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  • 1. International Journal of Civil JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND INTERNATIONAL Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET) ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October, pp. 130-142 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCIET ©IAEME HYPO SLUDGE: OPPORTUNITIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF LOW COST RURAL ROADS Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda1, Dr. L.B.Zala2, Dr. F.S.Umrigar3 1 Assistant Professor & Research Scholar, Civil Engg Department, B.V.M. Engineering College, Vallabh Vidhyanagar 2 Head & professor, Civil Engineering Department, B.V.M. Engineering College, Vallabh Vidhyanagar. 3 Principal, B.V.M. Engineering College, Vallabh Vidhyanagar – Gujarat – India. ABSTRACT Hypo Sludge, a waste derived from paper industry is plentiful in India causing severe health, environment and dumping problems. Utilization of Hypo Sludge in bulk quantities, ways and means is being discovered all over the world to use it for the construction of embankments and roads. This way the Hypo Sludge concrete are made a 'greener' building material and the discarded natural wastes can be re-utilized, avoiding otherwise wasteful landfill and harmful open incineration.To make value added concrete for development of sustainable infrastructure there is a great need to study the technical details concerned with various industrial wastes in concrete and to reduce environmental hazards. It is also needed to reduce the cost of concrete for rural development in India. A cement concrete pavement is designed for a Rural Road in Gujarat State having a traffic volume of up to 500 vehicles per day. The soil has a soaked CBR value of 2%, 4% and 6% and design wheel load 30kN. So our study is concerned with eco-efficient utilization of hypo sludge as partial replacement of cement in concrete.The aim of the present study is to investigate the low cost rural roads made of Hypo Sludge. The Hypo Sludgewas replaced within the range of 10-40% by weight of cement. In the present study, 5 different mixes of Hypo Sludgeconcretes are tested for parameters like: compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticityand cost. KEYWORDS : Hypo Sludge, Concrete, CBR, Rural Roads, Cost INTRODUCTION Transportation has serious impacts on the lives and welfare of the rural people. The transportation system in a developing nation is one of its most essential assetsof its future development. Since accessibility and mobility are involved in almost everything that developing 130
  • 2. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME countries are striving to accomplish, transport can be a key factor in the success or failure of the entire development effort. In India, a special drive has been taken at the beginning of the new millennium to improve the road and highway systems in the country. This will require huge quantities of pavement construction materials. It has been observed that it would be economical to use industrial wastes in the construction of low cost roads.Rural roads are vital for area development. They serve as one of the key infrastructure in rural development. Agricultural productivity as well as marketability depends to a large enormousness on road development. The agriculture based industries are also predisposed by the provision of rural roads. Roads also have a socioeconomic impression on the lives of rural populations. The studies in India and overseas have clearly demonstrated the impact of accessibility on socioeconomic variables. The utilization of these waste materials can be an economical and eco-friendly alternative in nearby areas for rural road construction. The problem of hypo sludge utilization is not confined to India alone but is being experienced all over the world. However this problem is particularly acute in India. Where utilization of hypo sludge has not received much attention. Hypo sludge properties make it very suitable for all construction activities including roads, embankments and reclamation of low lying areas. Hypo sludge based construction materials are becoming favourite of the construction industry, being durable, economical, eco-friendly, easy to use and of consistent quality. Its effective use in concrete as partial replacement of cement will lead to reduce its disposal problems and also to enhance properties of concrete. In concrete roads, a part of cement can be replaced by hypo sludge to the extent of 10% to 30% . This would result in lowering the cost of resultant concrete without any loss of strength and with increased durability. EXPERIMENTAL WORK a) Chemical Properties of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Hypo sludge: It is Chemical Properties of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Hypo sludgeas listed in Table 1: TABLE 1 CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ORDINARY PORTLAND CEMENT (OPC) AND HYPO SLUDGE Chemical Properties Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) Hypo Sludge Percent by mass Silicon Dioxide (SiO2) 21.77% 5.28% Calcium Oxide (CaO) 57.02% 47.84% Magnesium Oxide (MgO) 2.71% 6.41% Sulphur Trioxide (SO3) 2.41% 0.19% Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3) 2.59% 0.09% Ferric Oxide (Fe2O3) 0.65% 0.73% Loss on Ignition 2.82% 38.26% 131
  • 3. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME b) Characterization of cement The most common cement used is an Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The Ordinary Portland Cement of 53 grades is conforming to IS:8112-1989 is being used. Specific gravity, consistency tests, setting time tests, compressive strengths, etc. are conducted on cement. The results are tabulated in table 2. TABLE 2 PROPERTIES OF ORDINARY PORTLAND CEMENT (OPC) Sr. No. Physical properties of cement Result Requirements as per IS:8112-1989 1 Specific gravity 3.15 3.10-3.15 2 Standard consistency (%) 28% 30-35 3 Initial setting time (hours, min) 35 min 30 minimum 4 Final setting time (hours, min) 178 min 600 maximum 5 Compressive strength- 7 days 38.49 N/mm2 43 N/mm2 6 Compressive strength- 28 days 52.31 N/mm2 53 N/mm2 c) Cement fly ash Mix Proportions A mix M25 grade was designed as per IS 10262:2009 and the same was used to prepare the test samples. The design mix proportion is shown in Table 3. TABLE 3 CONCRETE DESIGN MIX PROPORTIONS Concrete Design Mix Proportion Sr. No. Concrete (By Weight) Mix W/C Ratio Cement Replacement By C F. A. C. A. Hypo Sludge 1 A1 0.50 372.00 558.60 1251.90 - 2 C1 0.50 334.80 558.60 1251.90 37.20 3 C2 0.50 297.60 558.60 1251.90 74.40 4 C3 0.50 260.40 558.60 1251.90 111.60 5 C4 0.50 223.20 558.60 1251.90 148.80 W/C = Water/Cement , C= Cement, F. A. = Fine Aggregate, C. A. = Coarse Aggregate 132
  • 4. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Above 5 different concrete samples were used to find the important properties like compressive strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity. To make the study from an economic point of view cost of each mix was also worked out from the present market rates. The results for these properties are given in Table 4, 5 & 6. TABLE 4 AVERAGECOMPRESSIVE STRENGTH FOR CUBES OF (150X150X150) (N/mm²)AT 7, 14, 28 DAYS FOR M25 Mix % Replacement of Cement by Hypo Sludge 7 Days 14 Days 28 Days A1 0% 28.76 32.00 38.52 C1 10 % 29.24 33.63 39.70 C2 20 % 22.96 23.35 25.78 C3 30 % 20.92 22.96 23.26 C4 40 % 19.47 21.04 22.96 COMPRESSIVE STRENGHT OF CONCRETE (N/mm2) Concrete Average Compressive Strength (N/mm²) % REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT BY HYPO SLUDGE V/S COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE (N/mm2) SPECIMEN AT 7, 14, 28, FOR M25 45.00 40.00 35.00 30.00 25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 39.70 38.52 32.00 28.76 33.63 29.24 25.78 23.35 22.96 22.96 23.26 20.92 22.96 21.04 19.47 7 DAYS 14 DAYS 28 DAYS A1 (0%) C1 (10%)C2 (20%)C3 (30%)C4 (40%) % REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT BY HYPO SLUDGE Figure 1: % Replacement of Cementby Hypo Sludge v/s Compressive Strength of Concrete (N/mm2) Specimen at 7, 14 and 28 Days for M25 133
  • 5. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME TABLE 5 AVERAGE FLEXURAL STRENGTH FOR BEAMS OF(100X100X500)(N/mm²) AT 28 AND 90 DAYS FOR M25 Concrete Mix % Replacement of Cement by Average Flexural Strength (N/mm²) 28 Days 90 Days A1 0% 4.71 5.26 C1 10 % 4.49 4.94 C2 20 % 2.93 3.31 C3 30 % 2.74 3.27 C4 40 % 2.62 2.93 FLEXURAL STRENGHT OF CONCRETE (N/mm2) Hypo Sludge % REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT BY HYPO SLUDGE V/S FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF CONCRETE (N/mm2) SPECIMEN AT 28 DAYS AND 90 DAYS FOR M25 6 5.26 5 4 4.71 4.94 4.49 3.31 3.27 2.93 3 2 2.93 28 DAYS 90 DAYS 2.74 2.62 1 0 A1 (0%) C1 (10%) C2 (20%) C3 (30%) C4 (40%) % REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT BY HYPO SLUDGE Figure2:% Replacement of Cement by Hypo Sludge v/s Flexural Strength of Concrete (N/mm2) Specimen at 28 Days and 90 Days for M25 134
  • 6. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME TABLE 6 MODULUS OF ELASTICITY (150X300 DIA.) (N/mm²) AT 28 DAYS FOR M25 % Replacement of Cement by Modulus of Elasticity (N/mm²) Hypo Sludge 28 Days A1 0% 24958 C1 10 % 27500 C2 20 % 23167 C3 30 % 17875 C4 40 % 15750 MODULUS OF ELASTICITY OF CONCRETE (N/mm2) Concrete Mix % REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT BY HYPO SLUDGE V/S MODULUS OF ELASTICITY OF CONCRETE (N/mm2) SPECIMEN AT 28 DAYS FOR M25 30000 25000 20000 24958 27500 23167 28 DAYS 17875 15000 15750 10000 5000 0 A1 (0%) C1 (10%)C2 (20%)C3 (30%)C4 (40%) % REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT BY HYPO SLUDGE Figure3:% Replacement of Cementby Hypo Sludge v/s Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete (N/mm2) Specimen at 28 Days for M25 DESIGN OF A CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT FOR RURAL ROAD (IRC:SP:20-2002 / IRC:SP:62-2004) A cement concrete pavement is to be designed for a Rural Road in Gujarat State having a traffic volume of upto 500 vehicles per day consisting vehicles, like, agricultural tractors/trailers, light goods vehicles, heavy trucks, buses, animal drawn vehicles, motorized two-wheels and cycles. The soil has a soaked CBR value of 2%,4%,6%. For 30kN wheel load. 135
  • 7. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME TABLE 7 DESIGN OF CC PAVEMENT FOR RURAL ROADS Design Parameters: Sample C1 (6% CBR) Traffic Volume (A) = UP TO 500 cvpd (Assume) Concrete Grade (fc) = 25 N/mm2 Characteristic Compressive Cube Strength = 39.70 N/mm2at 28 Days Actual Compressive Strength Flexural Strength ( ff ) = 4.49 N/mm2[44.9kg/cm2] 90 days Flexural strength = 4.94 N/mm2[49.4 kg/cm2] Soaked CBR Value (%) = 0.06 (6%) Modulus of Subgrade Reaction (k) = 45 (N/mm2/mm)*10-3 Effective K Value (20% more) = 54 (N/mm2/mm)*10-3 Elastic modulus of Concrete (Ec) (As per Actual = 27,500 N/mm2 Calculation) Poisson’s ratio (µ) = 0.15 Coefficient of thermal coefficient of concrete (α) = 0.00001/˚C Design Wheel Load (P) = 30 kN Tyre pressure (q) = 0.5 N/mm2 [5 kg/cm2] Spacing of Contraction Joints (L) = 3.75m [3750 mm] Width of Slab (W) = 3.75m [3750 mm] Radius of load contact (assumed circular), (a) =13.82 cm Trial Thickness for Slab, h = 150mm. Check for Temperature Stresses: Assuming a contraction joint spacing of 3.75 m and 3.75m width. 1. Temperature Stress (σte): The temperature differential ( t) for Gujarat for a slab thickness of 150mm ૝ The Radius of Relative Stiffness, l = ට ࡱ ࢎ૜ ૚૛ ሺ૚ି ૛ ሻ ࢑ is 12.5˚C. Hence, l = 618.70 mm. L/l = 3750 / 618.70= 6.1 W/l = 3750 / 618.70 = 6.1 Both values are same, if not then adopt greater one. Bradbury’s Coefficient, C = 0.923 (from figure 1, pg. 9) [Value of C can be ascertained directly from Bradbury’s chart against values of L/l and W/l] ࡱ ࢻ ∆࢚ Temperature Stress in edge region, σte = ૛ ࡯ Hence, σte = 1.59 N/mm2. 2. Edge Load Stress (σle): From Page: 12, Edge Load Stress, Radius of equivalent distribution of pressure (b), b = a (if (a/h >= 1.724); (b) =√1.6 ܽଶ ൅ ݄ଶ - 0.675 h if (a/h < 1.724), For slab thickness of 150mm; Edge Load Stress, σte, is 3.32 N/mm2 (3.32 MPa). Total Stress = Edge Load Stress + Temperature Stress = 3.32 + 1.59 = 4.91 N/mm2, which is less than the allowable flexural strength of 4.94 N/mm2. Hence, assumed thickness of slab = 150mm, is OK. [As per Temperature Stress Criteria] Check for Corner Stresses (σlc): 136
  • 8. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME From Fig. 5 (Page 12), Corner Load Stress for wheel load of 30kN, for k = 54.0(N/mm2/mm)*10-3 = 0.054 N/mm2/mm = 0.054 N/mm2/mm (Approx.) and slab thickness of 150mm is 3.08 N/mm2 (3.08 MPa). [Temperature Stress in the corner region is negligible, as the corners are relatively free to warp, hence it can be ignored.] Hence, σlc = 3.08 N/mm2, which is less than the allowable flexural strength of 4.94 N/mm2. So, the slab thickness of 150mm is Safe. The calculations presented above are sample calculations. Similar calculations are done using various values of flexural strengths of concrete. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS TABLE- 8 COST OF MATERIALS Sr. No. Materials Rate (Rs/Kg) 1 Cement (OPC 53 grade) 6.40 2 Hypo Sludge 0.60 3 Fine aggregate 0.60 Coarse aggregate 0.65 Grit 0.65 4 5 TABLE-9 MATERIALS FOR DESIGNED M25 CONCRETE % Reducti on in Cement by Hypo Sludge Ceme nt [kg/m 3 ] A1 0% 479.00 C1 10 % 431.10 C2 20 % C3 C4 Concret eMix Materials Fine Coarse aggrega aggrega te te [kg/m3] 718.22 485.75 718.22 383.20 485.75 718.22 30 % 335.30 485.75 718.22 40 % 287.40 485.75 718.22 Grit % Change in Cost Hypo Sludge [m3] 0.0 4135.12 0 47.90 3857.30 (-) 6.71 95.80 3579.48 (-) 13.43 143.70 3301.66 (-) 20.15 191.60 3023.84 (-) 26.87 [kg/m 3 ] [kg/m3] [kg/m3] 485.75 Total Cost 137 478.8 1 478.8 1 478.8 1 478.8 1 478.8 1
  • 9. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME TABLE 10 COST OF 1m X 1m SLAB (Rs.) % Reduction in Concret e Mix Cementby Hypo Sludge 2% CBR 4% CBR Cost of Slab 1m x Thickne 1m Slab ss (mm) (Rs.) Slab Thickne ss (mm) 6% CBR 1m x 1m Slab (Rs.) Slab Thickness (mm) Cost of 1m x 1m Slab (Rs.) Cost of 0% 190 785.67 150 620.27 150 620.27 C1 10 % 150 590.12 150 590.12 150 590.12 C2 20 % 190 680.10 190 680.10 190 680.10 C3 30 % 190 627.32 190 627.32 190 627.32 C4 40 % 200 605.17 200 605.17 200 605.17 SLAB THICKNESS (mm) A1 % REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT BY HYPO SLUDGE V/S SLAB THICKNESS (mm) AT 2%CBR, 4%CBR, 6% CBR [DESIGN WHEEL LOAD= 30kN] 250 200 150 190 150 150 150 150 190 190 190 190 190 190 200 200 200 SLAB THICKNESS (mm) AT 2% CBR 150 100 SLAB THICKNESS (mm) AT 4% CBR 50 SLAB THICKNESS (mm) AT 6% CBR 0 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% % REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT BY HYPO SLUDGE Figure4:% Replacement of Cement by Hypo Sludge v/s Slab Thickness (mm) at 2%CBR, 4%CBR, 6% CBR [Design Wheel Load= 30kN] 138
  • 10. COST OF 1m x 1m SLAB (Rs./Sq.mt) International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME % REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT BY HYPO SLUDGE V/S COST OF 1m x 1m SLAB (Rs./Sq.mt) AT 2%CBR, 4%CBR, 6% CBR [DESIGN WHEEL LOAD= 30kN] 900.00 785.67 800.00 680.10 627.32 590.12 700.00 620.27 680.10 627.32 605.17 590.12 605.17 600.00 680.10 620.27 627.32 605.17 500.00 590.12 400.00 300.00 200.00 100.00 0.00 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% COST OF 1m x 1m SLAB (Rs./Sq.mt) AT 2% CBR COST OF 1m x 1m SLAB (Rs./Sq.mt) AT 4% CBR COST OF 1m x 1m SLAB (Rs./Sq.mt) AT 6% CBR % REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT BY HYPO SLUDGE Figure5:% Replacement of Cement by Hypo Sludge v/s Cost of 1m x 1m Slab (Rs./Sq.mt)at 2%CBR, 4%CBR, 6% CBR [Design Wheel Load= 30kN] TABLE 11 RELATIVE COST OF SLAB Concrete % Reduction in Mix Cement 2% CBR 4% CBR Cost of 1m x 1m Slab (Rs.) Relative Cost Relative Cost (%) Cost of 1m x 1m Slab (Rs.) 6% CBR Relative Cost (%) Cost of 1m x 1m Slab (Rs.) (%) A1 0% 785.67 100 620.27 100 620.27 100 C1 10 % 590.12 75.11 590.12 99.95 590.12 99.95 C2 20 % 680.10 86.57 680.10 109.64 680.10 109.64 C3 30 % 627.32 79.84 627.32 101.13 627.32 101.13 C4 40 % 605.17 77.02 605.17 97.56 605.17 97.56 139
  • 11. RELATIVE COST SLAB (%) International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME % REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT BY HYPO SLUDGE V/S RELATIVE COST SLAB (%) AT 2%CBR, 4%CBR, 6% CBR [DESIGN WHEEL LOAD= 30kN] 120.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 80.00 99.95 109.64 109.64 99.95 86.57 75.11 60.00 101.13 97.56 101.13 97.56 79.84 77.02 40.00 RELATIVE COST SLAB (%) AT 2% CBR RELATIVE COST SLAB (%) AT 4% CBR 20.00 0.00 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% RELATIVE COST SLAB (%) AT 6% CBR % REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT BY HYPO SLUDGE Figure6:% Replacement of Cement by Hypo Sludge v/s Relative Cost Slab (%) at 2%CBR, 4%CBR, 6% CBR [Design Wheel Load= 30kN] CONCLUSIONS Based on limited experimental investigations concerning the compressive strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity test of concrete (M25 Grade) for rigid pavement, the following observations are made in the ray of the objectives of the study: (a) For a CBR value of 2% and Wheel Load (P) of 30KN; Cost of rigid pavement decreases from Rs. 785.67 per sq.mt. to Rs. 605.17 per sq.mt. shown in figure-5. (b) For a CBR value of 4%, 6% and Wheel Load (P) of 30KN; Cost of rigid pavement decreases from Rs. 620.27 per sq.mt. to Rs. 605.17 per sq.mt. shown in figure-5. (c) 10% replacement of cement by hypo sludge in concrete for rural road construction gives Slab Thickness 150mm and low cost of rigid pavement i.e Rs. 590.12 per sq.mt. for a CBR value of 2%, 4%, 6% and Design Wheel Load (P) of 30kN. (d) For a CBR value of 2% and Wheel Load (P) of 30KN; Relative Cost of Slab decreases from 100%. to Rs. 75.11%. at 10% Replacement Cement by Hypo Sludge shown in figure-6. (e) For a CBR value of 4%, 6% and Wheel Load (P) of 30KN; Relative Cost of Slab decreases from 100%. to Rs. 99.95%. at 10% Replacement Cement by Hypo Sludge and Rs. 97.56%. at 40% Replacement Cement by Hypo Sludge shown in figure-6. (f) Use of hypo sludge in concrete can save the paper industry disposal costs and produce a ‘greener’ concrete for low cost rural roads. (g) This research concludes that hypo sludgecan be an innovative Supplementary Cementitious Material useful for development oflow cost rural roads. (h) India should aggressively identify projects that can use large amounts of hypo sludge in road construction so that harmonizing environment and ecological sustainability can be developed. 140
  • 12. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME (i) Use of hypo sludge in road construction works will result in the less depletion of naturally available stone metal, gravel, sand and soil; and will save cement, which is the costliest ingredient will lead to reduction in construction cost. With adequate knowledge on the performance of hypo sludge based road pavements, a huge demand can be expected from the road sector to use hypo sludge for construction purposes, but judicious decisions are to be taken by engineers, for development of low cost rural roads. (j) This research study concludes that there is a great scope for eco-efficient utilization of hypo sludge for sustainable development of Indian Road Network. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The Authors thankfully acknowledge to Dr. C. L. Patel, Chairman, Charutar Vidya Mandal, Er.V.M.Patel, Hon.Jt. Secretary, Charutar Vidya Mandal, Prof. J. J. Bhavsar, Associate Professor and PG Coordinator of Construction Engineering and Management, B.V.M. Engineering College, Mr. Yatinbhai Desai, Jay Maharaj construction, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India for their motivations and infrastructural support to carry out this research. REFERENCE [1] Ashoke K. Sarker, “Use of Non-Conventional Materials for the Construction of Low-Volume Roads”, Workshop on Non-Conventional Materials/ Technologies, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi 110 016, India,pp-27-38, February 2012. [2] Dr.A.U.Ravi Shankar, Prof.H.V.Venkata Krishna, S.N.Suresha, “concrete mix design aspects using fly ash for rigid pavements for rural roads” indian highways, pp-5-20, December 2005. [3] Dr Praveen Kumar, Dr G D Ransinchungh R.N., Aditya Kumar Anupam, “Waste MaterialsAn Alternative to Conventional Materials in Rural Road Construction”, Workshop on NonConventional Materials/ Technologies,Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi 110 016, India,pp-16-26, February 2012. [4] Darsh Belani, Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda, “Harmonising Environment and Ecological Sustainability by Utilization of Fly Ash in Rigid Pavement” International Journal Global Research Analysis, (GRA), Volume: 2, Issue : 2, ISSN No 2277 – 8160, pp-97-99, Feb 2013. [5] Guru vittal u. k., scientist satander kumar scientist, deepchandra, head sr div. dr. p. k. sikadar, Director Central Road Research Institute New Delhi."Utilization of fly ash in road construction". CE and CR Pp 60-63, April 99. [6] Gambhir, M. L. (2004), “Concrete Technology”, Tata Mc-Graw Hills. [7] Hiren A. Rathod,Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda (2013), “A Study of Future Trend for Sustainable Development by Incorporation of SCM’s”IJSR - International Journal Of Scientific Research, Volume 2 Issue 2 • ISSN No 2277 – 8179 / 110-115, Feb 2013. [8] Jayraj Vinodsinh Solanki, Jayeshkumar Pitroda,“Flexural Strength of Beams by Partial Replacement of Cement with Fly Ash and Hypo Sludge in Concrete” International Journal of Engineering Science and Innovative Technology (IJESIT) Volume 2, Issue 1, ISSN: 23195967 ISO 9001:2008 Certified, pp-173-179, January 2013. [9] Jayraj Vinodsinh Solanki, Jayeshkumar Pitroda,“Investigation of Low Cost Concrete Using Industrial Waste as Supplementary Cementitious Materials” International Journal of Engineering Science and Innovative Technology (IJESIT) Volume 2, Issue 1, ISSN: 23195967 ISO 9001:2008 Certified, pp-81-88, January 2013. [10] Mamta B. Rajgor, Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda, “A Study on Paper Industry Waste: Opportunities for Development of Low Cost Concrete in Indian Context”IJSR - International Journal Of Scientific Research, Volume 2 Issue 2 • ISSN No 2277 – 8179 / 90-92, Feb 2013. 141
  • 13. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME [11] Mr.Nagesh Tatoba Suryawanshi, Mr. Samitinjay S. Bansode, Dr. Pravin D. Nemade,“Use of Eco-Friendly Material like Fly Ash in Rigid Pavement Construction & It's Cost Benefit Analysis”, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2012. [12] Prof. J R Pitroda, Dr L B Zala, Dr F S Umrigar, “Hypo Sludge Management: Opportunities For Developing Low Cost Concrete With Glass Fibres” International Journal Global Research Analysis, (GRA), Volume: 1, Issue: 7, ISSN No 2277 – 8160, pp-56-58, Dec 2012. [13] Prof. B. B. Pandey, “Low Cost Concrete Roads for Villages”, Workshop on NonConventional Materials/ Technologies, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi 110 016, India,pp-39-41, February 2012. [14] P. Srinivasan, A.K. Tiwari, Anil Banchhor, “Suitability of HVFA concrete for pavements”, Indian Concrete Journal, Vol. 78 (11), pp-58-61, November 2004. [15] Seehra s. s. and Satander kumar," Technoeconomic aspects of rigid pavements" International seminar on Civil Engineering Practices in 21st century Roorkey, India 1996. [16] Shetty, M.S. “Concrete technology”, S.Chand & Company Ltd. [17] Tarun R. Naik, Bruce W. Ramme, Rudolph N. Kraus, Rafat Siddique, “Long-term performance of high-volume fly ash concrete pavements”, ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 100 (2),pp- 150-155, March/April 2003. [18] Ujjwal Bhattacharjee, Tara Chandra Kandpal , “Potential of fly ash utilisation in India” Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016, India [19] U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, “User Guidelines for Waste and By-product Materials in Pavement Construction, Coal Fly Ash”, Publication Number: FHWA-RD-97-148. [20] V. Mohan Malhotra, “High-performance HVFA concrete: A solution to the infrastructural needs of India”, Indian Concrete Journal, Vol. 76 (2), pp-103-107, February 2002. [21] Vimal Kumar, “Overview of Fly Ash for Use in Rural Development”, Workshop on NonConventional Materials/ Technologies, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi 110 016, India,pp-1-15, February 2012. [22] D.Satish Chandra, Arjun Chhetri, Sonam Wangchen and Sri.Harsha Yadagani, “Design and Estimation of Rural Road in Vaddeswaram”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 306 - 315, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. [23] P.A.Ganeshwaran, Suji and S.Deepashri, “Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Self Compacting Concrete with Manufactured Sand and Fly Ash”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 60 - 69, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. [24] Dharani.N, Ashwini.A, Pavitha.G and Princearulraj.G, “Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Recron 3s Fiber Reinforced Hyposludge Concrete”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 182 - 189, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 142

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