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  • 1. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 66-74 © IAEME 66 REDUCTION OF OXIDES OF NITROGEN EMISSIONS IN SINGLE CYLINDER DUAL FUEL ENGINE USING EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION AND VARYING PRESSURES B. Nageswara Rao1* , Dr. B. Sudheer Prem Kumar2 , Dr. K. Vijaya Kumar Reddy2* 1* School of Mechanical Engineering, Vignan’s University, Vadlamudi, Guntur-522213, A.P, India 2, 2* Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, JNT University, Hyderabad-500085, A.P ABSTRACT This is a well-known fact that the oxides of nitrogen emitted as exhaust from an internal combustion engines effect negatively on environment and human health. A single-cylinder diesel engine has been converted into a dual-fuel engine to operate with natural gas together with a pilot injection of diesel fuel used to ignite the CNG–air charge. The CNG was inducted into the combustion chamber via intake manifold. Injection pressures in dual fuel engines will play a vital role in engine performance and emissions released. This paper focused on reduction of oxides of nitrogen emissions of CNG inducted duel fuel diesel engine by introducing hot exhaust gas recirculation and increasing fuel injection pressures. An experimental investigations were carried out to find out the effect of injection pressure on performance and emissions of a diesel engine operated with CNG inducted into the engine. Experiments have been conducted on a single cylinder, 4 stroke compression ignition engine. Behavior of the engine at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% substitution of CNG with respect to Diesel was examined and compared them at different injection pressures at various EGR substitutions. Keywords: BMEP; CNG- Diesel Engine; EGR; Engine Performance; Exhaust Emissions. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH IN ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET) ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print) ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 66-74 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.8273 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJARET © I A E M E
  • 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 66-74 © IAEME 67 I. INTRODUCTION Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) has become a better option as a clean burning fuel of an IC engine. In order to comply with the ever-stringent emission norms throughout the world and crunch in petroleum reserves, the modern day automobile industry is compelled to hunt for new and alternative means of fuel sources to keep the wheels spinning universally [1]. Paradoxical objectives of attaining simultaneous reduction in emission along with high performance has provided with a few alternative. Natural gas produces practically no particulates since it contains few dissolved impurities (e.g. sulphur compounds). Moreover, natural gas can be used in compression ignition engines (dual fuel diesel– natural gas engines) since the auto-ignition temperature of the gaseous fuel is higher compared to the one of conventional liquid diesel fuel [3]. Dual fuel diesel–natural gas engines feature essentially a homogeneous natural gas–air mixture compressed rapidly below its auto-ignition conditions and ignited by the injection of an amount of liquid diesel fuel around top dead center position. Natural gas is fumigated into the intake air and premixed with it during the induction stroke. At constant engine speed, the fumigated gaseous fuel replaces an equal amount of the inducted combustion air since the total amount of the inducted mixture has to be kept constant. Furthermore, under fumigated dual fuel operating mode, the desired engine power output (i.e. brake mean effective pressure) is controlled by changing the amounts of the fuels used. Thus, at a given combination of engine speed and load, the change of the liquid fuel ‘‘supplementary ratio” leads to a change of the inhaled combustion air, thus resulting to the alteration of the total relative air–fuel ratio [1-3]. The fuel injection rate fuel nozzle design and fuel injection pressure all affect the characteristics of the diesel fuel spray and its mixing with air in the combustion chamber [4-10]. The increased injection pressure gave better results for brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency compared to the original and decreased injection pressures [11]. Injection pressures decreased BSFC [12-14]. The peak cylinder pressure is reduced in the dual fuel operation mode compared to the diesel single fuel operation mode. It has been reported that reductions in the emissions of smoke and NOx can be achieved using DFC mode [6, 7]. By increasing fuel injection pressure, pollution levels reduce due to complete combustion of fuel. Emissions are reduced at 200 bar with different manifold inclinations compared to other pressures. Finally, it is concluded that the information obtained in this investigation is very much useful in reduction of pollution and increasing the performance of the engine by varying the manifold inclination of the modern I.C engines [15-19]. II. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE Series of several experimental cycles were conducted with varying CNG percentages and iterations were done with varying exhaust gas recirculation and the results were compared. The engine used in the present study is a Kirloskar AV-1, single cylinder direct injection, Water cooled diesel engine with the specifications given in Table 1. Diesel injected with a nozzle hole of size 0.15mm.the engine is coupled to a dc dynamometer. Engine exhaust emission is measured. Load was varied from 0.5 kilo watt to 3 kilo watts. The amount of exhaust gas sent to the inlet of the engine is varied. At each cycle, the engine was operated at varying load and the efficiency of the engine has been calculated simultaneously. The experiment is carried out by keeping the compression ratio constant i.e., 16.09:1.
  • 3. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 66-74 © IAEME 68 III. TABLE OF ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS Table 1: specifications of engine Fig.1: block diagram of experimental set up Parts AB-air box, m- measurement of air by manometer, Fw-fly wheel, ADM-alternator dynamometer, i-fuel injector, C-computer for P-θ interface, V-valve for fuel control, EGA-exhaust gas analyzer, S-piezo electric sensor for p-θ interfacing, PB- panel board, EP-exhaust gas probe, FT-fuel tank. Type Four- stroke, single cylinder, Compression ignition engine with VCR Make Kirloskar AV-1 Rated power 3.7 KW, 1500 RPM Bore and stroke 80mm×110mm Compression ratio 16.09:1, variable from 13.51 to 19.69 Cylinder capacity 553cc Dynamometer Electrical-AC Alternator Orifice diameter 20 mm Fuel Diesel Calorimeter Exhaust gas calorimeter Cooling Water cooled engine Starting Hand cranking and auto start also provided
  • 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 66-74 © IAEME 69 IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The formation of nitric oxide (NO) is favored by high oxygen concentration and high charge temperature. NOx concentration is affected considerably by the presence of gaseous fuel–air mixture. The concentration of NOx under dual-fuel operation is lower compared to the one under normal diesel operation at the same engine operating conditions (i.e. engine speed and load) at all CNG flow rates. The oxides of nitrogen measured during the experiment were plotted against various input parameters. Graph 1: NOx VS BMEP at various CNG substitutions Graph 1 shows the increase in the NOx emissions with increase in CNG induction proportions. For further cycles of experiment EGR was introduced along with the incoming air at BMEPs above 30bar. Graph 2: NOX Vs CNG% at different BMEPs 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 -5 5 15 25 35 45 55 NOX BMEP NOx VS BMEP at varoius CNG substitutions diesel 10%CNG 20%CNG 30%CNG 40%CNG 50%CNG 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 NOx CNG% NOX Vs CNG% at different BMEPs 39.2 bar BMEP 46.5 bar BMEP 53.2bar BMEP
  • 5. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 66-74 © IAEME 70 It is clear from graph 2 that the NOx emissions increased with the CNG at all the BMEPs (or) loads. There is 37% increase in the NOx from pure diesel to 50% CNG substitutions. Graph 3: NOx Vs CNG % at various EGR substitutions Exhaust Gas was recirculated through the incoming air at various proportions. From graph 3 it is observed that due to decrease in the oxygen in the inlet charge the formation of oxides of nitrogen were decreased. There 29% all in the measured NOx with increase in exhaust gas recirculation. But increase in EGR input decrease the brake thermal efficiency, this relation is seen in graph 7. Graph 4: NOX Vs EGR% at different CNG proportions 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 NOx CNG% NOx Vs CNG % at various EGR substitutions 0% EGR 10% EGR 17% EGR 22% EGR 26% EGR 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 NOx EGR% NOX Vs EGR% at different CNG proportions diesel 10%CNG 20%CNG 30%CNG 40%CNG 50%CNG
  • 6. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 66-74 © IAEME 71 Graph 5 shows the variation of NOx with increase in the injection pressure at various CNG substitutions. Increasing in the injection pressures has decreased the NOx emissions to the mode value of 15% when compared to that of normal injection pressure. Graph 5: variation on NOx with various Injection Pressures Graph 6: Brake thermal efficiency Vs NOx for various injection pressures Injection pressures increase decreased the NOx emissions as very less account of decrease or loss of brake thermal efficiency. 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 0% CNG 10% CNG 20% CNG 30% CNG 40% CNG 50% CNG NOX variation on NOx with various Injection Pressures 200bar IP 225bar IP 250bar IP 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 600 650 700 750 800 850 BTE NOx Brake thermal efficiency Vs NOx for various injection pressures 200bar IP 225bar IP 250bar IP
  • 7. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 66-74 © IAEME 72 Graph 7: Brake thermal efficiency Vs Nox at various EGR proportions Graph 7 shows the cost of brake thermal efficiency at which the NOx was reduced by increasing the exhaust gas recirculation. With increase in exhaust gas recirculation NOx decreased at the cost of brake thermal efficiency. This makes increase in the injection pressure more feasible when brake thermal efficiency is a constraint equally important to reduction of NOx. V. CONCLUSION The NOx emissions increased with increase in CNG induction proportions at all the BMEPs (or) loads. There is 37% increase in the NOx from pure diesel to 50% CNG substitutions. For further cycles of experiment EGR was introduced along with the incoming air at BMEPs above 30bar.There 29% all in the measured NOx with increase in exhaust gas recirculation. But increase in EGR input decrease the brake thermal efficiency. Increasing in the injection pressures has decreased the NOx emissions to the mode value of 15% when compared to that of normal injection pressure. Injection pressures increase decreased the NOx emissions as very less account of decrease or loss of brake thermal efficiency. This makes increase in the injection pressure more feasible when brake thermal efficiency is a constraint equally important to reduction of NOx. REFERENCES [1] R.G Papagiannakis, D.T Hountalas, “Experimental investigation concerning the effect of natural gas percentage on performance and emissions of a DI dual fuel diesel engine”, Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 23, Issue 3, February 2003, Pages 353–365. [2] S.K. Mahla, L.M. Das and M.K.G. Babu. “Effect of EGR on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Natural Gas Fueled Diesel Engine”, Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Volume 4, Number 4, September 2010, ISSN 1995-6665, Pages: 523– 530. 5 10 15 20 25 30 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 BTE NOx Brake thermal efficiency Vs Nox at various EGR proportions 10% EGR 17% EGR 22% EGR 26% EGR
  • 8. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 66-74 © IAEME 73 [3] R.G. Papagiannakisa, P.N. Kotsiopoulosa, T.C. Zannisb, E.A. Yfantisb, D.T. Hountalasc and C.D. Rakopoulosc, “Theoretical study of the effects of engine parameters on performance and emissions of a pilot ignited natural gas diesel engine”, Energy, Volume 35, Issue 2, February 2010, Pages 1129–1138, 21st International Conference, on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems. [4] N. Alagumurth, C.G. Saravanan K. Anandavelu, “Performance and Emission Evaluation of Low Heat Rejection Direct Injection Diesel Engine Fueled by Diesel: Turpentine Oil Blends” Proceedings of the ASME 2010 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, November 12-18, 2010, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. [5] Can Çinara, Tolga Topgüla, Murat Cinivizb, Can Haşimoğlu, “Effects of injection pressure and intake CO2 concentration on performance and emission parameters of an IDI turbocharged diesel engine”, Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 25, Issues 11–12, August 2005, Pages 1854–1862. [6] Semin RAB. A technical review of compressed natural gas as an alternative fuelfor internal combustion engines. Am J EngApplSci 2008;1(4):302–11. [7] V. Pradeep, R.P. Sharma, “Use of HOT EGR for NOx control in a compression ignition engine fuelled with bio-diesel from Jatropha oil”, Renewable Energy 32 pp 1136–1154, 2007. [8] Ekrem Buyukkaya, Muhammet Cerit, “Experimental study of NOx emissions and injection timing of a low heat rejection diesel engine”, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, Volume 47, Issue 8, August 2008, Pages 1096–1106. [9] Bakar, R. A., IsmailA. R., and Semin, “Fuel Injection Pressure Effect on Performance of Direct Injection Diesel Engines Based on Experiment,” American Journal of Applied Sciences, 5 (3), 2008, pp. 197–202. [10] Keeler, B., and Shayler, P. J., 2008, “Constraints on Fuel Injection and EGR Strategies for Diesel PCCI-Type Combustion,” SAE Paper No. 2008-01-1327. [11] Bose PK, Banerjee R. Banerjee R. An experimental investigation the role of hydrogen in the emission reduction and performance trade-off studies in an existing diesel engine operating in dual fuel mode under exhaust gas recirculation. J Energy Resour Technol 2012;134(012601). [12] Robert Kiplimoa, Eiji Tomitaa, Nobuyuki Kawaharaa, Sumito Yokobe, “Effects of spray impingement, injection parameters, and EGR on the combustion and emission characteristics of a PCCI diesel engine”, Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 37, May 2012, Pages 165–175. [13] M.L.S Deva Kumar, S.Drakshayani, K.Vijaya Kumar Reddy, "Effect of Fuel Injection Pressure on Performance of Single Cylinder Diesel Engine at Different Intake Manifold Inclinations", International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT) Volume 2, Issue 4, October 2012. [14] Mahla SK, Das LM, Babu MKG. Effect of EGR on performance and Emission characteristics of natural gas fueled diesel engine. Jordan J MechIndEng2010;4(4):523-3 [15] Junnian Zheng, erald A. Caton, “Second law analysis of a low temperature combustion diesel engine: Effect of injection timing and exhaust gas recirculation”, Energy, Volume 38, Issue 1, February 2012, Pages 78–84 [16] Muammer Özkan, Derya Burcu Özkan, Orkun Özener, Hasan Yılmaz, “Experimental study on energy and exergy analyses of a diesel engine performed with multiple injection strategies: Effect of pre-injection timing”, Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 53, Issue 1, 29 April 2013, Pages 21–30. [17] S. Saravanan, G. Nagarajan, S. Sampath, “Combined effect of injection timing, EGR and injection pressure in NOx control of a stationary diesel engine fuelled with crude rice bran oil methyl ester”, Fuel, Volume 104, February 2013, Pages 409–416.
  • 9. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 66-74 © IAEME 74 [18] Ying Wang, Yuwei Zhao, Fan Xiao, Dongchang Li, “Combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine with DME as port premixing fuel under different injection timing”, Energy Conversion and Management, Volume 77, January 2014, Pages 52–60. [19] İsmet Çelıkten, “An experimental investigation of the effect of the injection pressure on engine performance and exhaust emission in indirect injection diesel engines”, Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 23, Issue 16, November 2003, Pages 2051–2060. [20] Shaik Magbul Hussain, Dr. B. Sudheer Prem Kumar and Dr. K. Vijaya Kumar Reddy, “Biogas –Diesel Dual Fuel Engine Exhaust Gas Emissions” International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 211 - 216, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499. [21] Shailaja M, V.Vijaya Kumar, Chandragiri Radha Charan and Dr. A V Sitarama Raju, “Development of Back Propagation Neural Network Model to Predict Performance and Emission Parameters of a Diesel Engine”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 85 - 92, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499. [22] Nandkishore D. Rao, Dr. B. Sudheer Premkumar and Jaganath.S, “Effect of Variation in Compression Ratio on Characteristics of CI Engine Fuelled with Honge Oil-Ethanol Blend”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 357 - 365, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. [23] S.H. Choi, Y.T. Oh and J. Azjargal, “Lard Biodiesel Engine Performance and Emissions Characteristics with EGR Method”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 397 - 409, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. [24] Sharun Mendonca and John Paul Vas, “A Study of the Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Compression Ignition Engine using Methyl Ester of Simarouba and Jatropha at Different Injection Pressures”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 6, 2013, pp. 195 - 202, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499.