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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET),
ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET),
ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET),
ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976
Figu...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET),
ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET),
ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976
BIO-...
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20120140501021

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  1. 1. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 182 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF VARIOUS PATCH ANTENNAS FOR WLAN APPLICATIONS Dr. Nagraj K. Kulkarni Government College, Gulbarga-585105, Karkataka, India ABSTRACT In this communication a comparative study is carried out on various microstrip patch antennas for single band operation. The proposed antennas are constructed with a volume of 80 X 50 X 1.6 mm3 . The simple commercially available glass epoxy substrate material is used to fabricate the antennas. The microstripline feed arrangement is employed to excite the patches. These antennas show linearly polarized broadside radiation characteristics. The design detail of the antennas is described. The experimental results are presented and compared. These antennas may find applications in WLAN. Key words: Square Patch, Circular Patch, Equilateral Triangular Patch. 1. INTRODUCTION The microstrip antennas have become good candidates for transmission and reception purpose in modern communication application like WLAN, WiMax and 3G - 4G mobile communication systems, because of their numerous inherent advantages like low profile, low fabrication cost, integrability with MMICs, ruggedness and ease of installation [1]. The broadband antennas are realized by many methods such as, slot on the patch [2-4] etc. But in this paper a comparative study is carried out to on square, circular and triangular patch antennas to suit for a particular application. This kind of study is found to be rare in the literature. 2. ANTENNA DESIGN The low cost glass epoxy substrate material of thickness h = 0.16 cm, loss tangent = 0.01 and εr = 4.2 is used to fabricate the square, circular and equilateral triangular microstrip patch antennas. The art work of proposed antennas is sketched using the computer software AUTO CAD to achieve better accuracy. The antennas are etched using the photolithography process. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH IN ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET) ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print) ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), pp. 182-186 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJARET © I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 183 Figure 1: Top view geometry of SMSA, CMSA and ETMSA. Figure 1 shows the top view geometries of square microstrip antenna [SMSA: Fig. 1(a)], circular microstrip antenna [CMSA: Fig. 1(b)] and equilateral triangular microstrip antenna [ETMSA: Fig. 1(c)]. The SMSA has radiating patch of equal length (L) and width (W), CMSA has radiating patch of radius R and ETMSA has a radiating patch of side S. All the antennas are designed for the resonant frequency of 3.5 GHz, using the basic equations available in the literature [1, 2, 5]. A quarter wave transformer of length Lt and width Wt is used between the lower edge of the patch and microstripline feed of length Lf and width Wf for matching their impedances. A semi miniature- A (SMA) connector of 50 impedance is used at the tip of the microstripline to supply the microwave power. Table 1 gives the design parameters of SMSA, CMSA and ETMSA. Table 1: Design parameters of SMSA,CMSA and ETMSA. Antenna L W Lf Wf Lt Wt A B S R SMSA 2.04 2.04 2.18 0.32 1.09 0.06 5 8 - - CMSA - - 2.18 0.32 1.097 0.07 5 8 - 1.227 ETMSA - - 2.135 0.31 1.71 0.05 5 8 2.82 - 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Vector Network Analyzer (The Agilent N5230A: A.06.04.32) is used to measure the experimental return loss of SMSA, CMSA and ETMSA. Figure 2: Variation of return loss versus frequency of SMSA, CMSA and ETMSA
  3. 3. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 Figure 2 shows the variation of return loss versus frequency of The experimental bandwidth of SMSA, CMSA Bandwidth (%) = where, f2 and f1 are the upper and lower cut off frequencies of the resonated band when its return loss reaches -10dB and fc is a centre frequency between f Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5: The figures 3 to 5 show the far field radiation patterns of SMSA, measured in their operating bands. It clear from these figures that all the three antennas show the broad side and linearly polarized radiation ch International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), 6 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 184 shows the variation of return loss versus frequency of SMSA,CMSA and ETMSA. SMSA, CMSA and ETMSA is calculated by the formula, 2 1 c f f Bandwidth (%) = f − × 100 are the upper and lower cut off frequencies of the resonated band when its is a centre frequency between f1 and f2. Figure 3: Radiation patterns of SMSA Figure 4: Radiation patterns of CMSA Figure 5: Radiation patterns of ETMSA The figures 3 to 5 show the far field radiation patterns of SMSA, CMSA and ETMSA in their operating bands. It clear from these figures that all the three antennas show the broad side and linearly polarized radiation characteristics. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME ,CMSA and ETMSA. formula, are the upper and lower cut off frequencies of the resonated band when its CMSA and ETMSA in their operating bands. It clear from these figures that all the three antennas show the
  4. 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 185 The gain of the proposed antennas is calculated using absolute gain method given by the relation, ( ) 0r t λPG (dB) = 10 log - (Gt) dB - 20 log dB P 4πR       where, Pt and Pr are transmitted and received powers respectively. R is the distance between transmitting antenna and antenna under test. Table 2: Comparative results of SMSA.CMSA and ETMSA Antenna Designed Resonating Frequency Bandwidth (%) Gain (dB) HPBW (Degrees ) Application SMSA 3.5 GHz 3.43GHz 2.94 0.8 59 WLAN and S-band CMSA 3.5 GHz 3.1GHz 3.0% 0.91 57 WLAN and S-band ETMSA 3.5 GHz 3.3GHz 1.8 0.72 56 WLAN and S-band 4. CONCLUSION From this study it is concluded that, the comparative data of the antennas help the antenna designer to choose the suitable antenna for particular applications. All the antennas exhibits broadside radiation characteristics. The proposed antennas use low cost substrate material with simple design and fabrication. These antennas may find applications in WLAN. REFERENCES 1. Constantine A. Balanis, “Antenna theory: analysis and design”, John Wiley, New York, (1997). 2. Girish Kumar and K. P. Ray, “Broadband microstrip Antennas”, Artech House, Boston, London, 2003. 3. Sang Ho Lim, Chae Hyun Jung, Se Young Kim and Noh Hoon Myung “Analysis and Modeling of Dual band ACMPA with Asymmetric Crossed Slots”, Microwave and Opt. Technol. Lett. Vol. 53, No.3, pp.681- 686, March 2011. 4. Wen-Tsan Chung, Ching-Her Lee and Chow -Yen- Desmond Sim, “Compact Monopole Antenna Design For WLAN / UWB Applications”, Microwave and Opt.Technol. Lett. Vol. 51, No. 12, pp. 2874- 2878, Dec 2009. 5. Bahl, I. J. and P. Bhartia, “Microstrip Antennas”, Artech house, New Delhi, 1980. 6. Uma Shankar Modani and Gajanand Jagrawal, “Microstrip Line Fed Stacked Layer E- Shaped Patch Antenna for Wlan and Wimax Applications”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 48 - 55, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. 7. S. Chatterjee and A Bhattacharya, “Active Rectangular Patch Antenna - A New Design Philosophy”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 220 - 228, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472.
  5. 5. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 BIO-DATA Dr. Nagraj K. Kulkarni Electronics from Gulbarga University Gulbarga in the year 1995, 1996 and 2014 respectively. He is working as an Assistant professor and Head, in the Department of Electronics Government field of Microwave Electronics. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), 6 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 186 Dr. Nagraj K. Kulkarni received his M.Sc, M.Phil and Ph. D degree in Applied Electronics from Gulbarga University Gulbarga in the year 1995, 1996 and 2014 respectively. He is working as an Assistant professor and Head, in the Department of Electronics Government Degree College Gulbarga. He is an active researcher in the field of Microwave Electronics. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME his M.Sc, M.Phil and Ph. D degree in Applied Electronics from Gulbarga University Gulbarga in the year 1995, 1996 and 2014 respectively. He is working as an Assistant professor and Head, in the Department of e Gulbarga. He is an active researcher in the

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