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  • 1. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 108-114, © IAEME 108 BAND NOTCHED MICROSTRIP-FED MONOPOLE ANTENNA FOR UWB APPLICATION Neha1 , Priya Shukla1 , Aman Verma1 , Vidhushi1 1 B.Tech Student, Electronics and Communication Dept., MIT, Meerut, (U.P), INDIA Kuldeep Singh Naruka2 2 Assistant Professor, Electronics and Communication Dept., MIT, Meerut, (U.P), INDIA ABSTRACT This letter proposes a small microstrip-fed monopole antenna, which consists of a square radiating patch with a pair of L-shaped slits and a ground plane with inverted T-shaped notch, which provides a wide usable fractional bandwidth of more than 140% (1.4-12.4 GHz). In order to generate single band-notch characteristics, we use two L-shaped slits in the radiating patch. The simulated results reveal that the presented band-notched monopole antenna offers a very wide bandwidth with one notched band (3-5 GHz). Besides, the antenna has good omni-directional radiation patterns in the E plane. Index Terms: T-shaped slot, L-shaped slits, printed square monopole antenna, ultrawideband (UWB). 1. INTRODUCTION Commercial ultrawideband (UWB) systems require small low-cost antennas with omnidirectional radiation patterns and large bandwidth [1]. It is a well-known fact that planar monopole antennas present really appealing physical features such as simple structure, small size, and low cost. Due to all these interesting characteristics, planar monopoles are extremely attractive to be used in emerging UWB applications and growing research activity is being focused on them. In UWB communication systems, one of key issues is the design of a compact antenna while providing wide band characteristic over the whole operating band. Consequently, a number of planar monopoles with different geometries have been experimentally characterized [2]–[4], and automatic design methods have been developed to achieve the optimum planar shape [5], [6]. In [7] and [8], two new small wideband planar monopole antennas with truncated ground plane using an L-shaped notch in the lower corner to achieve the maximum impedance bandwidth were proposed. Moreover, other strategies to improve the impedance bandwidth that do not involve a modification of the geometry of the planar antenna have been investigated [9], [10]. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH IN ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET) ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print) ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 108-114 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.8273 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJARET © I A E M E
  • 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 108-114, © IAEME 109 This letter focuses on a square monopole antenna for UWB applications, which combines the square-patch approach with an inverted T-shaped notch in ground plane and achieves a fractional bandwidth of more than 140%. The designed antenna has a small size of 16 × 10 mm2 , showing the band-rejection performance in the frequency band of 3-5 GHz. Size of the designed antenna is smaller than the UWB antennas reported recently [11], [12]. In this letter, we investigate the effects of two L-shaped slits for square patch and also insertion of an inverted T-shaped notch in the ground plane on the frequency bandwidth and impedance matching. Fig. 1. Geometry of proposed antenna. Fig. 2. (a) Basic structure. (b) Basic structure with L-shaped slits.
  • 3. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 108-114, © IAEME 110 Fig. 3. Simulated return loss characteristics of the proposed antenna with and without L-shaped slits. Fig. 4. Simulated return loss characteristics of the proposed antenna with different values of L. Fig. 5. Simulated surface current distributions on the patch without L-shaped slits at 7.5 GHz.
  • 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 108-114, © IAEME 111 Fig. 6. Simulated surface current distributions on the patch with L-shaped slits at 7.5 GHz. 2. ANTENNA DESIGN Fig. 1 shows the configuration of the proposed wideband antenna which consists of a square patch with two L-shaped slits and a ground plane with inverted T-shaped notch. The proposed antenna, which has compact dimension of 16 mm × 10 mm (Lsub × Wsub), is constructed on FR4 substrate with thickness of 1.6 mm and relative dielectric constant of 4.4. The basic antenna structure consists of a square patch, a feed line and a ground plane with T-shaped inverted notch as shown in Fig. 2 (a). The square patch has a width W. The patch is connected to a feed line of width Wf and length Lf, as shown in Fig. 1. On the other side of the substrate, a conducting ground plane of width Wsub and length Lgnd is placed. The ground plane with inverted T-shaped slit plays an important role in the broad-band characteristics of this antenna because it helps match the patch with the feed line in a wide range of frequencies. To notch the frequency band of 3-5 GHz, we use two L-shaped slits in the antenna’s patch. The optimal dimensions of the designed antenna are as follows: Wsub = 10 mm, Lsub = 16 mm, W = 9 mm, Lf = 6 mm, Wf = 2 mm, Ws1 = 6 mm, L = 8 mm, Wp = 2.5 mm, Ls1 = 0.5 mm, Ls2 = 1 mm, Ly = 0.5 mm, Ws1 = 6 mm and Lgnd = 3.5 mm. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS In this section, the microstrip patch antenna with various design parameters is constructed, and the numerical and experimental results of the input impedance and radiation characteristics are presented and discussed. The parameters of this proposed antenna are studied by changing one parameter at a time and fixing the others. The simulated results are obtained using Ansoft simulation software high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS) [13]. Firstly, the effect of inclusion of the L-shaped slits in antenna’s patch on the impedance bandwidth is studied. The Fig. 3 shows the comparison of return loss of the antenna with and without the L-shaped slits. As shown in Fig. 3 there is a notch band of 3-5 GHz in antenna with L- shaped slits while there is no notch band in case of antenna without L-shaped slits. From the simulation results in Fig. 4, it is found that the impedance bandwidth is effectively improved at the upper edge frequency as L is changed. It is seen that the upper edge
  • 5. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 108-114, © IAEME 112 frequency of the impedance bandwidth is increased with increasing the length L. By adjusting L the electromagnetic coupling between the lower edge of the square patch and the ground plane can be properly controlled [14]. The optimized length L is chosen as 8 mm. The simulated return loss curve with different values of L are in Fig. 4. Fig. 5 shows the simulated result of surface current distribution on the patch without the L- shaped slits at center frequency of 7.5 GHz. And Fig. 6 shows simulated result of surface current distribution on the patch with L-shaped slits. Fig. 7 (a). Simulated radiation H-plane pattern. Fig. 7 (b). Simulated radiation E-plane pattern.
  • 6. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 108-114, © IAEME 113 Fig 7 (a) and (b) shows the simulated radiation patterns in the H-plane and E-plane at 4.5, 7.5 and 9 GHz. It can be seen that the antenna exhibits a nearly omnidirectional radiation pattern in the E-plane and a dipole like radiation pattern in the H-plane. 4. CONCLUSION In this paper, a novel, compact printed monopole antenna has been proposed for UWB application. The simulated antenna satisfies the 10-dB return loss requirement from 1.4 to 12.4 GHz. The size of inverted T-shaped notch in the ground plane, the feed gap distance and the sizes of two L-slit in the antenna’s patch to obtain the wide band width have been optimized by parametric analysis. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author thanks to Director & colleagues of Electronics and Communication Department of Meerut Institute of Technology, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India for their support and Encouragements. REFERENCES [1] H. Schantz, The Art and Science of Ultra Wideband Antennas. Norwood, MA: Artech House, 2005. [2] M. J. Ammann, “Impedance bandwidth of the square planar monopole,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 185–187, Feb. 2000. [3] J. A. Evansand M. J. Ammann, “Planartrapezoidal and pentagonal monopoles with impedance bandwidths in excess of 10:1,” in Proc. IEEE Antennas Propag. Soc. Int. Symp., Jul. 1999, vol. 3, pp. 1558–1561. [4] Z. N. Chen, “Impedance characteristics of planar bow-tie-like monopole antennas,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 13, pp. 1100–1101, Jun.2000. [5] S. Y. Suh, W. L. Stutzman, and W. A. Davis, “A new ultrawideband printed monopole antenna: The planar inverted cone antenna (PICA),” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 1361–1364, May 2004. [6] A. J. Kerkhoff , R. L. Rogers, and H. Ling, “Design and analysis of planar monopole antennas using a genetic algorithm approach,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1768–1771, Jun 2004. [7] J. Jung, W. Choi and J. Choi, “A small wideband microstrip-fed monopole antenna,” IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 703–705, Oct. 2005. [8] J. Jung, W. Choi, and J. Choi, “A compact broadband antenna with an L-shaped notch,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E 89-B, no. 6, pp. 1968–1971, Jun. 2006. [9] M. J. Ammann, “Wideband antenna for mobile wireless terminals,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 6, Sep. 2000. [10] E. Antonino-Daviu, M. Cabedo-Fabres, M. Ferrando-Bataller, and A. Valero-Nogueira, “Wideband double-fed planar monopole antennas,” Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 23, pp. 1635–1636, Nov. 2003. [11] R. Zaker, C. Ghobadi, and J. Nourinia, “Novel modified UWB planar monopole antenna with variable frequency band-notch function,” IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., vol. 7, pp. 112–114, 2008. [12] N. C. Azenuiand H. Y. D.Yang, “A printed crescent patch antenna for ultrawideband applications,” IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., vol. 6, pp. 113–116, 2007. [13] Ansoft High Frequency Structure Simulation (HFSS). ver. 10, Ansoft Corp., 2005.
  • 7. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 3, March (2014), pp. 108-114, © IAEME 114 [14] J. P. Lee, S. O. Park and S. K. Lee, “Bow-tie wideband monopole antenna with the novel impedance-matching technique,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 33, no.6 [15] M L Meena And Mithilesh Kumar, “Partially Hexagonal Ground Plane UWB Elliptical Patch Antenna” International journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering &Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 7, 2013, pp. 66 - 73, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472, Published by IAEME AUTHORS Neha was born in Najibabad, Uttar Pradesh, India on 2nd Feb 1994. She is pursuing B.Tech (ECE) from Meerut Institute of Technology, Meerut affiliated to UPTU, Lucknow. Priya Shukla was born in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India on 19th Oct. 1992. She is pursuing B.Tech (ECE) from Meerut Institute of Technology, Meerut affiliated to UPTU, Lucknow. Aman Verma was born in Mainpuri, Uttar Pradesh, India on 14th Feb 1993. He is pursuing B.Tech (ECE) from Meerut Institute of Technology, Meerut affiliated to UPTU, Lucknow. Vidushi was born in Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India on 29th Dec. 1993. She is pursuing B.Tech (ECE) from Meerut Institute of Technology, Meerut affiliated to UPTU, Lucknow. Kuldeep Singh Naruka was born in Jodhpur, Rajashtan, India on 1st July 1985. He obtained B.Tech from UPTU, Lucknow, M.Tech from SVSU, Meerut. He joined as a lecturer in the Dept. of ECE in Meerut Institute of Technology, Meerut in 2009. He is at present working as Asst. Prof. in the same Dept. His area of interest is RF and Microwave Engineering. He got Six years of teaching experience. He has published four research papers in International Journals and Conferences till this date.