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1. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE (IJLIS) International Journal of Library and Information Science (IJLIS), ISSN: 2277 – 3533 (Print), ISSN: 2277 – 3584 (Online), Volume 3, Issue 1, January - June (2014), © IAEME ISSN : 2277 – 3533 (Print) ISSN : 2277 – 3584 (Online) Volume 3, Issue 1, January - June (2014), pp. 10-16 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/IJLIS.asp IJLIS ©IAEME Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.1389 (Calculated by GISI), www.jifactor.com ROLE OF LIBRARIAN IN QUALITY SUSTENANCE IN RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS THROUGH PLAGIARISM CHECKER PREVENTION, DETECTION AND RESPONSE *Dr.K. Sridhar, **R.Saravana Subbu Selvan, ***V.Prabhu * Librarian, (Govt. Aided Stream), DRBCCC Hindu College, Chennai –72 **Assistant Librarian, DRBCCC Hindu College, Chennai-72 ***Library Assistant, DRBCCC Hindu College, Chennai - 72 ABSTRACT This topic will make awareness among our professionals to prevent plagiarism in future and help them to detect plagiarism and reduce the impact of plagiarism on education and educational institutions. Planning your research publications well is the first and most important step you can take towards preventing plagiarism. If you know you are going to use other sources of information, you need to plan how you are going to include them in your research publications. This means working out a balance between the ideas you have taken from other sources and your own, original ideas. Keywords: Plagiarism, Research, Librarian, Education, Ideas and Sources etc. INTRODUCTION Plagiarism is originated in European Countries during Seventeenth Centuries from Latin word “Plagiarius” (i.e.,) Kidnaper. Indian Universities framed plagiarism code of Student Right and Responsibilities in 2005. According to Oxford English Volume XI in Second Edition said that “Plagiarism is the wrongful appropriation or purloining and publication as one’s own, of the ideas, or the expression of the ideas (literary, artistic, musical, mechanical etc) of another”. Plagiarism is quickly becoming part of our educational culture. More and more students are turning to the internet for quick "shortcuts" around the rewarding but time-consuming work of writing research papers and the expansion on Internet 10
International Journal of Library and Information Science (IJLIS), ISSN: 2277 – 3533 (Print), ISSN: 2277 – 3584 (Online), Volume 3, Issue 1, January - June (2014), © IAEME is very fast and drastic development in the publishing area so, the rate of plagiarism is increasing very fast and quickly. TYPES OF PLAGIARISM There are two types of Plagiarism. First one is Sources are Cited and another one is Sources are not Cited. Sources are cited The forgotten Footnote Neglects to include specific information on the location of the material referenced The Misinformer The writer provides inaccurate information regarding the sources The Too-Perfect Paraphrase Neglects to put in quotation marks text that has been copied word-for-word The Resourceful Citer The writer properly cites all sources but the paper contains almost no original work The Perfect Crime The writer tries to pass off the paraphrased material as his or her own analysis of the cited material Sources are not cited The Ghost Writer The writer turns in another’s work, word-for-word The Photocopy The writer copies significant portions of text straight from a single source The Potluck Paper Tweaking the sentences to make them fit together The Poor Disguise Altered the paper’s appearance slightly by changing key words and phrases The Labor of Laziness The writer takes the time to paraphrase most of the paper instead of spending the same effort on original work The Self-Stealer The writer "borrows" generously or "recycles" from his or her previous work 11
International Journal of Library and Information Science (IJLIS), ISSN: 2277 – 3533 (Print), ISSN: 2277 – 3584 (Online), Volume 3, Issue 1, January - June (2014), © IAEME LEVELS OF PLAGIARISM Copying of Ideas : Most Extreme Form Blatant Plagiarism : Copying verbation without quotation marks and relevant citation and/or paraphrasing large parts without citation Intelligent Plagiarism – I: Paraphrasing substantial and crucial sections from one or more sources without relevant citation. Intelligent Plagiarism – II : Selective or inadequate citation Lazy Plagiarism – I : Copying a few sentences/phrases Verbation with acknowledgement but without quotation marks or indent Lazy Plagiarism – II : Incorrect citation/Misleading Sources MOTIVATIONS TO PLAGIARISE Internet as a major and easy source in research “cut and paste” as easy option Freely available information – easy important motivation WHY STUDENTS AND ACADEMICS PLAGIAISE Deadline Pressure Students: Excessive Meliance on term papers & written assignments Academics: Pressure to publish papers Quality of Research Atmosphere Inadequate academic resources and infrastructure – boost plagiarism Insufficient Training/Exposure Lack of exposure from early stages of Education on creative originality & meaning/practice of plagiarism Inadequate training in citation and reference styles Reasons for unintentional Plagiarism Genuine inability to express The mind set of “not finding anything wrong” in plagiarizing contents Not knowing various rules of citation, quotation etc., Casual attitude of authorities towards plagiarism Absence of institutional mechanism & academic honor code of conduct in academic institutions and professional bodies 12
International Journal of Library and Information Science (IJLIS), ISSN: 2277 – 3533 (Print), ISSN: 2277 – 3584 (Online), Volume 3, Issue 1, January - June (2014), © IAEME WHY PLAGIARISING IS WRONG If you Plagiarize, You are cheating yourself You don’t learn to write out your thoughts in your own words You don’t get specific individual needs and skills Plagiarism is dishonest INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSES TO PLAGIARISM There are three pillars in institutional responses to plagiarize the research publications Deterrence Deterrence from Plagiarism is to be nurtured by promotion of faculty and institutional academic integrity by sensitization, training and value inculcation Detection It constitutes neither effective prevention nor correction; but an intermediate step between the two Commercial software’s to detect Plagiarism as a simple recipe These software’s are no panacea for breakdown of academic integrity It is only one of the range of measures required in an effective policy package Dealing Multipronged approach-Prevention, Deterrence, Detection and Response with equal attention Introduction to Ideas of Originality at the Undergraduate level Citation styles and Plagiarism practices at P.G level Factors in UG and PG syllabus and Evaluation system Institutional Mechanisms at the M.Phil /PhD level- Exposure ,Deterrence, Detection and Response Plagiarism in Research Papers by Faculty MODEL SUGGESTION FOR RESPONSE TO PLAGIARISM AMONG STUDENTS Plagiarism Levels(As per the grading of levels of Plagiarism) P.G students (term paper / assignment etc.,) M.Phil/Ph.D Thesis Levels 1 and 2 (most serious) Warning (first time), resubmission Resubmission of the particular section/chapter (violation of honor code) Levels 3 and 4 (Intelligent Plagiarism) Warning grades/marks affected Resubmit assignment /chapter, repeat course on plagiarism Levels 5 and Level 6 (Lazy Plagiarism) Warning, course on plagiarism to be repeated, additional exams Resubmit assignment/chapter, repeat course on plagiarism 13
International Journal of Library and Information Science (IJLIS), ISSN: 2277 – 3533 (Print), ISSN: 2277 – 3584 (Online), Volume 3, Issue 1, January - June (2014), © IAEME IN ORDER TO AVOID PLAGIARISM Directly quoting another person’s actual words (oral or written) Using another person’s ideas, opinions or theories Paraphrasing the words, ideas, opinions or theories (oral or written) Borrowing facts, statistics or illustrative material Offering materials of others in the form of projects or collections without acknowledgement ROLE OF PLAGIARISM CHECKER To filter the duplicate content To receive a fairer of your document To do effective research Saves instructor time Useful for Intellectual property issues Allow students to check their own work To avoid the plagiarism habit FREE ONLINE PLAGIARAISM CHECKER Plagiarism Detect The Plagiarism Checker Plagium Duplic Checker Plagiarism Checker Article Checker eTBlast- Virginia Tech Chimpsky- University of Waterloo CopyTracker and Viper –privately developed eTBlast and Chimpsky are more credible but had limitations Based on the above free online plagiarism software’s to help teachers, writers and editors do their work more efficiently and if we have a collection of documents that you think might contain plagiarized content, you can check them quickly with mentioned below free software. COMMERCIAL SOFTWARES iParadigm- customised packages for different applications Turnitin- Academic institutions iThenticate- Publishers WriteCheck- Students Checkforplagiarism.net Copyscape Plagiarism Detecter Plagiarism Scanner 14
International Journal of Library and Information Science (IJLIS), ISSN: 2277 – 3533 (Print), ISSN: 2277 – 3584 (Online), Volume 3, Issue 1, January - June (2014), © IAEME Safe Assign Scanmyessay Urkund Copyscape Ephorus UNDERSTANDING THE PLAGIARISM REPORT CONTENTS Each plagiarism report is split into three sections, the top, following this is the Sources section and following it is the Paper Text section. The details are as below: Top section contains your Overall Plagiarism Index, this is a rating of the total plagiarism found in your document (this is calculated by adding individual percentages of all links found in the Sources section). Color codes are as follows: Blue: 0% (No plagiarism found). Green: 1% ~ 5% (Acceptable level of Plagiarism). Yellow: 6% ~ 16% (Moderate level of Plagiarism). Red: 17% ~ 100% (High level of Plagiarism). Sources section contains links to publications, websites, articles, journals, books, student papers, blogs, internet links, etc. of where plagiarism occurred from. Paper Text section shows what plagiarism has occurred. For example, if you copy/paste something from wikipedia.com then the link wikipedia.com will show up in the Sources section while what has been copied from there will be highlighted in the Paper Text section of the report. Linking each Source to the particular highlighted content in the paper text is an index number. So number 1, for example, in Sources will correspond to all number 1s in the Paper Text section. Your ultimate goal is to get the plagiarism percentage down to the acceptable limit (1% ~ 5%), through document correction and re-checking for plagiarism after each iteration. ROLE OF LIBRARIAN IN THE CONTEXT OF PLAGIARISM Teach citation skills Librarians can help teachers, professors and educate students to the proper use of the Internet. Librarians may be assigned the work to check proper references and match with full text in case of suspicious text. Librarians should work with the academic institution to curb plagiarism by incorporating instructions about it into library orientation programs. Librarians should also be knowledgeable about reference sources as well as familiarize themselves with standard citation and pass on this knowledge to the academics as well as the students who come to the library to do their research. Make available citation manuals and teaching materials in library and disseminate these largely to the library users. 15
International Journal of Library and Information Science (IJLIS), ISSN: 2277 – 3533 (Print), ISSN: 2277 – 3584 (Online), Volume 3, Issue 1, January - June (2014), © IAEME CONCLUSION The plagiarism seems to be a problem that academics recognize and wish to do something about and one that lends itself to a range of solutions. So, in this connection free online tools are becoming available to help identify plagiarism. Librarians explain the research process, demonstrate how and when to cite sources and we offer a detailed explanation of what constitutes plagiarism. Librarians must take initiative if we want students to view the library as a viable, user-friendly, authentic alternative to the Internet. The Web is like an arms race -- a constantly escalating contest of technology.” If librarians let down their guard, in the end, students will be the losers of this race. REFERENCE 1. Auer, Nicole J. & Ellen M. Krupar. (2001). “Mouse Click Plagiarism: The Role of Technology – Plagiarism and the Librarian's Role in Combating It. Library Trends, 49 (3) 415-32. 2. Cullen, Bob. (2002, April) On My Honor… Washingtonian. 31-39. Retrieved from Lexis Nexis Academic Universe on January 8, 2003. 3. Foster, Andrea L. (2002, May 17) “Plagiarism-detection Tool Creates Legal Quandary.” The Journal of Higher Education 37. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe on October 1, 2002. 4. Roach, Ronald. (2001, Sept. 27) “Rutgers Tests Internet Plagiarism Software.” Black Issues in Higher Education. 18:16 46. 5. Safer Morley, (Anchor) (2002, November 10) 60 Minutes (Television Broadcast) New York. Columbia Broadcasting System 6. White, Edward M. (1999) “Student Plagiarism as an Institutional and Social Issue.” In Perspectives on Plagiarism and Intellectual Property in a Postmodern World. Buranen Lise & Alice M. Roy ( Eds.) New York: State University of New YorkPress. 7. Dr.R.Prabu, Dr.K.Sridhar, “Information and Communication Technology Skills among the Colleges Librarians Affiliated To Bharathidasan University: A Study” International Journal of Library and Information Science (IJLIS), Volume 1, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 25 - 33, ISSN Print: 2277 – 3533, ISSN Online: 2277 – 3584. 8. Dr.K.Sridhar, “Perspectives of Digital Libraries in Medical Education”, International Journal of Library and Information Science (IJLIS), Volume 1, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 29 - 36, ISSN Print: 2277 – 3533, ISSN Online: 2277 – 3584. 16