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20320130405011

  1. 1. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET) ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October, pp. 99-110 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCIET ©IAEME INFLUENCE OF MINERAL FILLERS ON THE PROPERTIES OF HOT MIX ASPHALT M.Satyakumar1, R.Satheesh Chandran2 and M.S. Mahesh3 1 (Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering Trivandrum, Kerala, INDIA) (Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering Trivandrum, Kerala, INDIA) 3 (Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering Trivandrum, Kerala, INDIA) 2 ABSTRACT Asphalt pavements are a crucial part of our nation’s strategy for building a high performance transportation network for the future. Hydrated lime, fly ash and Phosphogypsum are fillers that improve performance in multiple ways to create high performance asphalt pavements. This study was conducted to find the effect of mineral fillers in Hot Mix Asphalt with polymer modified bitumen as binder. Change in properties of bituminous concrete grade II by the addition of the mineral fillers ie hydrated lime, fly ash and phosphogypsum are studied. Creep characteristics, stiffness modulus and dynamic modulus of the mix, which are the most important fundamental properties as they provides information on how much the material will deform under the action of a given load, its recovery and this is directly related to fatigue cracking, permanent deformation and load spreading ability; were found out by conducting tests in Servo pneumatic asphalt tester. The creep characteristics, the stiffness modulus values and the dynamic modulus observed from the study shows that the most advantageous filler among the three investigated fillers is hydrated lime and the other two fillers shows improvement from the base mix. Key words: Hydrated lime, Phosphogypsum, Flyash, Marshall Value, Creep stiffness, Fatigue value, Dynamic Modulus. 1. INTRODUCTION Asphalt construction is fast and relatively simple; it is economical, and the materials to make it are widely available. Over the last several years, evidence has begun to compound that hydrated lime and fly ash improves the rheology of the mastic and produces multifunctional and synergistic benefits in the mixture. Hydrated lime. Substantially improves low temperature fracture toughness without reducing the ability of the mastic to dissipate energy through relaxation. Recent research demonstrates that hydrated lime is 99
  2. 2. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME indeed “active” filler that interacts with the bitumen; and some of the mechanisms responsible have been identified. It has been shown that there are high and low temperature rheological benefits in adding hydrated lime to the HMA mastic. It has been proved that there are also benefits of reduced susceptibility to age hardening and improved moisture resistance. Clearly hydrated lime is an attractive multifunctional additive to HMA. 2. NEED FOR THE STUDY Addition of the fillers such as cement, fly ash and hydrated lime to Stone Matrix Asphalt and Bituminous Concrete grade I were studied by many researchers throughout the world. Many tests such as Marshall Stability Test, Fatigue test with constant rate of loading, Stripping test, Accelerated wheel load test etc were conducted. This study was conducted to find the change in properties of bituminous concrete grade II by the addition of the fillers ie Hydrated lime, flyash and phosphogypsum, by replacing cement. 3. OBJECTIVES OF STUDY The objectives of the study are, To study and compare the creep characteristics of the Bituminous Concrete II mix with hydrated lime, fly ash and phosphogypsum as fillers. To study and compare the indirect stiffness characteristics of the mixes with hydrated lime, fly ash and phosphogypsum as fillers. To study and compare the dynamic modulus of mixes with different fillers mentioned above. To find an optimum content of the filler which enhances the best properties viz indirect stiffness modulus, creep stiffness modulus and dynamic modulus. 4. LITERATURE REVIEW A study conducted by Oregon State University for the Oregon DOT demonstrates that both fatigue and rutting resistance can be improved with lime [Kim et. al., (1995)]. Also lime reduces permanent deformation or rutting of pavements. Results of laboratory studies on California aggregates shows that lime is a very good anti stripping agent [Epps (1992)].Georgia DOT conducted a field evaluation program involving more than 12 paving projects [Watson (1992)]. Core samples (of lime-treated HMA) were obtained from these projects and a evaluation of stripping was made. The effectiveness of lime as an antistripping agent is demonstrated from these field data. Of the 12 pavements included in the study, the pavements in which lime was used as an antistrip agent had only “very slight” to “slight” stripping when compared with the pavements which used other antistrip agents. Also the lime-treated HMA sections displayed lower water sensitivity than the sections that were treated with chemical liquid additive. Tarrer (1996) investigated the bitumenaggregate bond and concluded that, in the field, the water at the surface of the aggregate has a high pH and therefore most liquid antistrip agents remain at the surface because they are water soluble at high pH levels. Hydrated lime creates a very strong bond between the bitumen and the aggregate, preventing stripping at all pH levels. Tarrer also found that hydrated lime reacted with silica and alumina aggregates in a pozzolanic manner that added considerable strength to the mixture. 100
  3. 3. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME The filler effect of the lime in the asphalt reduces the potential of the asphalt to deform at high temperatures, especially during its early life when it is most susceptible to rutting. The hydrated lime filler actually stiffens the asphalt film and reinforces it. Furthermore, the lime makes the HMA less sensitive to moisture effects by improving the aggregate-asphalt bond. This synergistically improves rut resistance. As the HMA ages due to oxidation, hydrated lime reduces not only the rate of oxidation but also the harm created by the products of oxidation. This effect keeps the asphalt from hardening excessively and from becoming highly susceptible to cracking (through fatigue and low temperature (thermal) cracking). Synergistically, the filler effect of the hydrated lime dispersed in the asphalt improves fracture resistance and further improves cracking resistance. Recent studies evaluated the changes in rheology, aging kinetics, and oxidative hardening created by adding lime to HMA [Little, (1996) and Lesueur, Little, and Epps, (1998)]. Extensive binder and mixture tests measured improvements in high temperature performance (rutting resistance), fatigue cracking resistance, and low temperature fracture. Lesueur, Little, and Epps (1998) conclude that: Extensive research were done by various researchers throughout the world regarding the addition of flyash to the bituminous mixes. Buttlar et al., (1998) used micromechanics to assess the mechanical properties of mineral fillers combined with bitumen to form mastics. They conclude that a rigid layer adsorbed to the filler explains the ability of the filler to result in stiffening ratios that are greater than would be predicted based on volumetric concentrations alone. The work of Buttlar et al., (1999), Lesueur, Little and Epps (1998), Lesueur and Little (1999), Hoppman (1998), and Vanelstraete and Verhasselt (1998) are consistent and in agreement on this topic. Flyash, Hydrated lime and lime slurry added to reclaimed asphalt has been shown to improve the aging kinetics and general rheological properties of reclaimed and recycled asphalt [Wisnewski, (1996)]. Lesueur et al., (1998) adds further credibility to the bitumen-hydrated-lime interaction. His research demonstrates that carboxylic acids in bitumen forms hydrogen bond very strongly with hydroxyl groups on siliceous aggregates. However, the hydrogen bonds are very sensitive to disruption by water. Conversion of carboxylic acids within the bitumen to soluble salts prior to mixing with aggregate should prevent adsorption of the water-sensitive free acids on the aggregate. 5. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION In this study an effort has been made to study the suitability of phosphogypsum, flyash and hydrated lime as fillers in bituminous concrete II mix. For the preparation of the mix, the grading adopted is BC grade II as proposed by MoRTH. The Bitumen used for the preparation of the specimen is Polymer modified bitumen. 5.1. Materials Used for the Study The materials used in the preparation of BC grade II includes bitumen, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and mineral fillers such as hydrated lime flyash, and phosphogypsum. Bitumen: The modified bitumen- PMB-70, modified with Styrene–Butadiene–Styrene (SBS) copolymer collected from Hindustan Colas Limited, Mangalore, Karnataka State, was used in this study. The bitumen was tested in the laboratory. The physical characteristics were evaluated as per IS: 1203-1978, IS: 1205-1978, IS: 1208-1978 and IS 1202. The results obtained are given in Table 1. 101
  4. 4. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME Table 1. Physical properties of bitumen Results Standard values (MoRTH, Fourth Revision, clause 521) 65 50 to 89 Softening point o C 65.2 >48 oC Ductility, cm > 100 >50 Specific gravity 1.025 - Test description Penetration at 25oC (1/10 mm) Aggregate: Aggregates used for the study was collected from a quarry at Veliyam Panchayath in Kollam District, Kerala State. The physical properties of aggregates were determined and are shown in Table 2.From the test results, it was found that the properties of aggregates were within the specified limits. Hydrated lime: Hydrated lime used is free from organic impurities and have a plasticity index not greater than 4. The filler materials should pass through 75µ., sieve. Table 2. Physical properties of aggregates Test description Coarse aggregates Fine aggregates Standard values Combined flakiness & elongation index (%) 29 - < 30 2.764 2.6188 2.6 – 2.9 Los Angeles abrasion value (%) 28 - < 30 Aggregate Crushing value (%) 27 - < 30 21.41 - < 30 Specific gravity Impact value (%) Flyash: Collected from Hindustan News Print Ltd, Kottayam District, Kerala State, having a sp.gr 2.45. Phosphogypsum: Phosphogypsum collected from English Indian Clay at Veli region of Trivandrum district, Kerala State. The production of phosphoric acid from natural phosphate rock by the wet process gives rise to an industrial by-product called phosphogypsum. Physical, chemical and engineering properties are shown in Table 3, Table 4 and Table 5 respectively. 102
  5. 5. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME Table 3. Physical Properties of Phosphogypsum (Source: English India clay, Trivandrum. Kerala) Property Values Specific Gravity 2.62 Maximum Dry Density 1.533 – 1.733 g/cc Optimum Moisture 15-20% Table 4. Chemical properties of phosphogypsum(Source: English India clay, Trivandrum. Kerala) Constituents Amount (%) Calcium Oxide (CaO) 32.5 Sulphate (SO4-) 53.1 Silica (SiO2) 2.5 Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3) 0.1 Iron Oxide (Fe2O3) 0.1 Phosphorous Pentoxide (P2O5) 0.65 Fluorine (F) 1.2 pH 2.6-5.2 Table 5. Engineering properties of additive phosphogypsum(Source: English Indian Clay, Trivandrum, Kerala) Property Value Friction Angle 32o Cohesion Value 125 Dry sieve analysis test was conducted for finding the grain size distribution of phosphogypsum, and the gradations are shown in figure 1. 5.2. Preparation of Sample Using Superpave Gyratory Compactor The samples for creep and stiffness tests were prepared by using the gyratory compactor. The different combination of the hydrated lime, flyash and phosphogypsum for the preparation of the mixes are shown in the Table 6 below. 103
  6. 6. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME Table 6. Composition of different mixes IS sieve Base 0.5% Pho.gypsum 1.0% Pho.gypsum 1.5% Pho.gypsum 2.0% Pho.gypsum 2.5% Pho.gypsum 0.5% Hyd. Lime 1.0% Hyd. Lime 1.5% Hyd. Lime 2.0% Hyd. Lime 2.5% Hyd. Lime 0.5% Fly Ash 1913.2 10.5% 13.29.5 10.5% 9.54.75 17.0% 4.752.36 12.0% 2.361.18 11.0% 1.18600µ 9.0% 600µ300µ 9.0% 300µ150µ 7.0% 150µ75µ 9.0% 10.5% 10.5% 17.0% 12.0% 11.0% 9.0% 9.0% 7.0% 10.5% 10.5% 17.0% 12.0% 11.0% 9.0% 9.0% 10.5% 10.5% 17.0% 12.0% 11.0% 9.0% 10.5% 10.5% 17.0% 12.0% 11.0% 10.5% 10.5% 17.0% 12.0% 10.5% 10.5% 17.0% 10.5% 10.5% 10.5% <75µ Filler 5.0% 0.0% 9.0% 4.5% 0.5% 7.0% 9.0% 4.0% 1.0% 9.0% 7.0% 9.0% 3.5% 1.5% 9.0% 9.0% 7.0% 9.0% 3.0% 2.0% 11.0% 9.0% 9.0% 7.0% 9.0% 2.5% 2.5% 12.0% 11.0% 9.0% 9.0% 7.0% 9.0% 4.5% 0.5% 17.0% 12.0% 11.0% 9.0% 9.0% 7.0% 9.0% 4.0% 1.0% 10.5% 17.0% 12.0% 11.0% 9.0% 9.0% 7.0% 9.0% 3.5% 1.5% 10.5% 10.5% 17.0% 12.0% 11.0% 9.0% 9.0% 7.0% 9.0% 3.0% 2.0% 10.5% 10.5% 17.0% 12.0% 11.0% 9.0% 9.0% 7.0% 9.0% 2.5% 2.5% 10.5% 10.5% 17.0% 12.0% 11.0% 9.0% 9.0% 7.0% 9.0% 4.5% 0.5% 1.0% Fly Ash 10.5% 10.5% 17.0% 12.0% 11.0% 9.0% 9.0% 7.0% 9.0% 4.0% 1.0% 1.5% Fly Ash 10.5% 10.5% 17.0% 12.0% 11.0% 9.0% 9.0% 7.0% 9.0% 3.5% 1.5% 2.0% Fly Ash 10.5% 10.5% 17.0% 12.0% 11.0% 9.0% 9.0% 7.0% 9.0% 3.0% 2.0% 2.5% Fly Ash 10.5% 10.5% 17.0% 12.0% 11.0% 9.0% 9.0% 7.0% 9.0% 2.5% 2.5% After proper batching of the aggregates and phosphogypsum, the mix was heated to a temperature of 1400C and after that the optimum bitumen content of 5.5% (Which was determined by Marshall tests). Then the mix is heated to a temperature of 1600C. The mix is poured into the mould of the gyratory compactor and the gyrations were applied at the rate of 30 gyrations per minute and at a consolidation pressure of 600 kPa. After 80 gyrations, the mould was taken out of the machine and the sample was extracted. The sample was allowed to cool at room temperature and the stiffness and the creep tests were done after 24 hours. 5.3. Creep Tests For static creep test a gyratory compacted cylindrical specimen with a height of 72.2 mm was subjected to a uniaxial stress and the deformations in the same direction were measured using Linear Variable Differential Transducers (LVDT’s). The test was performed in an unconfined condition using Nottingham Asphalt tester(NAT). The load was held on the specimen for 3,600 seconds followed by a recovery time of 1800 seconds. The test was conducted at an effective temperature level of 30±1oC. In order to evaluate the effect of loading on the creep characteristic, the creep test was carry out at 100 kPa stress. The dynamic creep test consists of 1800 load cycles was carried out using the NAT under the following test conditions. In order to evaluate the effect of loading on the creep characteristic and suitable magnitude of loading, the dynamic creep test was carry out in three stress levels such as 100, 200 and 300kPa. 104
  7. 7. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME 5.4. Indirect Stiffness Modulus Test The indirect stiffness modulus test was done in the Servo Pneumatic Asphalt tester. A horizontal stress of 300 kPa was applied. The LVDT measure the deformations of the specimen. A total of five pulses were applied and the stiffness modulus was directly obtained. 5.5. Dynamic Modulus The dynamic modulus tests were conducted in accordance with AASHTO Designation: TP 62-03, ‘Standard Method of Test for Determining Dynamic Modulus of Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete’ at different frequencies and number of cycles using NAT. The tests were carried out in room temperature i.e. 30±1oC by applying axial stress amplitude of 250kPa. 6. ANALYSIS OF TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS In this study, tests were done for determining the Indirect Tensile Stiffness Modulus, Creep characteristics and Dynamic modulus of the mixes with various fillers such as hydrated lime, flyash and phosphogypsum. The various test results and analysis are mentioned below The results of static creep test for mixes with various percent of phosphogypsum, hydrated lime and flyash as fillers are shown in Figure 1. Also the initial strain, permanent strain, maximum strain, elastic strain, creep rate in the final 1200 seconds of loading, Stiffness Modulus were found out for these mixes and are tabulated in the Table 7. Details of the mix Base Mix Table 7: Static Creep test results Creep rate in the final Max. Permanent 1200 sec x strain strain -6 10 4.77917 0.536903 0.440067 Elastic strain Stiffness Modulus (MPa) 0.096836 18.62 0.5% Phosphogypsum 4.365 0.504235 0.400874 0.103361 19.83 1.0% Phosphogypsum 3.71917 0.490159 0.39837 0.091789 20.40 1.5% Phosphogypsum 3.6977 0.495287 0.38769 0.107597 20.19 2.0% Phosphogypsum 5.04 0.501631 0.399848 0.101783 19.93 2.5% Phosphogypsum 5.6486 0.519703 0.400386 0.119317 19.24 0.5% Hydrated Lime 5.55917 0.413487 0.299486 0.114001 24.18 1.0% Hydrated Lime 4.65083 0.399543 0.297899 0.101644 25.03 1.5% Hydrated Lime 3.265 0.346541 0.273776 0.072765 28.86 2.0% Hydrated Lime 4.14917 0.380735 0.284439 0.096296 26.26 2.5% Hydrated Lime 4.0587 0.389559 0.290693 0.098866 25.67 0.5% Flyash 4.483 0.513771 0.401634 0.11214 19.46 1.0% Flyash 4.063 0.504961 0.399632 0.105329 19.80 1.5% Flyash 3.896 0.496961 0.396256 0.100705 20.12 2.0% Flyash 4.013 0.499739 0.398591 0.101148 20.01 2.5% Flyash 4.269 0.507349 0.400691 0.106658 19.71 105
  8. 8. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME Fig 1. Graphical representation of static creep test results Fig 2. Graphical representation of Dynamic creep test results From Table 7 it is clear that the creep rate is minimum for 1.5% of filler in all the cases. Also it is clear that the stiffness modulus value of hydrated lime mix is higher when compared with that of flyash and phosphogypsum mixes. Both phosphogypsum and flyash mixes shows almost the same stiffness values at 1.5% addition of the filler. When compared with the base mix; for 1.5% hydrated lime addition, the stiffness modulus increased by 54.99%, while by the addition of phosphogypsum and flyash by the same amount increased by 8.43% and 8.06% respectively. The results of dynamic creep test for mixes with various percent of phosphogypsum, hydrated lime and flyash as fillers are shown in Figure 2. Also the Stiffness Modulus of the mix was found out and tabulated in the Table 8. 106
  9. 9. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME Table 8. Dynamic Creep test results Horizontal Stress Stiffness Modulus (KPa) Axial Micro strain Base Mix 100 6171 16.20 0.5% Phosphogypsum 100 5994 16.68 1.0% Phosphogypsum 100 5907 16.93 1.5% Phosphogypsum 100 5862 17.06 2.0% Phosphogypsum 100 5884 16.99 2.5% Phosphogypsum 100 5960 16.78 0.5% Hydrated Lime 100 5177 19.32 1.0% Hydrated Lime 100 4848 20.63 1.5% Hydrated Lime 100 4363 22.92 2.0% Hydrated Lime 100 4901 20.4 2.5% Hydrated Lime 100 5044 19.83 0.5% Fly Ash 100 6003 16.66 1.0% Fly Ash 100 5967 16.76 1.5% Fly Ash 100 5896 16.96 2.0% Fly Ash 100 5955 16.79 2.5% Fly Ash 100 5998 16.67 Details of the mix (MPa) Figure 3. Graphical representation of stiffness modulus test results 107
  10. 10. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME From the stiffness modulus values obtained from the dynamic creep test results, the maximum value is for 1.5% hydrated lime mix. For the mixes with phosphogypsum and flyash as fillers, the maximum stiffness modulus is for 1.5% addition. The dynamic creep test shows the same trend as the static creep test in the sense that, both flyash and phosphogypsum shows almost similar values and these values are much inferior to the hydrated lime mix, but better than the base mix. When compared with the base mix; for 1.5% hydrated lime addition, the stiffness modulus increased by 41.5%, while by the addition of phosphogypsum and flyash by the same amount increased by 5.2% and 4.7%respectively. Table 9. Stiffness Modulus and Dynamic Modulus test results Details of the mix Stiffness modulus (MPa) Base Mix 288.6 1934 0.5% Phosphogypsum 317.4 1972 1.0% Phosphogypsum 324.2 2003 1.5% Phosphogypsum 337.4 2092 2.0% Phosphogypsum 327.0 2061 2.5% Phosphogypsum 317.8 2028 0.5% Hydrated Lime 288.6 2397 1.0% Hydrated Lime 446.6 2868 1.5% Hydrated Lime 465.2 3256 2.0% Hydrated Lime 487.6 3161 2.5% Hydrated Lime 480.6 2957 0.5% Fly Ash 472.2 1959 1.0% Fly Ash 288.6 1992 1.5% Fly Ash 298.6 2017 2.0% Fly Ash 307.2 2005 2.5% Fly Ash 321.6 1987 Dynamic Modulus (MPa) From the indirect tensile stiffness test results, it can be observed that the maximum value is for 1.5% hydrated lime added mix and the value is approximately two times that of the base mix. When compared with the base mix; for 1.5% hydrated lime addition, the indirect stiffness modulus value increased by 103.6%, while by the addition of phosphogypsum and flyash in the same amount increased the indirect stiffness values by 16.9% and 11.4% respectively. The Dynamic Modulus tests were conducted at frequencies of 25, 10, 5, 1, 0.5, and 0.1Hz and at a stress level of 0.25MPa. The application of first frequency phase is considered as the preconditioning phase, the average dynamic modulus corresponding to 10Hz is considered as the dynamic modulus. The results obtained from Indirect tensile stiffness Modulus and Dynamic Modulus are shown in table 9. 108
  11. 11. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME Fig 4. Graphical representation of dynamic modulus test results From the dynamic modulus test results, it can be observed that the dynamic modulus is higher for 1.5% hydrated lime added mix. For the mixes with phosphogypsum and flyash as fillers, the maximum value is again at 1.5% addition. When compared with the base mix; for 1.5% hydrated lime addition, the dynamic modulus value increased by 68.35%, while by the addition of phosphogypsum and flyash in the same amount increased the dynamic modulus values by 8.2% and 4.3% respectively. 7. SUMMARY The suitability of phosphogypsum, hydrated lime and flyash as fillers in the construction of bituminous concrete is tested. Optimum Binder Content was determined by compacting the specimen with Marshall Compactor with 75 blows on each side of the sample. Different types of mixes were prepared for the study viz. mixes with varying percentage of fillers. Samples were prepared by gyratory compaction methods and these samples were tested for determining the creep properties, indirect tensile stiffness modulus test and dynamic modulus tests. 8. CONCLUSION By the addition of 1.5% hydrated lime by the total weight to the mix, the stiffness modulus from static creep test increased by 54.99%, when compared with the base mix while by the addition of phosphogypsum and flyash by the same amount increased by 8.43% and 8.06% respectively. While considering the dynamic creep properties, for 1.5% addition of hydratedlime by the total weight of the mix, the stiffness modulus value increased by 41.5% when compared with the base mix, while by the addition of phosphogypsum and flyash by the same amount increased by 5.2% and 4.7% respectively. For the Indirect Tensile Stiffness Modulus test, when compared with the base mix; for 1.5% hydrated lime addition by the total weight of the mix, the indirect stiffness modulus value increased by 103.6%, while by the addition of phosphogypsum and flyash in the same amount increased the indirect stiffness values by 16.9% and 11.4% respectively. The dynamic modulus value, when compared with the base mix; for 1.5% hydrated lime addition by the total weight of the mix, the dynamic modulus value increased by 68.35%, while by the addition of phosphogypsum and flyash in the same amount increased the dynamic modulus values by 8.2% and 4.3% respectively. The most advantageous filler among the three investigated fillers is hydrated lime, and the optimum content of hydrated lime is 1.5% by the total weight of the mix. 109
  12. 12. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME Phosphogypsum and flyash shows almost similar properties. Both these fillers shows improvement from the base mix. But considering the economic point of the use of phosphogypsum and flyash in pavement construction if it is available easily and cheaply the construction cost can be reduced at a certain limit and moreover reduces environmental problems related with large stock piles of the above fillers and their negative impact or surrounding land, water and air due to the radioactive element in the phosphogypsum and flyash. REFERENCES 1. Aloysius, T. and Yohan, A. (2003), “Analysis of Creep Properties of Bituminous Mixture With Constant Rate of Load Increment Method”, Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol.4, October, 2003, pp.450-460. 2. Bohdan, D. and Jozef, J. (2008), “Behaviour of Asphalt Concrete in Cyclic and Static Compression Creep Test with and without Lateral Confinement”, Road Materials and Pavement Design, Vol-9 No. 2/2008, pp. 207-225. 3. Cockrell, C. F. and Leonard, J.W., (1970), “Characteristics and Utilization Studies of Limestone Modified Flyash”, Coal Research Bureau, Vol. 60. 4. Dallas N. L. and Jon A. E. (2001) “The Benefits of Hydrated Lime in Hot Mix Asphalt”, National Lime Association. 5. Durga Prasad, K. (2002), “A Study of lime and flyash on the performance of bituminous concrete mix”, Mtech thesis, NITW. 6. FACT SHEET: Hydrated Lime – A Solution for High Performance Hot Mix Asphalt, National Lime Association, Nov 2006. 7. Garrick, N.W., Biskur, R.R. “Effects of Asphalt Properties on Indirect Tensile Strength”. Transportation Research Record, 1269 (1990) 26-39. 8. Jones, G.M., “The Effect of Hydrated Lime on Asphalt in Bituminous Pavements,” National Lime Association Meeting, Utah DOT, May 22, 1997. 9. Krishna Reddy K.V., “Rutting Resistance of Filler Modified Bituminous Concrete Surfaces”, International journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 250-257. ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 10. Little, D. N., “Hydrated Lime as a Multi-Functional Modifier for Asphalt Mixtures,”. 11. Ministry of Road Transport and Highway (MoRT&H), “Specifications for Roads and Bridges”, Indian Roads Congress, 2001. 12. Napiah, M. and Kamaruddin, I. (2000), “Creep and Fatigue Performance of Polymer modified and Fibre Reinforced Bituminous Mixtures”, University of Technology, Petronas Malaysia. 13. Presented at the HMA conference in Europe Lhoist Symposium, Brussels, Belgium, October 1996. 14. Roque, R., Buttlar, W.G. “The Development of a Measurement and Analysis System to accurately determine Asphalt Concrete Properties using the Indirect Tensile Mode”, Journal of the Association of Asphalt Pavement Technologists, 2002. 15. Dr. Talal H. Fadhil, Salah S. Jasim, Dr. Kahlil E. Aziz and Ahmed S. Ahmed, “Influence of using White Cement Kiln Dust as a Mineral Filler on Hot Asphalt Concrete Mixture Properties”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 87 - 96, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 16. Lamia Bouchhima, Mohamed Jamel Rouis and Mohamed Choura, “A Study of Pressure Influences of Phosphogypsum- Based Bricks”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 143 - 154, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 110

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