High-strength concrete with lower brittleness can be made by selecting high-strength aggregate with low brittleness. Copper slag as coarse aggregate in high-strength concrete is technically possible and useful
  9. 9. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME 31 Najimi et al (2011) The performance of copper slag contained concrete in sulphate solution The effectiveness of copper slag replacement in improving the concrete resistance against sulphate attack 32 Jack et al (2003) The effect of carbonation on mechanical properties and durability of concrete Carbonation may compensate some concrete properties such as compressive strength, splitting strength, electrical resistivity and chloride ion penetration. However, corrosion test results showed that carbonation increases corrosion rate of reinforcing steel. CONCLUSION Copper slag has harness in the range 6 to 7. The specific gravity varies from 3.5 to 3.91. Bulk density is in the order of 1.70 to 3.8 g/cc. The Fe2O3 content in the slag fluctuates between 53 % to 68.29%. While the SiO2 content varying in between 25.84% to 35%, the Al2O3 concentration is in the order of 0.22% to 5 %. Due to the physical and mechanical property, slag enjoys various reuse applications. Reuse of copper slag has the dual benefit of safe disposal and judicial resource management. Application in concrete as an admixture, replacement of cement and as a fine aggregate has very good scope in the future. Further research is warranted to analyze the scope for reuse extensively. REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Akihiko, Y. and Takashi, Y. “Study of utilisation of copper slag as fine aggregate for concrete”, Ashikaya Kogyo Daigaku Kenkyu Shuroku, Vol. 23, pp. 79-85, 1996. Al-Jabri, K. and Makoto Hisada. “Copper slag as sand replacement for high performance concrete”, Cement & Concrete Composites, Vol. 31, pp. 483- 488, 2009. Al-Jabri, K., Taha, R. and Al-Ghassani, M. “Use of copper slag and cement by-pass dust as cementitious materials” Cement, Concrete Aggregates, Vol. 24, No.1, pp. 7-12, 2005. Al-Jabri, K.S., Abdullah, H., Al-Saidy and Ramzi Taha. “Effect of copper slag as a fine aggregate on the properties of cement mortars nd concrete”, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 25, pp. 933-938, 2011. Al-Jabri, K.S., Taha, R.A., Al-Hashmi, A. and Al-Harthy, A.S. “Effect of copper slag and cement by-pass dust addition on mechanical properties of concrete”, Construction and building materials, Vol. 20, pp. 322-331, 2006. Alpa, I. and Deveci, H. “Utilization of flotation wastes of copper slag as raw material in cement production”, Journal of hazard materials, Vol. 159, No. 2, pp. 390-395, 2008. Al-Jabri, K.S., Makoto Hisada, Abdulla, H.A. and Al-oraini, S.K. “Performance of high strength concrete made with copper slag as a fine aggregate”, Construction and building materials, Vol.23, pp. 2132-2140, 2009. Alnuaimi, A,S Effects of Copper Slag as a Replacement for Fine Aggregate on the Behavior and Ultimate Strength of Reinforced Concrete Slender Columns” TJER 2012, Vol. 9, No. 2, 90-102 Arino, A.M. and Mobasher, B. “Effect of copper slag on the strength, and toughness of cementitious mixtures”, ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 96, No. 1, pp. 68-75, 1999. 97
  10. 10. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME 10. Ayano Toshiki, Kuramoto Osamu, and Sakata Kenji, “Concrete with copper slag fine aggregate”, Society of Materials Science, Vol. 49, pp. 1097-1102, 2000. 11. Ayano, T. and Sakata, K. “Durability of concrete with copper slag fine aggregate”, Proceedings of the fifth ACI international conference on durability of concrete, Vol.192, pp.141-158, 2000. 12. Ayano, T., Kuramoto, O. and Sakata, K. “Concrete with copper slag as fine aggregate”, Jounal of Society Material Science Japan, Vol. 49, No. 10, pp. 1097-1102, 2000. 13. Bipra Gorai, Jana, R. K. and Premchand, “Characteristics and utilisation of copper slag-a review”, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 299-313, 2002. 14. Brindha,D and Nagan,S, “ utilization of copper slag as a partial replacement of fine aggregate”. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Vol.3, No.4, August 2010, PP:579-585. 15. Brindha,D and Nagan,s, “ Durability studies on copper slag admixed concrete”, Asian Journal of Civil Engineering ( Building and housing), Vol.12, No.5 , 2011,PP:563-578. 16. Brindha,D et al, ‘ Assessment of corrosion and durability characteristics of copper slag admixed concrete, International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering, Vol.1,No.2, 2010, PP: 192-211. 17. Byung Sik Chun, Du Hee Park, and Hun Chul Jung “A Study on the Application of Copper Slag as a Sand Substitute of Sand Compaction Pile”, proceedings of 15th international off shore and polar Engineering conference, 2005. 18. Caijun Shi, and Jueshi Qian, “High performance cementing materials from industrial slags — a review” Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Vol. 29, pp. 195-207, 2000. 19. Caijun Shi, Christian Meyer, and Ali Behnood, “Utilization of copper slag in cement and concrete”, Resources Conservation and Recycling, Vol. 52, pp. 1115-1120, 2008. 20. Caliskan, S. and Behnood, A. “Recycling copper slag as coarse aggregate: hardened properties of concrete”, Proceedings of seventh international conference on concrete technology in developing countries, pp. 91-98, 2004. 21. Caroline Morrison, Rebecca Hoope, and Kevin Lardner, “The use of ferro-silicate slag from ISF zinc production as a sand replacement in concrete”, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 33, No. 12, pp. 2085-2089. 22. Das, B.M., Tarquin, A.J. and Jones, A.D. “Geotechnical properties of copper slag”, Resources conservation and recycling, Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 299-313, 2003. 23. oni, S., Lorenzo, M. P. and Guerrero, A. “Activation of Pozzolanic Reaction of Hydrated Portland Cement Fly Ash Pastes in Sulfate Solution”, Journal of the American Ceramic 24. Gorai, B. and Jana, R.K. “Premchand. Characteristics and utilization of copper slag”, Resources Conservation and Recycling, Vol. 39, pp. 299-313, 2002. 25. Huang, K. “Use of copper slag in cement production”, Sichuan Cement, No. 4, pp. 25-27, 2001. 26. Hwang, C. L and Laiw, J. C. “Properties of concrete using copper slag as a substitute for fine Aggregate”, Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on fly ash, silica fume, slag, and natural pozzolans in concrete, SP-114-82, pp. 1677-1695, 1989. 27. Hwang, C.L. and Laiw, J.C. “Properties of concrete using copper slag as a substitute for fine aggregate”, Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on fly ash, silica fume, slag, and natural pozzolans in concrete, Vol. 114, pp. 1677-1695, 1989. 28. Isa Yuksel, Turhan Bilir, and Omer Ozkan, “Use of Granulated BlastFurnace Slag in Concrete as Fine Aggregate”, Materials journal, Vol. 103, No. 3, pp. 203-208, 2006. 29. Ishimaru, K., Mizuguchi, H., Hashimoto, C., Ueda, T., Fujita, K. and Ohmi, M. “Properties of copper slag and second class fly ash as a part of fine aggregate”, Jounal of Society Material Science Japan , Vol. 54, No. 8, pp. 828-833, 2005. 98
  11. 11. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME 30. Malhotra, V.M. “Fly ash, slag, silica fume, and rice-husk ash in concrete: a review”, Concrete International, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 23-28, 1993. 31. Matsuda, H., Wonjin Baek, and Daisuke Hashiguchi, “Application of granulated blast furnace slag to reduce the seismic earth pressure”, Nippon Slag Association, 2005. 32. Meenakshi Sudarvizhi,S and Ilangovan,R, “performance of copper slag as partial replacement of sand in concrete, International journal of Civil and Structural Engineering, Vol.1, No.4, PP:918-927. 33. Mobasher, B., Devaguptapu, R and Arino, “Effect of copper slag on the hydration of blended cemetitious mixtures”, Proceedings of the ASCE Materials Engineering Conference, Materials for the New Millennium, pp. 1677-1686, 2000. 34. Mobasher, B., Devaguptapu, R. and Arino, A.M. “Effect of copper slag on the hydration of blended cementitious mixtures”, Proceedings of the ASCE materials engineering conference, pp. 1677-1686, 1996. 35. Mohamed Ismail, and Masayasu Ohtsu, “Corrosion rate of ordinary and high-performance concrete subjected to chloride attack by AC impedance spectroscopy”, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 20, pp. 458-469, 2006. 36. Moura, W., Masuero, A., Molin, D. and Dal Vilela, A. “Concrete performance with admixtures of electrical steel slag and copper slag concerning mechanical properties”, American Concrete Institute, Vol. 186, pp. 81-100, 1999. 37. Najimi, M., Sobhani, J. and Pourkhorshidi, A.R. “Durability of copper slag contained concrete exposed to sulfate attack”, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 1895-1905, 2011. 38. Najimi, M., Sobhani, J. and Pourkhorshidi, A.R. “Durability of copper slag contained concrete exposed to sulphate attack”, Construction and Building materials, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 1895-1905, 2011. 39. Premchand, Bipra Gori, and Rana, R.K. “Characterisation and utilisation of copper slag of Sterlite Industries India Ltd.”, Report submitted to SIIL Tuticorin, India, 2000. 40. Rajamane, V., Annie peter, Dattatreya, J.K., Neelamegam, M. and Gopalakrishnan, S. “Improvement in properties of high performance concrete with partial replacement of cement by GGBS” Journal of Institution of Engineers, Vol. 84, pp. 38-42, 2003. 41. Ramazan Demirbog, and Rustem Gul, “Production of high strength concrete by use of industrial by-products”, Building and Environment, Vol. 41, No. 8, pp. 1124-1127, 2006. 42. Report on Utilization of copper slag as performance improver in Ordinary Portland cement for M/s Sterlite Industries (India) Ltd., Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, submitted by National Council for cement and building materials, New Delhi, Jan 2009. 43. Sanchez de Rojas, M.I., Rivera, J., Frias, M., Esteban, J.M. and Olaya, M. “Leaching characteristics of blended mortars containing copper slag”, Proceedings of the sixth CANMET / ACI international conference on durability of concrete, Vol. 221, pp. 925-940, 2004. 44. Sanchez de Rojas, “Durability of hydrated portland cement with copper slag addition in NaCl + Na2SO4 medium”, Cement and Concrete Research”, Vol. 24, No. 8, pp. 1403-1412, 2004. 45. Shi, C. and Qian, J. “High-performance cementing materials from industrial slag”, Resources Conservation and Recycling, Vol. 29, pp. 195 -207, 2000. 46. Shi, C., Meyer, C. and Behnood, A. “Utilization of copper slag in cement and concrete a review”. Resources, Conservation and recycling, Vol. 52, pp. 1115-1120, 2008. 47. Sioulas, Z.B. and Sanjayan, J.G. “Hydration temperatures in large high-strength concrete columns incorporating slag”, journal of cement and concrete research, Vol. 30, No. 11, pp. 1791-1799, 2000. 48. Taeb, A. and Faghihi, S. “Utilization of copper slag in the cement industry”, Zement Kalk Gips International, Vol.55, No.4, pp. 98-100, 2002. 99
  12. 12. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME 49. Tan, Y., Zhou, Q. and Wei R. “The initial study on the use of copper slag as additional materials for cement production”, Journal of Xinjiang Institute of Technology, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 236-239, 2000. 50. Tang, M., Wang, B. and Chen, Y. “The Research on super high strength, high wearability cement mortar with the incorporation of copper slag as aggregates”, concrete, Vol. 4, pp. 30-32, 2000. 51. Teik Thye Luin, and Chu J. “Use of spent copper slag for land reclamation”, waste management and research, Vol. 24, pp. 67-73, 2004. 52. Tixier, R., Devaguptapu, R. and Mobasher, B. “The effect of copper slag on the hydration and mechanical properties of cementitious mixtures”, Cement Concrete Research, Vol. 27, No. 10, pp. 1569-1580, 1997. 53. Washington Almeida, Moura Jardel, Pereira Gonc, and Monica Batista Leite Lima, “Copper slag waste as a supplementary cementing material to concrete”, J. Mater. Sci., Vol. 42, pp. 2226-2230, 2007. 54. Wu, W., Zhang, W. and Ma, G. “Optimum content of copper slag as a fine aggregate in high strength concrete”, Material design, Vol.31, No.6, pp. 2878-2883,2010. 55. Wu, W., Zhang, W. and Ma, G. “Mechanical properties of copper slag reinforced concrete under dynamic compression”, Construction and building materials, Vol. 24, No. 6, pp. 910-917, 2010. 56. D.Jayganesh, Dr. J.Jegan and Dr.P.Mariappan, “Impact of Staging Height of Service Reservoir on the Installation Cost of Water Supply Scheme - A Case Study”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp. 181 - 190, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 57. A.Raja Jeya Chandra Bose, Dr.T.R.Neelakantan and Dr.P.Mariappan, “Peak Factor in the Design of Water Distribution- An Analysis”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 123 - 129, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 58. Dr. P. Mariappan, “Wastewater Management in a Dwelling House- A Case Study”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 16 - 24, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 59. Amena.I.Tamboli and Dr. S.B. Shinde, “Partial Replacement of Cement with Unprocessed Steel Slag in Concrete”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp. 55 - 60, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 60. Riyaz Khan and Prof.S.B.Shinde, “Effect of Unprocessed Steel Slag on the Strength of Concrete When used as Fine Aggregate”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 231 - 239, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 100

×