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- 1. International Journal of Civil Engineering OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET) ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October, pp. 181-190 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCIET ©IAEME IMPACT OF STAGING HEIGHT OF SERVICE RESERVOIR ON THE INSTALLATION COST OF WATER SUPPLY SCHEME - A CASE STUDY D.Jayganesh*, Dr. J.Jegan**, Dr.P.Mariappan*** *Assistant Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, University College of Engineering, Ramanathapuram - 623 513,TN. **Head, Dept. of Civil Engineering, University College of Engineering, Ramanathapuram-623 513,TN. ***Sub Training Centre, TWAD Board, Trichy-620 023,TN. ABSTRACT The total cost of water supply scheme includes cost of source, pumping main, service reservoir and distribution network system. Conventionally, optimization of pumping and distribution system is done separately sans considering variation of the staging height of service reservoir. .An attempt has been made, as an integrated approach, to optimise the total cost of the scheme taking into account of the various staging height of service reservoir. Planning and design of water supply scheme to Kamayakoundanpatty, a town panchayat, in Theni district, has been done with the above concept as a case study. Cost of service reservoir increases with height due to lifting charge and cantering. Cost of distribution network remains almost unchanged after certain height of service reservoir. Economical choice of pumping main component increases with the staging height of service reservoir in lieu of increasing duty of pump set and electrical energy consumption with the same. The staging height is found to affect the optimum cost of pumping system and the distribution system. It is found that 12 metres staging height gives the least cost option for the project studied. KEY WORDS: Cost of water supply scheme, integrated approach, staging height of SR, ECP, Loop Ver.4 INTRODUCTION Provision of safe and protected water supply ensures public health as a preventive measure. Great importance is paid to install protected water supply systems to public, by mostly governments, in developing countries. Huge investments are allocated every year for the drinking water sector. Holistic method of planning and design may yield cost effective schemes. A typical layout of water 181
- 2. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME supply system, from the source to the distribution system is shown in figure 1 for a groundwater om system, based –pumping scheme. More than 80 % of rural water scheme in India are groundwater dependent. Generally, a water supply scheme accommodates a source, transmission main, may be pumping or gravity, treatment plant if warranted service reservoir (storage) and distribution network with house warranted, service connections and public fountains. Pump House Service Pumping Main Reservoir Distribution System Borewell Figure 1. Schematic diagram of a typical Water Supply Scheme with a bore well as source The cost of any water supply system (WSS) generally includes the cost of source, pumping he system, conveying system. Water Treatment Plant (WTP) (if necessary), service reservoir and distribution system. The source accounts for nearly 10% to 15% of scheme while the conveying main istribution coupled with pumping system shares the cost of fairly 30% to 35%. The rest 60% to 65% of cost of ping the water supply scheme is shared by the service reservoir and distribution system. In practice, ystem. economical size selection of pumping main ( including pumping plant ), which compromises , c between the pumping unit cost and cost of pipe, is done. The optimization of distribution system is do performed for cost effectiveness. The impact of variation of staging height of service reservoir is seldom taken into consideration in the process of optimization of pumping main ( conveying main ) and distribution ss system. Instead, a fixed height is considered. Increasing the staging height may increase the cost of pumping main by warranting high head of pump and a higher size of pipe and decrease the cost of and distribution system permitting to go for lower pipe size. The vice versa is also possible. Hence, an integrated approach was made by taking into consideration of various staging height of service reservoir on the cost of a water supply system pply In order to optimize the pumping main, various application software, like LPP88, ECP are commonly used. LPP88 is based on the principle of linear programming and ECP is a tailor made software developed following the guidelines contained in the CPHEEO (1999) manual being used in Tamil Nadu Water Supply and Drainage Board, India. Economical pipe size had also been chosen using maximum and minimum technique (Mariappan, 1994). . Pannirselvam (2004) has reported 182
- 3. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME that transporting certain quantity of water by pumping through several sizes of pipes within the velocity ranges of 0.6 to 1.5 m/s are suitable. The smaller diameter of pipes increases the velocity and high frictional losses. When the diameter of pipe is larger, the cost of pump and annual cost of pipes can be reduced. The diameter of the pipeline, which provides such optimum condition, is known as the economic diameter of the pumping main. Further, an optimum velocity range in the water conveying system for selecting the size of pipe has been reported as 0.8 to 1.2 m/s ( Raja Jayachandra Bose, Neelakantan and Mariappan, 2013). Numerous research works have been done on the optimization of distribution system with fixed staging height (. Quindry et al., 1984 ; Bhave,1983; Chiplunkar et al,1986; Waiski,1987; Perez et al.,1993; Brian,1994; Gupta and Bhave,1994; Walski,1995; and Savic and Walters ,1997) and none of them studied the impact of staging height on the total cost. ; . DESCRIPTION OF STUDY AREA Kamaya Koundan Patty is a special panchayat located in Theni district of Tamil Nadu situated at 3.5km west of Kambam town. It covers an area of 13 square kilometre. As per the 2001 census, population is 9220. Population growth increases to a minimum extend of 10% growth for 15 years and 20% growth for 30 years. The entire town of Kamayakoundanpatty has been divided into 3 zones for design convenience. The design and analysis of water supply distribution network has been performed for each zone separately. It requires a potable and protected water supply scheme. The source for the Kamayakoundanpatty water supply scheme is river Mullai Periyar. Since the Kamayakoundanpatty town panchayat is located at the foothills of Western Ghats, a remote area, the chance for polluting the source is very less. METHODOLOGY In order to assess the contours of KamayaKoundanpatty, topographical survey was done and other details : population, length from source to SR and street length were also collected. Population forecast was done adopting the methods: Arithmetic increase method, Incremental increase method, Geometric increase method, Graphical method and Method of density. Demand estimation, street wise requirement, is determined according to the norms of Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO), 1999, and Tamil Nadu Water Supply and Drainage Board (TWAD Board), Government of Tamil Nadu..Standard schedule of rates of Public Works Department (PWD) and TWAD Board were used for cost estimates. Economical size of pumping main was determined by using ECP (Economic cost of pumping main) software for the staging height of Service Reservoir (SR) from 10 m to 20 m. The cost of SRs for the various staging height was also reckoned. The optimization of distribution system considering the effect of staging of service reservoir was performed using the application software, LOOP 4 Loop version 4.0 is entirely a new version of the earlier program LOOP version 3.0, developed and distributed under the joint efforts of UNDP/WORLD BANK. LOOP program can be used for the design and simulation of new, partially or fully existing, gravity as well as pumped water distribution system. It is capable of designing networks upto 1000 pipes and 750 nodes. The economical total installation cost is given by Optimum total cost (TC) = C ECP + C SR + C dist ----------------- (1) Where TC- Optimum total cost. C ECP – Economical cost of pumping main, service reservoir, and C dist - optimum cost of distribution system. 183 C SR – cost of
- 4. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The results of topographical survey, population forecast and cost details of pumping main, service reservoir and distribution system are presented below. Topography . Ground level (GL) in the distribution area of study area varies from a maximum of 395.86 m to a minimum of 382.95 m above MSL. The contour map is shown in figure 2. It infers that town is undulating with a .13 m difference in GL. Figure 2. Contour of distribution system in Kamayakoundanpatty Design Population The population projection made from decadal population of 1961. 1971, 1981,1991,and 2001 to the year 2031 by various methods is depicted in figure 3. Considering the scope of expansion and growth rate, the design population obtained by the method of population growth rate was taken ,i.e ., 12500. 184
- 5. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME Figure 3. Populat Population forecast by various methods Economical size of pumping main with staginh height of SR The staging height of SR decides the static head in a system. The duty of pumpset, in turn, increases with the staging height. The results of economical cost analysis for the staging height 10 metre to 20 metre of SR are plotted for easy vis visualisation ( Figure 4). It is observed from the figure 4 that the economical cost of pumping main increases with the staging height due to increasing duty of increases pumpset and corresponding the electrical energy cost. The following relationship governs the relationship between staging height and economical cost of pumping main. CECP = -915.6x2 + 12362x + 6E+06 -------------------------------------------(2) correlation coefficient ,R² = 0.969 Where x – staging height of SR in metre. Economical cost of pumping main,Rs. 7800000 7600000 7400000 7200000 7000000 6800000 6600000 9 11 13 15 17 19 Staging height of SR Figure 4. Economical cost of pumping main with staging height of SR 185 21
- 6. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME Cost of SR with staging height The cost variation of Service Reservoir with the staging height from 10 metre to 20 metre is shown in figure 5. The cost of SR varies exponentially with staging height due to centering and lift charges. CSR = 4.723e0.068x ------------------------------------------------------(3) Cost of Service Reservoir, Rs. Lakh 25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 9 11 13 15 17 19 Staging height, m Figure 5. Cost of SR with the Staging height Correlation coefficient, R² = 0.981 Cost of Distribution system with staging height of SR The results of optimal design of distribution system for the staging height of 10 to 20 m of SR are depicted in figure 6. The correlation coefficient for relationship between the optimum cost of distribution system and staging height of SR is nearly 1. It shows very good relationship. C dist = -0.004x5 + 0.337x4 - 10.51x3 + 162.2x2 - 1239.x + 3748.-------(4) Correlation coefficient, R² = 0.977 Where x is the staging height of SR 186
- 7. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME 16 Cost of Distribution System, Rs. Lakh 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Staging height, m Figure 5. Optimum Cost of Distribution system with staging height of SR It is noticed from the figure five that a staging height beyond certain value does not influence the optimum size of distribution system. It may be due to the reason that a minimum pipe size, 100 mm, has been stipulated in the CPHEEO manual for the distribution system. Hence, static head available shall be used to go for lower pipe size. But the staging height 10 and 11, with the pressure head, warrant higher pipe size to ensure minimum residual pressure, 7 metre for singly storey building area and 12 metre for double storey house are, in the distribution system. The frictional loss which can be permitted is the main concern in the cases of lower staging height. Total Cost The optimum cost of pumping main, distribution system and cost of SR for the various staging height of SR are presented in table 1 and figure 6. Figure 7 gives the summary of the cost of the components with the grand total. 187
- 8. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME SI. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Table 1. Cost of various components with staging height of SR Staging Service Optimum cost of Optimum cost Total cost Height in Reservoir distribution of pumping in Rs metre cost in Rs system in Rs main in Rs 10 1000000 1375940 6792678 9168618 11 1025000 395089 6852678 8272767 12 1050000 283000 6912678 8545678 13 1100000 283000 6979767 8345678 14 1200000 283000 7045980 8528980 15 1300000 283000 7324862 8907862 16 1400000 283000 7391705 9224705 17 1550000 283000 7458549 9291549 18 1625000 283000 7557695 9465695 19 1765000 283000 7607268 9655268 20 1910000 283000 7656841 9849841 The table 1 infers that an integrated approach is necessary to arrive at the lowest cost of a water supply scheme with pumping system. Staging height is the main cost controlling factor. The method of analysing the optimum cost of pumping main and distribution system separately without taking into consideration of staging height may not yield true least cost option. The total Cost for 12 m staging height of SR is found to be the least for the Kamayagoundanpatty water supply scheme. The relationship between the staging height of SR and the total cost is shown in the equation 5. TC = 0.016x4 - 1.087x3 + 26.28x2 - 276.8x + 1151------------------(5). Total Installation Cost, Rs. Lakh Correlation coefficient,R² = 0.991 100.00 98.00 96.00 94.00 92.00 90.00 88.00 86.00 84.00 82.00 80.00 9 11 13 15 17 Staging height, m Figure 6. Staging height of SR with total cost 188 19
- 9. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME 12000000 10000000 Cost,Rs 8000000 6000000 4000000 2000000 0 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 Staging height of Service Reservoir SR D'System Pumping main Total cost Figure 7. Cost of various components with Staging height of SR CONCLUSION The present study suggests an integrated approach to get the least cost system. The staging height of SR is an important factor which has influence the cost of pumping unit,, size of pumping main and distribution network. An integrated approach helps to optimise the overall scheme installation cost. A compromising staging height, which results in economical pumping cost and least cost distribution network, may be decided. In the case of Kamayagoundanpatty water supply scheme, the least cost occurs at the staging height of 12 metre. Depending upon the topography and scheme capacity, the optimum staging height may vary. The present study suggests the planners, design and field to follow the above concept for economical system. REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. CPHEEO, 1999, Manual on Water Supply and Treatment, Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organization, Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India, New Delhi. Mariappan, P, et al, 2011, Validation of Design principles of Multi village water supply systems, 43rd Annual Convention of IWWA, Chennai, 11 to 13 January 2011, PP:117-123., Mariappan, P, 2002, Rejuvenation of Rural Water Supply schemes – An experience”, Journal of IWWA , Vol.XXXIV, No:1, PP: 1-3. Raja Jeya Chandra Bose, Neelakantan,T.R, Mariappan, P, et al, 2013, Modified design approach for effective maintenance of Multi-Village Water Supply Schemes, International Conference on Civil Engineering and Infrastructural Issues in Emerging economies, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, 27 & 28 , February 2013, Proceedings. PP.832- 845. 189
- 10. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Panneerselvam,R, 2004, Water supply and treatment- Volume I, SPGS publication, Chennai. PP: 84-85. Bhave, 1983, Optimization of gravity fed water distribution systems- theory, Journal of Environmental Engineering,ASCE, 109 (1), PP:189-205. Brian, 1994, Design of branched water supply network on uneven terrain, Journal of Environmental Engineering,ASCE, 120 (2), PP:974-980. Chiplunkar et al, 1986, Looped water distribution optimization for single loading, Journal of Environmental Engineering,ASCE, 112 (2), PP:264-279. Gupta and Bhave, 1994, Reliability of .water distribution system, Journal of Environmental Engineering,ASCE, 120, PP:447-459. Perez et al, 1993, Improved design of branched network by using pressure reducing valves, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE,119 (1), Pp: 164-180. Quindry et al, 1981, Optimization of looped water distribution system, Journal of Environmental Engineering,ASCE, 107 (2), PP:665-679. Savic and Walters, 1997, Genetic algorithms for least cost design of water distribution networks, Journal of water resources planning and management, ASCE, 123(1),PP: 67-76. Walski, 1995, Optimisation in Pipe-sizing decisions, . Journal of water resources planning and management, ASCE,116(9),PP: 119-1137.. Dr. P. Mariappan,, “Wastewater Management in a Dwelling House- A Case Study”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 16 - 24, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. R Radhakrishanan and A Praveen, “Sustainability Perceptions on Wastewater Treatment Operations in Urban Areas of Developing World”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 45 - 61, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. A.Raja Jeya Chandra Bose, Dr.T.R.Neelakantan and Dr.P.Mariappan, “Peak Factor in the Design of Water Distribution- An Analysis”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 123 - 129, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 190

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