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  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET) ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October, pp. 122-129 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCIET ©IAEME A STUDY ON THE UTILIZATION OF RECYCLED AGGREGATE AND CRUSHER DUST MIXES AS SUB-BASE AND BASE MATERIALS *P.V.V. Satyanarayana, **K. Lewis Chandra, **T. Harsha Nandan, ***S.S.S.V. Gopala Raju *Professor, **Post graduate students Dept. of Civil Engineering, AU. ***Professor dept. of civil engineering M.V.G.R.Engineering college. ABSTRACT India has a large extent of road network covering an area of four lakh million sq. km including all types of pavements in different areas. Now-a-days the availability of materials for the construction of road is becoming a challenge. In order to provide a good alternative material for pavement layers, Crusher dust and Recycled aggregate have been selected in geo-technical constructions as a replacement to conventional earth materials needs special attention. The present work aims at evaluating the geo-technical properties of compacted crusher dust along with the recycled aggregate. The strength characteristics of compacted crusher dust are evaluated through a series of CBR tests and compaction tests varying the crusher dust dosage from 60% to 10% with respect to Recycled aggregate. Based on the experimental results it has been observed that crusher dust of 20-40% has greater strengths and can be used as a road base and sub-base material. KEY WORDS: Recycled aggregate, Crusher dust, Stone Aggregate, CBR, Void Ratio. 1.0 INTRODUCTION Road networking is the back bone for the economic development of a country. In India Government started road networking under various programmes like Golden Quadrilateral under NHAI, PMGSY, JRY, etc. Majority of the pavements are flexible pavements due to the availability of materials nearby source and initial cost of construction is less. The pavement thickness and the performance of component layers is a function of the strength of the materials in the component layers such as Subgrade, Sub-base etc. These layers are compacted soils, aggregate mixtures etc and their strength parameters in terms CBR at soaked condition. The performance of the layers derived strength from grains to grain contact under repeated loading. The performances reflect in pavement material characterization in terms of their strength in compacted conditions, drainage characteristics of the base and sub-base layers and one of these fails to perform functions which causes excess deformability increasing the maintenance cost. 122
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME In recent years, applications of industrial wastes have been considered in the road construction with great interest. If these materials are suitably utilized in highway construction, the pollution and disposal problems may be partly reduced. The necessary specifications should be formulated and attempts are to be made to maximize the use of solid wastes in different layers of the road pavement. It will also help to preserve the natural reserves of aggregates. Keeping in mind the need for bulk use of solid wastes such as crusher dust and recycled aggregate have been selected. Crusher dust generated from crushing of stones and Recycled concrete aggregate from concrete wastes of demolished buildings. Along the coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh huge number of crusher plants are available. These are producing nearly about 23 lakh tons annually. Nearly 15% of wastes in the form of rock flour were obtaining during crushing of rocks. From the construction activity the amount of waste generated is increasing day by day. Demolished concrete structure are proven to be a good source of construction material Paranavithana et.al (2006) and Oikonomou Nik D (2004). Researches like Sharma P.C et al (1998,1999), studied recycled aggregate concrete and its future perspective etc in constructed activities, Singh S.K. et.al (1997,1998), US dept of transportation (2000) recycled materials in Highways etc. Heeralal. M et.al (2009) studied the use of recycled aggregate in rigid pavements. Poon C.S et.al(2005) studied the use of recycled concrete aggregates and crushed clay Bricks as Road sub-base courses. Sridharan A, et.al(2005,2006) studied quarry dust in high construction, and also studied shear strength characteristics of soil, quarry dust mixtures. Soosan T.G. et.al (2001) studied quarry dust in embankment and sub-base material in Highway construction. Illangovan. R et.al (2006) studied quarry dust as fine aggregate in concrete. Nagaraj T.S (2000) also studied quarry dust as fine aggregate in concrete. Collins R.J et.al (1994) studied quarry dust in highway construction. Praveen Kumar. et.al (2006) studied quarry dust as sub-base material. 2.0 MATERIALS Crusher Dust was obtained from local stone crushing plants near Anakapalli, Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh. The sample subjected to various geotechnical characterizations. The results are shown in table-1 and figure-1, 2. Geotechnical properties of crusher dust Property Values Grain size distribution: Gravel (%) Sand (%) Fines (%) a. Silt(%) b. Clay(%) Consistency: Liquid Limit (%) Plastic Limit (%) I.S Classification Specific gravity Compaction characteristics: Optimum moisture content (OMC) (%) Maximum dry density (MDD) (g/cc) Shear parameters: Angle of shearing resistance(deg) California bearing ratio (CBR) (%) (Soaked condition) Table 123 5 90 5 5 0 NP NP SP 2.64 13 1.9 36 8
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME % finer 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.01 0.1 sieve size 1 10 Fig 1 dry density(g/cc) 2 1.8 OMC-13% MDD-1.9g/CC 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0 5 10 15 moisture content(%) 20 Fig 2 From the physical characteristics it is observed that crusher dust is a grey color fine aggregate consisting of medium to fine sand size particles and of angular shape with rough surface texture. From the consistency data it is non-plastic and incompressible in nature. Based on BIS it is classified as SW(Cu-15, Cc-2.01). From the compaction curve it can be seen that crusher dust attains higher densities with wider variation of moisture contents. Recycled aggregate was obtained from used concrete cubes, columns and slabs from the strength of materials laboratory and broken into individual sizes. After brushing the aggregate, it was washed and dried. 3.0 METHODOLOGY A set of sieves such as 53 mm, 26.5 mm, 9.5 mm etc. have identified for the gradation of recycled aggregate and for fine aggregate(crusher dust) 4.75mm, 2.36 mm, 0.425 mm, 0.075 mm sizes were identified. Various percentages of recycled aggregate added to the crusher dust as listed below in table 2 and also the percentage of crusher dust. 124
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME Recycled aggregate sizes Sieve sizes(mm) Crusher dust 53-26.5 mm 9.5-4.75 mm <4.75 mm 10 10 20 60 10 20 20 50 20 20 20 40 20 20 30 30 20 30 30 20 30 Percentage finer(Recycled aggregate+Crusher dust) 26.5-9.5 mm 30 30 10 Table-2 Recycled aggregate mixed with crusher dust was graded to various gradation mixes in accordance with MORTH specifications and named as G1, G2, G3, G4, G5, and G6 etc. The corresponding gradations were listed in table 2. These gradations mixes were subjected to various geotechnical characterizations such as gradation, compaction, strength (CBR), void ratio etc. The results are listed in table 3, 4 and fig 3 to 6. 4.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS Modified proctor compaction test was performed as as per IS 2720: Part 8:1983 on the designated crusher dust and Recycled aggregate mixes such as G1, G2, G3, G4, G5 and G6 and the test results are shown in table 3 and fig 3,4. From the test results it is identified that maximum dry density values are increasing with decrease in the percentage of Crusher dust upto 30-20% and then decreases. Maximum values obtained as 2.2 to 2.21 g/cc at 20-30 % of Crusher dust, where as OMC decreases with decrease in percentage of Crusher dust i.e., from 8 to 5%. At higher percentages (60 to 40%) more water is needed to coat Crusher dust particles whereas at lower percentages of crusher dust less water is needed due to less quantities of crusher dust particles in the mixes and attain lower densities resulting formation of honey combing structure with high void ratios and with Cu as 11 to 10 and Cc as 2.72 to 1.79 values for the gradation mixes. The same trend was also observed at lower percentages of crusher dust (10-20%). Dense packing has attained maximum dry density in the dosage of 30 to 20% of Crusher dust with void ratios of 0.298 and Cu (11.6 to 9.5 ) and Cc (0.681.44) respectively. 125
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME IA Sieve Sizes 53.0 mm Recycled aggregate + Crusher dust (% Finer) G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 (R60(R70(R40(R50(R50 (R80C50%) C40%) C30%) C20%) C60%) 100 100 100 100 100 G6 (R90C10%) 100 26.5 mm 90 90 80 80 80 70 9.5 mm 85 74 63 62 50 40 4.75mm 55 46 37 28 20 10 2.36 mm 30 24 19 15 10 5 0.425 mm 10 8 6 5 3 2 0.075 mm 3 3 2 2 1 1 Compaction characteristics OMC (%) 8 7.4 7 6.5 6 5 MDD (g/cc) 2.12 2.15 2.18 2.2 2.21 2.18 Strength characteristics CBR Soaked Void Ratio (e) Specific Gravity (Gc) 25 42 58 75 65 50 0.273 0.27 0.266 0.263 0.267 0.293 2.7 2.73 2.76 2.78 2.8 2.82 Table – 3 OMC 8 2.2 6 2.18 MDD g/cc 7 OMC (%) MDD 2.22 5 4 3 2.16 2.14 2.12 2 2.1 1 2.08 0 2.06 G1 G2 G3 G4 Mixes G5 G6 G1 Fig 3 G2 G3 G4 Mixes Fig 4 126 G5 G6
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IA IAEME Recycled aggregate + crusher dust 120 CBR 80 60 80 % Finer CBR(%) G 1 G 2 G 3 G 4 G 5 100 40 60 40 20 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 Mixes 5 6 10 1 Sieve size Fig 5 ig Fig 6 Recycled aggregate + Crusher dust G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 (R40C60%) (R50(R50 C50%) (R60C40%) (R70C30%) (R80C20%) (R90C10%) D10 0.43 0.59 0.94 1.5 2.3 4.7 D15 0.8 1 1.6 2.5 3.5 5.6 D30 2.36 2.9 4 5.1 6.6 8.2 D50 3.8 5.2 6 8 9.6 13 D60 4.75 6.5 9.5 10 13 19 D85 13 19 30 30 30 36 D90 20 26.5 36 36 36 40 Cu 11.04 11.01 10.1 6.67 5.65 4.04 Cc 2.72 2.19 1.79 1.73 1.45 0.75 Particle Size Table-4 CBR test was performed after completion of four days soaking period on the mixes G1 to G6 compacted at their MDD at a strain rate of 1.25mm/min as per IS: 2720- part 16 (1987) and the results are shown in table 3 and fig 5. As the percentage of Crusher dust decreases CBR values 5 eases increases and attained maximum of 75 at 30% dosage. At high CBR values, the particles offer more strength due to mobilization of frictional resistance under compression due to closer packing o of particles. High values of CBR greater than 30 and 50 of the gradation mixes of C Crusher dust and Recycled aggregate can be used as sub-base and base course materials respectively. sub 127
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME 4.3 Suitability of the Gradation mixes for Sub-base, Base and Wet Mix Macadam Materials Comparing gradation mixes G1 to G6, with the gradation mixes of MORTH sub-base courses it is identified that at higher percentages of crusher dust these mixes are nearing to Grade-II and Grade-III (Section 400-1) of close graded mixes and at lower percentages these are nearing to Grade-I. It can also see that the majority of the gradation mixes satisfying the Grades of coarse graded granular sub-base materials (Section 400-2). Hence, the gradation mixes of Crusher dust 2040% with respect to Recycled Aggregate, attained CBR values greater than 50 can be recommended as base course materials and mixes attained CBR values greater than 30 can be used as sub-base course materials. 5.0 CONCLUSIONS Sizes of crusher dust grains are similar to sand particles and these are mixed with recycled aggregate which attained higher CBR values greater than 50 at a dosage of 20-40% of crusher dust. Mixes having CBR greater than 50 can be used as base course and greater than 30 can be used as sub-base course materials in accordance with MORTH specifications. 6.0 REFERENCES 1. Collins R.J and Ciesilki S.K. (1994)-Recycling and use of waste materials and by-products in highway construction, synthesis of Highway Practice 1994, National Academy Press, Washington D.C. 2. Heeralal M., Kumar P, Rathish Rao Y.V. and Rakesh. “Strength and performance aspects of recycled aggregate concrete for use in rigid pavements”, Vol No 4. Issue No:2; page 449-464, Oct-Dec 2009. Journal of environmental research and development. 3. Ilangovan R. and Nagamani K. 2006. Studies on Strength and Behavior of Concrete by using Crusher Dust as Fine Aggregate. CE and CR journal, New Delhi. October. Pp. 40-42. 4. IS 2720 : Part 3 : Sec 2 : 1980 Test for Soils - Part III : Determination of Specific Gravity Section 2 : Fine, Medium and Coarse Grained Soils 5. IS 2720 : Part 4 : 1985 Methods of Test for Soils - Part 4 : Grain Size Analysis 6. IS 2720 : Part 8 : 1983 Methods of Test for Soils - Part 8 : Determination of Water ContentDry Density Relation Using Heavy Compaction 7. IS 2720 : Part 13 : 1986 Methods of Test for Soils - Part 13 : Direct Shear Test 8. IS 2720 : Part 16 : 1987 Methods of Test for Soil - Part 16 : Laboratory Determination of CBR 9. IS 2720 : Part 17 : 1986 Methods of Test for Soils - Part 17 : Laboratory Determination of Permeability 10. Kumar P, Rathish et al.(2007). “Mechanical properties of Fiber reinforced concretes produced from building demolished waste”, international journal of environmental research and development, Vol. 2, No.2,pp: 180-187. 11. Kumar P, Rathish et al.(2007). “Strength studies on glass Fiber reinforced recycled aggregate concrete”, Asian journal of civil engineering (building and housing), vol.8,No.6(2008), pp:679-690. 12. Ministry of Surface Transport MORTH, Clause No.500-2001. 13. Nagaraj T.S. (2000). Proportioning Concrete Mix with Rock Dust as Fine Aggregate. CE and CR Journal. Pp 27-31. 14. Nagraj T.S and Bhanu Z (1996), “Efficient Utilization of Rocks Dust and Pebbles as Aggregate in Portland Cement Concrete”, The Indian Concrete Journal, Vol.70, No. I, pp. 1-4. 128
  • International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME 15. Oikonomou Nik D. (2004).” Recycled concrete aggregates”, Journal of cement and concrete composites, Elsevier, Vol.27(2005),pp:315-318. 16. Paranavithana, Sumeda and Mohajerani, Abbas (2006). “effects of recycled concrete aggregates on properties of asphalt concrete”, journal of resources, conservation and recycling, Elsevier, Vol.48(2006), pp:1-12. 17. Poon Chi Sun and Chan Dixon (2005). “Feasible use of recycled concrete aggregates and crushed clay brick as unbound road sub base”, journal of construction and building materials, Elsevier, Vol.20(2006),pp:578-5S85. 18. Powel W.D., Potter J.F., Mayhew H.C. and Nunn M.E. (1984) the structural design of bituminous roads, TRRL Lab reports, 1132. 19. Praveen Kumar, Satish Chandra, and Vishal R. (2006). Comparative study of different subbase materials. J. Mat. In Civ. Engg. Vol.18 (4), 576-580. 20. Rao, Akash, Jha, Kumar N. And Misra, Udhir (2006).” use of aggregates from recycled construction and demolition waste in concrete”, Journal of resources, Conservation and recycling, Elsevier, Vol.50(2007), pp.71-81. 21. Rezende L.R. and Carvalho J.C. (2003). “The use of Crusher waste in pavement construction”. 22. Safiuddin M., Zain M. F. M., Mahmud M. F. and Naidu R. S., (2001). Effect of Crusher dust and mineral admixture on the strength & elasticity of concrete”, proceedings of the conference on Construction Technology, Kota Kinabalu, Sabha, Malaysia, 68-80. 23. Soosan T. G., Sridharan A., Jose B.T, and Abraham B. M. (2005). Utilization of Crusher dust to improve the geotechnical properties of soils in highway construction, Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 28(4), Paper ID GTJ11768, 391-400. 24. Soosan T.G., Jose B.T. and Abraham B.M. (2001) Use of Crusher dust in embankment and highway construction, Proceedings of Indian Geo-Technical Conference, December, Indore, pp. 274-277. 25. Singh S.K., Sharma P.C, and Nagaraj . N(1998). “Future recycled Aggregate concrete in India”, national seminar on New materials and technology in building Industry, july 24-25, Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi, Pp 197-205. 26. Singh S.K., Sharma P.C, (1998),”Recycling and Reuse of Building Waste in Constructions A review”, All India seminar on concrete for Infrastructural Development, Roorkee, pp 317-329. 27. Singh S.K., Sharma P.C., Singh and Nagaraj .N (1997),”State of art report on Recycled aggregate concrete “, SERC report Ghaziabad. 28. Balraj Bhaskar More, “Merits of C4 (Coated Coconut Cover Crush) Block Over Aggregate Block”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 98 - 105, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 29. Brijesh Kumar and Nitish Puri, “Stabilization of Weak Pavement Subgrades using Cement Kiln Dust”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 26 - 37, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 30. Madan Mohan Reddy. K, Sivaramulu Naidu. D and Sanjeeva Rayudu. E, “Studies on Recycled Aggregate Concrete by using Local Quarry Dust and Recycled Aggregates”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 322 - 326, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 129