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  • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 163-167, © IAEME 163 BACK FED TOP GROUND EQUILATERAL TRIANGULAR MICROSTRIP ANTENNA FOR QUAD BAND OPERATION Dr. Nagraj K. Kulkarni Government College, Gulbarga-585105, Karkataka, India ABSTRACT This paper presents the design and development back fed top ground equilateral triangular microstrip antenna for quad band operation. The antenna is constructed with a volume of dimension 8 X 5 X 0.16 cm3 and operates between 1.68 to 10.32 GHz. The antenna gives a maximum impedance bandwidth of 28.6% with a peak gain of 3.26 dB. The microstripline feed arrangement is used to supply the microwave power to the antenna. The low cost glass epoxy substrate material is used to fabricate the antenna. The antenna shows broadside and linearly polarized radiation characteristic. The design detail of the antenna is described. The experimental results are presented and discussed. This antenna may find applications in DCS1900, WLAN and for systems operating in X-band of frequencies. Key words: Triangular Microstrip Antenna, Back Fed, Quad Band, U-Slot, Slits. 1. INTRODUCTION In modern communication era the microstrip antennas have become attractive candidates that act as good aids for transmit/receive purpose in emerging communication applications such as WLAN, WiMax and 4G mobile systems, because of their numerous inherent advantages like low fabrication cost, planar configuration integrability with MMICs and ease of installation [1]. But an antenna operating at single, dual and triple band is more attractive to use the device for the desired set of frequency bands. The antenna designers put forth much efforts to realize triple and multiple band antennas by many methods such as, slot on the patch, arrays [2-4] etc. But in this study a simple back feed and top ground technique is used to excite equilateral triangular microstrip antenna having U shaped slot and slits to achieve quad band operation. This kind of antenna is found to be rare in the literature. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH IN ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET) ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print) ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 163-167 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.8273 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJARET © I A E M E
  • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 163-167, © IAEME 164 2. ANTENNA DESIGN The conventional equilateral triangular microstrip antenna (CETMSA) and the U slot, slit loaded back fed equilateral triangular microstrip antenna (USBFETMSA) are fabricated on low cost glass epoxy substrate material of thickness h = 0.16 cm and εr = 4.2. The art work of proposed antennas is sketched using auto-CAD software to achieve better accuracy. The antennas are etched using the photolithography process. Figure 1: Top view geometry of CETMSA Figure 1 shows the top view geometry of CETMSA. The radiating patch of side S is designed for the resonant frequency of 3.5 GHz, using the basic equations available in the literature [1]. A quarter wave transformer of length Lt and width Wt is used between CP along the width of the patch and microstripline feed of length Lfeed and width Wfeed for matching their impedances. A semi miniature-A (SMA) connector of 50 impedance is used at the tip of the microstripline to feed the microwave power. Figure 2: Top and bottom view geometry of USBFETMSA. Figure 2 shows the top and bottom view geometry of USBFETMSA. The two slits of lengths L1 and L2 each of width 1 mm are placed on either side of the equilateral triangular radiating patch taking the middle perpendicular as reference. The U shaped slot of width 1 mm having horizontal and vertical arm lengths h and v is placed at the center of the patch. The ground plane of horizontal and vertical length P and Q is placed on the top side of the substrate. The dimensions L1 L2, h, v, P and Q are taken in terms of λ0, where λ0 is a free space wave length in cm corresponding to the designed frequency of 3.5 GHz. Table 1 shows the design parameters of CETMSA and USBFETMSA.
  • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. Table 1: Design parameters of CETMSA and Antenna S Lf CETMSA 2.82 4.19 USBFETMSA 2.82 4.19 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Vector Network Analyzer (The experimental return loss of CETMSA and Figure 3 shows the variation of re is seen that, the CETMSA resonates at 3.3 frequency of 3.5 GHz. The experimental bandwidth is calculated using the formula, Bandwidth (%) = where, f2 and f1 are the upper and lower cut off frequencies of the resonated band when its return loss reaches -10dB and fc is a centre frequency between f is found to be 1.8 %. Figure 3: Variation of return loss versus frequency of Figure 4: Variation of return loss versus frequency of Figure 4 shows the variation of return loss versus frequency of this figure that, the antenna operates for International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 163-167 165 Design parameters of CETMSA and USBFETMSA Wf P Q L1 L2 4.19 0.31 - - - - 4.19 0.31 λ0/1.7 λ0/4 λ0/7.9 λ0/13.6 λ Vector Network Analyzer (The Agilent N5230A: A.06.04.32) is used to measure the of CETMSA and USBFETMSA. shows the variation of return loss versus frequency of CETMSA. From this figure it MSA resonates at 3.30 GHz of frequency which is close to the designed frequency of 3.5 GHz. The experimental bandwidth is calculated using the formula, 2 1 c f f Bandwidth (%) = f − × 100 are the upper and lower cut off frequencies of the resonated band when its is a centre frequency between f1 and f2. The bandwidth of Variation of return loss versus frequency of CETMSA Variation of return loss versus frequency of USBFETMSA shows the variation of return loss versus frequency of USBFETMSA this figure that, the antenna operates for four bands BW1 = 20.8 % (1.68-2.07 GHz), BW International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 7, © IAEME USBFETMSA. h v - - λ0/2 λ0/6 is used to measure the MSA. From this figure it GHz of frequency which is close to the designed are the upper and lower cut off frequencies of the resonated band when its The bandwidth of CETMSA USBFETMSA USBFETMSA. It is clear from GHz), BW2 = 3.07%
  • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 163-167, © IAEME 166 (4.81- 4.96 GHz), BW3 = 3.52% (5.58-5.78 GHz) and BW4 = 28.6 % (7.74-10.32 GHz) for the resonating modes of f1, f2 f3 and f4 respectively. The BW1 is due to the fundamental resonance of the patch. The bands BW2 to BW4 are due to the U- slot and the slits present on the patch. Further it can be noted that the insertion of the top ground gives the virtual size reduction of about 51 %. Hence this antenna can be considered as compact antenna. Figure 5: Radiation pattern of CETMSA measured at 3.30 GHz Figure 6: Radiation pattern of USBFETMSA measured at 4.885 GHz Figure 5 and 6 show the far field co-polar and cross-polar radiation patterns of CETMSA and USBFETMSA measured in their operating bands. From these figures it is observed that, the patterns are broadsided and linearly polarized. The gain of the proposed antenna is calculated using absolute gain method given by the relation, ( ) 0r t λPG (dB) = 10 log - (Gt) dB - 20 log dB P 4πR       where, Pt and Pr are transmitted and received powers respectively. R is the distance between transmitting antenna and antenna under test. The peak gain of USBFETMSA measured in BW1 is found to be 3.26 dB with a half power beam width of 540 . 4. CONCLUSION From this detailed study it is concluded that, USBFETMSA gives four bands with a maximum bandwidth of about 28.6 % in BW4. The USBFETMSA operates between 1.68 to 10.32 GHz. The antenna gives a virtual size reduction of 51% and exhibits broadside radiation characteristics with a peak gain of 3.26 dB. The proposed antenna uses low cost substrate material with simple design and fabrication. This antenna may find applications in DCS1900, WLAN and for systems operating in X-band of frequencies.
  • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. REFERENCES 1. Bahl, I. J. and P. Bhartia, “Microstrip 2. Girish Kumar and K. P. Ray, “Broadband microstri London, 2003. 3. Sang Ho Lim, Chae Hyun Jung, Se Young of Dual band ACMPA with Asymmetric Crossed Slots”, Microwave and Opt. Technol. Lett. Vol. 53, No.3, pp.681- 686, March 4. Constantine A. Balanis, “Antenna (1997). 5. Archana Agarwal, Manish Kumar, Priyanka Jain and Shagun Maheshwari, “Tapered Circular Microstrip Antenna with Modified Ground Plane for UWB Communications”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 43 - 47, ISSN Print: 0976 6. P. Naveen Kumar, S.K. Naveen Kumar Rectangular Microstrip Antenna Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, 2013, pp. 132 - 138, ISSN Print: 0976 BIO-DATA Dr. Nagraj K. Kulkarni Electronics from Gulbarga Universi respectively. He is working as an Assistant professor Electronics Government Degree C field of Microwave Electronics. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 2, February (2014), pp. 163-167 167 Microstrip Antennas”, Artech house, New Delhi, 1980 Girish Kumar and K. P. Ray, “Broadband microstrip Antennas”, Artech House, Boston, Sang Ho Lim, Chae Hyun Jung, Se Young Kim and Noh Hoon Myung “Analysis and Modeling ACMPA with Asymmetric Crossed Slots”, Microwave and Opt. Technol. Lett. March 2011. “Antenna theory: analysis and design”, John Wiley, Archana Agarwal, Manish Kumar, Priyanka Jain and Shagun Maheshwari, “Tapered Circular Microstrip Antenna with Modified Ground Plane for UWB Communications”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, 47, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. P. Naveen Kumar, S.K. Naveen Kumar and S.N.Mulgi, “Design and Rectangular Microstrip Antenna for Quad and Triple Band Operation”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, , ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. Kulkarni received his M.Sc, M.Phil and Ph. D degree in Applied Electronics from Gulbarga University Gulbarga in the year 1995, respectively. He is working as an Assistant professor and Head, in the Department of Electronics Government Degree College Gulbarga. He is an active researcher field of Microwave Electronics. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 7, © IAEME , Artech house, New Delhi, 1980. Antennas”, Artech House, Boston, Analysis and Modeling ACMPA with Asymmetric Crossed Slots”, Microwave and Opt. Technol. Lett. Wiley, New York, Archana Agarwal, Manish Kumar, Priyanka Jain and Shagun Maheshwari, “Tapered Circular Microstrip Antenna with Modified Ground Plane for UWB Communications”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Development of ”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 3, degree in Applied ty Gulbarga in the year 1995, 1996 and 2014 in the Department of active researcher in the