20320130406004 2-3
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

20320130406004 2-3

on

  • 402 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
402
Slideshare-icon Views on SlideShare
402
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    20320130406004 2-3 20320130406004 2-3 Document Transcript

    • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET) ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December, pp. 31-43 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCIET ©IAEME THE INFLUENCE OF “WATER MAGNETIZATION” ON FRESH AND HARDENED CONCRETE PROPERTIES Yasser R. Tawfic1 and Wael Abdelmoez2 1 2 Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Minia University, Egypt Associate Professor, Chemical Engineering Department, Minia University, Egypt. ABSTRACT This research investigates the fresh and hardened properties of concrete fabricated with magnetized water. An experimental program consists of eighteen concrete mixes were fabricated with different constituent materials. For the purpose of comparison, either magnetized water or tap water was used to fabricate the concrete mixes. The water magnetization strength was 0.75 Tesla. Slump and compaction factor tests were conducted to identify the fresh concrete properties. However, the hardened properties of concrete were investigated through the results of the compressive strength, the flexural strength, and the splitting tensile strength tests. Using magnetized or tap water, the consistency, the initial and final setting time, and the compressive strength were investigated for three different types of cement. Test results showed that, using magnetized water in producing concrete mixes can result in up to 20 % increase for the values of compressive strength as well as better concrete workability can be obtained. Key words: Compressive Strength, Magnetized Water, Splitting Tensile Strength, Workability. 1. INTRODUCTION Concrete is a composite material that made up of aggregate, cement, and water. The role of aggregate is a filler material as it is chemically inert. Meanwhile, the mix of cement and water form the cement paste required to bindthe aggregate together. Usually, tap water is recommended to produce concrete as it does not causeside reactions that may interfere with the hydration process. As a twenty percent by weight of cement, water is required for the hydration of the cement. Extra amount of water (from 15% to 20% by weight of cement) is required to provide space for the cement hydration products. The final water cement ratio is the most critical factor affects the production of durable and consistent concrete as high water cement ratio (w/c) severely reduces the concrete strength, while low water cement ratio (w/c) produces unworkable concrete [1]. 31
    • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME Water is commonly described either in terms of its nature, usage, or origin. The implications in these descriptions range from being highly specific to so general as tobe non-definitive. Water after passing through a magnetic field of certain strength is called magnetic field treated water (MFTW) or magnetized water. Nan SU (2003) explained the improvement of the characteristics of concrete by the molecular structure of the magnetized water. Water is a polar substance, which tends to be attracted to each other by hydrogen bonding and forms clusters. These associations and disassociations of water molecules are in thermodynamic equilibrium. Abdelmoez (2012) (One of the presnt authors) provided a complete review in the field of magnetized water through one of his books. In general, he wrote that each cluster contains about 100 water molecules at room temperature. In a magnetic field, magnetic force can break apart water clusters into single molecules or smaller ones as shown in Fig. (1), therefore, the activity (a) The clustering and its rupturing (b) 3D for the water cluster (c) 3D for un-clustered water molecules Fig. (1): Effect of magnetic field on water molecules of water is improved. The true mechanism still remains to be solved since many phenomena in liquid state have not been satisfactorily explained. Limited numbers of researches were conducted to detect the properties of the concrete produced by magnetized water. Nan Su et. al. (2000) investigated the compressive strength and workability of mortar and concrete, which were mixed with magnetically treated water and contained granulated blast-furnace slag (GBFS). The test variables included the magneticstrength of water, the content of GBFS in place of cement, and the water-to-binderratio (W/B). Test results showed that the compressive strength of the mortar samples mixed with magnetically treated water of 0.8±1.35 T increased 9±19% more than those mixed with tap water. Similarly, the compressive strength of concrete prepared with magnetically treated water increased 10±23% more than that of the tap water samples. In particular, the best increase in compressive strength of concrete is achieved when the magnetic strength of water is of 0.8 and 1.2 T. It is also found that magnetically treated water improved the fluidity of mortar, the slump, and the degree of hydration of concrete. In 2003, Su et. al. (2003) in another research investigated the workability and compressive strength of mortar and concrete, which were mixed with magnetic field treated water (MFTW) and contained fly ash. Test variables included the magnetic strength of water, fly ash content in place of cement, water-tocementations material ratio and curing age. Test results showed that the compressive strength of mortar samples mixed with MFTW is higher than those prepared with tap water. The compressive strength increase of concrete prepared with MFTW is more significant at early age. Saddam M. Ahmed (2009) studied the effect of the magnetic water on engineering properties of concrete and he concluded that, the strength of concrete prepared with magnetized water increased by 10 to 20 percent, when the magnetic flux density was 1.2 Tesla. H. Afshin (2010), conducted tests to study the improving of the mechanical properties of high strength concrete by magnetic water technology and reported that the compressive strength of the concrete made with magnetic water was 32
    • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME up to 18% higher than those of the control concrete sample. The slump values of the concrete made with magnetized water were up to 45% higher than the slump values of the control mixes. 2. RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE Magnetized water is found to be promising in producing concrete with good fresh and hardened properties. However, limited numbers of researches were conducted to define and ensure the influence of the water magnetization on the concrete properties. This research is an experimental study that aims to give more confidence for the designer to use magnetized water in concrete production and to get its benefits. Moreover, tests were conducted on three different types of cement to investigate the effect of using magnetized water on the consistency, initial and final setting time as well as the compressive strength of the cement. 3. MATERIALS AND METHODS 3.1 Material properties 3.1.1Cement All concrete mixes were fabricated using the same type of ordinary Portland cement the product of CEMEX Assuit Co., Assuit, Egypt. Meanwhile, tests were conducted on three different types of ordinary Portland cement produced by three different companies in order to investigate the effect of the magnetized water on the cement hydration process. In this work for confidentialitypurposes the name of the companies are not shown and we just refereed to these types by Type I, II, and III. The physical properties of the three types used of cement are presented in table (1). Table (1): Physical properties of cement Type I Type II Type III 2 Surface area (cm /gm) 3200 3250 3250 Specific gravity 3.15 3.15 3.15 3.1.2 Fine and coarse aggregate Natural sand and gravel from local quires inMinia Governorate, Egyptwere used to prepare the concrete mixes. The specific gravity of the sand and gravel are 2.55 and 2.60, respectively. The maximum nominal size of the gravel is 20 mm. 3.1.3 Silica fume Silica fume dust is collected by filters as a by-product of the melting process to produce silicon metal and ferro-silicon alloys. It consists of spherical particles of amorphous silicon dioxide and is highly pozzolanic. The used silica fume was the product ofFerro-silicon Co. Aswan, Egypt with having a specific gravity of 2.17. 3.1.4 Super-plasticizer Super-plasticizer, having a high range of water reducer without retarding effect, was used to fabricate the concrete mixes. The used Super-plasticizer was the product of CMB Co. Giza, Egypt with having a specific gravity of 1.15. 3.2 AQUA-PHYD water magnetizing system AQUA-PHYD (APD) water treatment system is designed for lab testing. It is 1 inch male threads at both ends. The unit is rated for 75 GPM. The APD is a patent pending technology that creates alternating magnetic fields of about 0.75 Tesla surrounding a magnetic core that is suspended 33
    • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME inside the metal housing. The housing is made of carbon steel. The magnetic core houses a proprietary arrangement of rare earth magnets designed to treat water as it flows around the core as shown in Fig. (2). Fig. (2): AQUA-PHYD water treatment system used in the present study. 3.3 Concrete mixes In order to investigate the effect of using magnetized water, eighteen concrete mixes were produced with different constituent materials and percentages. The absolute volume method of concrete mix design was employed to design all the concrete mixes. The experimental variables were the type of the water (tape or magnetized), the water cement ratio, the cement content, the silica fume content, and the super-plasticizer content. For the purpose of comparison, the concrete mixes were produced with either tap water or magnetized water and with different water cement ratio in the range of 0.45 to 0.55. The cement content of the concrete mixes (M1-t, M1-m, M2-t and M2-m) was 350 kg/m3. The remaining concrete mixes had 400 kg/m3 cement content. Silica-fume (5% by weight of cement) was used to produce mixes M6-t, M6-m, M7-t, M7-m, M8-t and M8-m. While, super-plasticizer (2% by weight of cement) was used to produce mixes M2-t and M2-m. Mixes M9 and M10 were prepared with magnetized water similar to mix M4-m but with a reduction of the cement content by a value of 5% and 7.5%, respectively. The details of the concrete mixes are shown in table (2). 3.4 Methods 3.4.1 Fresh and hardened concrete tests Slump and compaction factor tests were carried out to check the fresh concrete properties in both cases of using magnetized or tap water. In order to investigate the mechanical properties of the concrete mixes, six cubes (150x150x150 mm), three concrete cylinders (Diameter = 150 mm and height = 300 mm), and three prisms (100x100x500 mm) were cast from every concrete mix. All concrete specimens were cured in a standard condition for 28 days. The cubes were tested under uniaxial static compressive loads, the cylinders were subjected to splitting (Brazilian) test (2000 KN compression testing machine, Controls Milano-Italy), and the prisms were subjected to four-point flexural loading (Universal test machine Shimadzu VH-300 KN). 3.4.2 Tests on cement. In order to investigate the influence of the water magnetization on the cement hydration process, the consistency, the initial setting time, and the final setting time tests were conducted on three different types of cement produced by three different companies in Egypt, referred here as Type I, II, and III as mentioned before.Tests were carried out using ELE Vicat apparatus.The compressive strength of the cement was tested using 2000 KN compression testing machine, Controls Milano-Italyat 3, 7, and 28 day’s age. 4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Fresh concrete tests 4.1.1 Slump Slump test was conducted on all concrete mixes that prepared with either tap or magnetized water. The slump values of the concrete mixes are shown in table (3) and Fig (3-a). Generally, the values of slump of the concrete mixes that prepared with magnetized water were higher than the 34
    • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME recorded values for the concrete mixes produced with tap water. The percentages of increase were in the range of 0 to 25 %. These results come with agreement with previous research works [2,3,4,5,6]. The increase of the slump values is attributed to the reduction of the surface tension of the magnetized water that has efficient dispersion effect on cement clusters in mortars than that of tap water [2,7]. Magnetically treated water has major importance in concrete making due to its pertaining to colloidal particles and solutions. Like ion solution (colloidal cement solution is made with magnetized water), colloidal cement solution will contain colloidal particles, surrounded by a thinner dense layer of water mono-molecules as the number of mono-molecules drops at some regimen of magnetic treatment. Therefore, some reduction of water share in cement mixture is possible To have more deep understanding for the effect of magnetized water on the concrete workability, slump test was carried out under different conditions and using different additives. Water-cement ratio, presence of super-plasticizer, and the reduction of the cement content were different variables studied for both magnetized and tap water. As respected, the values of slump were found to be highly affected by water cement ratio (w/c). Increasing the w/c ratio from 0.45 to 0.5 (mixes M3, M4 and M5) resulted in 233% and 250% increase in the slump values for the tap and magnetized water, respectively. The use of super-plasticizer (2% by weight of cement) in preparing mixes M2-t and M2-m resulted in high values of slump (collapse type) indicating a high workable type of concrete [8,9]. The slump of mixes M2-t and M2-m were 620% and 570% higher than the values of slump of concrete mixes M1-t and M1-m, respectively. The values of slump of mixes M4-m, M9 and M10 that have the same water cement ratio, showed that the decrease of the cement content resulted in a decrease in the slump values see table (3) and Fig. (3-b). Table (2): Mix proportions for concrete mixes Mix Cement (kg) Water (liter) W/C Water type Silica (kg) Sand (kg) Gravel (kg) Superplasticizer (kg) M1-t 350 157.5 0.45 Tap --- 630 1260 --- M1-m 350 157.5 0.45 Magnetized --- 630 1260 --- M2-t 350 157.5 0.45 Tap --- 625 1250 7 M2-m 350 157.5 0.45 Magnetized --- 625 1250 7 M3-t 400 180 0.45 Tap --- 597 1194 --- M3-m 400 180 0.45 Magnetized --- 597 1194 --- M4-t 400 190 0.475 Tap --- 588 1176 --- M4-m 400 190 0.475 Magnetized --- 588 1176 --- M5-t 400 200 0.5 Tap --- 580 1160 --- M5-m 400 200 0.5 Magnetized --- 580 1160 --- M6-t 400 200 0.5 Tap 20 572 1144 --- M6-m 400 200 0.5 Magnetized 20 572 1144 --- M7-t 400 210 0.525 Tap 20 563 1126 --- M7-m 400 210 0.525 Magnetized 20 563 1126 --- M8-t 400 220 0.55 Tap 20 554 1108 --- M8-m 400 220 0.55 Magnetized 20 554 1108 --- M9 380 180.5 0.475 Magnetized -- 602 1204 -- M10 370 175.75 0.475 Magnetized -- 609 1218 -- 35
    • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME (a) Slump values for the concrete mixes (b) Effect of cement content on slump Fig. (3): Concrete mixes slump 4.1.2 Compaction factor The compaction factor test results are recorded in table (3) and shown in Fig. (4). Generally, higher values of compaction factor were recorded for the concrete mixes fabricated with magnetized water when compared with those fabricated with tab water, which may be attributed to the better workability resulted from the use of magnetized water. Because of the use of super-plasticizer (2% by weight of cement), the highest values of compaction factor were recorded for concrete mixes M2-t and M2-m. It is clear that, the increase of the water cement ratio resulted in an increase for the value of the compaction factor for the concrete mixes prepared with either tab water or magnetized water. Fig. (4): Compaction factor test results 4.2 Mechanical properties of hardened concrete 4.2.1 Compressive strength For all concrete mixes, the 7 and 28-days age compressive strength were recorded in table (3) and drawn in Fig. (5). Except mixes M1 (28 days age) and M6 (7 days age), the values of compressive strength of the concrete mixes fabricated with magnetized water, at both 7 and 28 days age, were higher than the values of the compressive strength of the concrete mixes fabricated with tap water. The percentages of increase of the compressive strength at 7-days age were ranged from 5% to 19%. 36
    • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME Meanwhile, the percentages of increase of the compressive strength at 28-days age were ranged from (4% to 20%). When the hydration reaction between cement and water takes place on the surface of the cement particles, a thin layer of hydration products is thus formed that hinders further hydration of the cement particles. However, magnetic water molecule can easily penetrate into the cement particles, allowing a more complete hydration process to occur and enhancing the mechanical strength of concrete [1,10,11]. Compared with mix M4, mixes M9 and M10 were produced with magnetized water and with lower cement content by about 5% and 7.5%, respectively. The 28-days compressive strength of mixes M9 and M10 were slightly lower than the compressive strength of mix M4-m. Although mix M10 has 7.5% reduction for the cement content, similar compressive strength was resulted for mixes M10 and M4 which were fabricated with tap water, see Fig. (6). Compared with the concrete prepared with tap water, test results show that the use of magnetized water may allow a reduction of the cement content (from 5% to 7.5%) without affecting the resulting concrete compressive strength [6]. However, more experimental tests are required to ensure the exact permissible values of cement reduction. The presence of super-plasticizer in mix M2 resulted in 24% and 46% of increase for the values of 28-days compressive strength for the concrete fabricated with tap water and magnetized water, respectively. The use of silica-fume (5% by weight of cement) and the increase of the cement content produced higher compressive strength concrete. As respected, the increase of the water cement ratio severely affected the compressive strength of all concrete mixes in case of using tap or magnetized water as shown Fig. (7). Mix No. Mix1-t Mix1-m Mix2-t Mix2-m Mix3-t Mix3-m Mix4-t Mix4-m Mix5-t Mix5-m Mix6-t Mix6-m Mix7-t Mix7-m Mix8-t Mix8-m Mix9 Mix10 Table (3): Fresh and hardened concrete test results Fresh concrete tests Hardened concrete test results results Compressiv Compressi Splitting Flexural Slump Compaction e strength ve strength tensile strength (cm) factor (7-days) (28-days) strength (kg/cm2) (kg/cm2) (kg/cm2) (kg/cm2) 2.5 0.90 171 231.0 24.5 29.4 2.9 0.91 187 231.0 26.0 31.2 18 0.98 209 287.0 27.6 36.6 19.5 0.99 220 338.0 30.8 39.4 2.7 0.92 182 265.0 25.0 37.4 3.0 0.92 217 320.0 28.2 37.8 6.2 0.96 197 267.0 25.9 34.5 6.5 0.97 207 277.0 26.9 36.3 9.0 0.96 160 215.5 22.0 32.5 10.5 0.98 190 226.7 24.1 33.2 4.0 0.93 190 320.0 28.0 36.1 5.0 0.95 183 311.0 27.0 35.6 11.0 0.97 169 255.6 27.1 33.3 11.0 0.98 178 306.0 28.5 35.9 14.0 0.98 138 200.0 20.3 23.4 16.0 0.99 178 240.0 23.1 25.3 3.2 0.93 215 275.0 26.4 31.7 3.0 0.92 203 267.0 25.9 29.7 37
    • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME (a): Compressive strength (7-days) test results (b): Compressive strength (28-days) test results. Compressive strength28-days (kg/cm2) Fig. (5): Concrete compressive strength 280 275 270 265 260 255 250 M4-t M4-m M9 M10 Concrete Mixes Fig. (6): Effect of cement content on 28-days concrete compressive strength 38
    • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME Fig. (7): Effect of w/c ratio on 28-days concrete compressive strength 4.2.2 Splitting tensile strength Table (3) and Fig. (8) show the values of the 28-days splitting tensile strength for all concrete mixes. Generally, higher values of splitting tensile strength were recorded for the concrete mixes produced with magnetized water when compared with the concrete mixes prepared with tap water, which may be attributed to the better hydration process between magnetized water and cement [2,4]. The percentages of increase were in the range of 4% to 13.8%. The use of super-plasticizer (2% by weight of cement) and the use of silica-fume (5% by weight of cement) for producing the concrete mixes were found to give about 8~10 % increase in the values of the splitting tensile strength. The tendency of increase of the values of splitting tensile strength is attributed to the better microstructure of the concrete mixes. The use of high water cement ratio to produce mix M8 (w/c = 0.55) resulted in the lowest values of splitting tensile strength (M8-t= 20.3 kg/cm2 and M8-m=23.1 kg/cm2), see Fig. (8). 4.2.3 Flexural strength The flexural strength for the concrete mixes was obtained from testing standard concrete prisms under four point loads, see table (3) and Fig. (9). The highest values of flexural strength were recorded for the concrete mixes prepared with super-plasticizer. The values of the flexural strength for the concrete mixes fabricated with magnetized water were from 1% to 8% higher than the values of the flexural strength of the concrete mixes produced with tap water. Similar to the compressive strength and the splitting tensile strength, the use of high w/c ratio resulted in the lowest values of flexural strength for the concrete mixes fabricated with either tap or magnetized water, see Fig. (10). Fig. (8): Concrete splitting tensile strength 39
    • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME Figure (9): Concrete flexural strength Fig. (10): Effect of w/c ratio on the concrete flexural strength 4.2.4 Cement tests Because of the importance of the chemical reaction between cement and water on the fresh and hardened properties of concrete, tests were conducted on three different types of cement to investigate the effect of the use of magnetized water on the hydration process. The cement consistency, the initial setting time, the final setting time, and the compressive strength tests were carried out and recorded for three different types of cement, see table (4). Compared with tap water, test results show that slightly lower quantity of magnetized water is required to reach the cement consistency which may be attributed to high efficient dispersion effect of magnetized water on cement clusters in mortars [5]. The use of magnetized water resulted in slightly lower initial setting timefor all the cement types. However, no clear trend was observed for the effect of the magnetized water on the final setting time of the cement. The compressive strength tests were carried out on the three different types of cement at ages 3, 7, and 28 days. Test results showed that the use of magnetized water can positively affect the compressive strength of the cement. Using magnetized water instead of tap water resulted in increase in the values of the compressive strength of cement from 4% to 11% as shown in Fig. (11). The increase of the cement compressive strength is mainly attributed to the better hydration process that resulted from the easily penetration of the magnetized water to the cement particles [1,10]. Nan Su (2002) explained the increase of the compressive strength of cementitous materials with magnetized 40
    • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME water by the morphology of hydration products such as C-S-H gel, ettringite, and mono-sulfate hydrate of pastes mixed with magnetized water similar to those mixed with tap water. However, larger CH crystals with distinctive hexagonal plates were observed for pastes mixed with tap water. The molecules of tap water tend to agglomerate with each other and form clusters. The larger CH plates, which packed in the transition zone, could be produced after cement has reacted with these clustered water molecules. The CH crystals in hydrated paste tend to be smaller water molecules of magnetized water reacted with cement. Table (4): Cement test results Cement Type Type of water Water * (cm3) w/c % Initial setting time(minute) Final setting time(minute) It IIt IIIt Im IIm IIIm Tap Tap Tap Magnetized Magnetized Magnetized 123 120 107 123 118 103 30.8 30.0 26.8 30.8 29.5 25.8 120 90 165 118 89 155 280 263 295 276 269 305 3-days compressive strength (kg/cm2) 312 273 310 337 306 300 7-days compressive strength (kg/cm2) 408 340 340 410 397 347 28-days compressive strength (kg/cm2) 510 437 423 540 485 440 * required for consistent cement (a) 3-days cement compressive strength (b) 7-days cement compressive strength (c) 28-days cement compressive strength Fig. (11): Cement compressive strength 41
    • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME CONCLUSIONS From the experimental study, the following can be concluded: 1- The use of magnetized water instead of tap water for the fabrication of concrete produces higher workable concrete. 2- The compressive strength of the concrete mixes prepared with magnetized water, at both 7 and 28 days age, were higher than the values of the compressive strength of the concrete mixes fabricated with tap water. The percentages of increase of the compressive strength at 7-days age were in the range of 5% to 19%. Meanwhile, the percentages of increase of the compressive strength at 28-days age were in the range of 4% to 20%. 3- The splitting tensile strength of the concrete produced with magnetized waterwas higher thanthe splitting tensile strength of the concrete mixes produced with tap water. The percentages of increase were in the range of 4% to 13.8%. 4- The values of the flexural strength for the concrete mixes prepared with magnetized water were from 1% to 8% higher than the flexural strength of the concrete mixes produced with tap water. 5- Test results show that, using magnetized water instead of tap water may allow a reduction of the cement content (from 5% to 7.5%) without affecting the resulting concrete compressive strength. However, more experimental tests are required to ensure the exact permissible values of cement reduction. 6- Test results showed that the use of magnetized water instead of tap watercan positivelyaffect the compressive strength of the cement. The percentages of increase of the compressive strength were in the range of 4 to 11%. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to thank Oakwoode Group for the financial support for all the research activities. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Betty Overocker “Concrete a material for the new stone age” A MAST Module Material science and technology, University of Illinois 1995, pp. 1-30. Nan Su, and Chea-Fang Wu “Effect of magnetic field treated water on mortar and concrete containing fly ash” Journal of Cement and Concrete Composites, 25, 2003, pp. 681-688. Wael Abdelmoez “Applications of Magnetized Water: Towards a Magical Water Effect” LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, ISBN-10: 3848482215, ISBN-13: 978-3848482214, PP 1-20, May 25, 2012. Nan Su, Yeong-Hwa Wu, and Chung-Yo Mar “Effect of magnetic water on the engineering properties of concrete containing granulated blast-furnace slag” Journal of Cement and Concrete research 30, 2000, pp. 599-605. Saddam M. Ahmed, “Effect of Magnetic water on engineering properties of concrete” journal of Al-Rafidain Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 1, Feb. 2009, pp. 71-82. H. Afshin, M. Gholizadeh, and N. Khorshidi “Improving mechanical properties of high strength concrete by magnetic water technology” Journal of Scientia Iranica Transaction A: Civil Engineering, Vol. 17, No. 1, February 2010, PP. 74-79. Yasser R. Tawfic “Fresh and hardened properties of highly workable concrete (HWC)” SMCT3 conference, Kyoto-Japan, August 2013. 42
    • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November – December (2013), © IAEME [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] Ahmed E. Sayed, Rabiee A. Seddik and Yasser R. Tawfic “Properties of fresh and hardened self-compacting concrete produced by using locally available materials” Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Volume 4, No. 10, October 2010, pp. 43-50. H. Karam and O. Al-Shamal “Effect of using magnetized water on concrete properties” SCMT3 Conference, Kyoto-Japan, August 2013. G. Wang, Z. Wu, “Magneto-chemistry and Magneto-medicine” The Publishing House of Ordnance Industry, Beijing, 1997, pp. 82-90. M.Gholizadeh and H Arabshahi “The effect of magnetic water on strength parameters of concrete” Journal of Engineering and Technology Research, Vol. 3 (3), March 2011, pp. 7781. N.Krishna Murthy, N.Aruna, A.V.Narasimha Rao, I.V.Ramana Reddy, B.Madhusudana Reddy and M.Vijaya Sekhar Reddy, “Influence of Metakaolin and Fly ash on Fresh and Hardened Properties of Self Compacting Concrete”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 223 - 239, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499. Abbas S. Al-Ameeri, K.A.Al- Hussain and M.S Essa, “Constructing a Mathematical Models to Predict Compressive Strength of Concrete from Non-Destructive Testing”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 1 - 20, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. Alaa Abdul Kareem Ahmad, “The Effect of Gypsum Compensative on Mortar Compressive Strength”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 168 - 175, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 43