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1. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN IN – INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH 0976 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET) ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print) ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October 2013, pp. 288-298 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJARET ©IAEME A STUDY OF SEISMIC ASSESSMENT OF A GOVT. MIDDLE SCHOOL IN GANAIHAMAM, BARAMULLAH IN J&K Mohammad Adil Dar1, Prof (Dr) A.R. Dar2 , Asim Qureshi3, Jayalakshmi Raju4 1 PG Research Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Kurukshetra University, India 2 Professor & Head Department of Civil Engineering, NIT, Srinagar, India 3 PG Research Student, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, India 4 UG student, Department of Civil Engineering, MSRIT, Bangalore, India ABSTRACT Earthquakes are one of the nature’s greatest hazards on our planet which have taken heavy toll on human life and property since ancient times. The sudden and unexpected nature of the earthquake event makes it even worse on psychological level and shakes the moral of the people. Man looks upon the mother earth for safety and stability under his feet and when it itself trembles, the shock he receives is indeed unnerving. Mitigation of the devastating damage caused by earthquakes is of prime requirements in many parts of the world. Since earthquakes are so far unpreventable and unpredictable, the only option with us is to design and build the structures which are earthquake resistant. Accordingly attempts have been made in this direction all over the world. Results of such attempts are very encouraging in developed countries but miserably poor in developing countries including our country India. This is proved by minimal damage generally without any loss of life when moderate to severe earthquake strikes developed countries, where as even a moderate earthquake cause’s wide spread devastation in developing countries as has been observed in recent earthquakes. It is not the earthquake which kills the people but it is the unsafe buildings which is responsible for the wide spread devastation. Keeping in view the huge loss of life and property in recent earthquakes, it has become a hot topic worldwide and lot of research is going on to understand the reasons of such failures and learning useful lessons to mitigate the repetition of such devastation. If buildings are built earthquake resistant at its first place (as is being done in developed countries like USA, Japan etc) the devastation caused by earthquakes will be mitigated most effectively. The professionals involved in the design/construction of such structures are structural/civil engineers, who are responsible for building earthquake resistant structures and keep the society at large in a safe environment. Apart from the modern techniques which are well documented in the codes of practice, there are some other old traditional earthquake resistant techniques which have proved to be effective for resisting earthquake loading and are also cost effective with easy constructability. 288
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME In India there are about 80-90% of buildings which are non-engineered and are much vulnerable to damage due to earthquakes. In the state J&K presently the earthquake problem is the most important issue to be given serious consideration as it devastates societies. The Kashmir region has witnessed frequent earthquakes in the past. But the recent earthquakes demonstrated how extremely vulnerable the buildings in this region are. These earthquakes shook the confidence of many Kashmiri in local building materials and even in the techniques they had been using for centuries. During our project survey we analyzed that the immediate reaction of the people towards frequent earthquakes in the state has been a strong desire to abandon traditional architecture and building systems and adopt cement and steel based construction, but still there are large number of people whose spine has not shaken yet and while construction they do not seem to be aware of threats posed by earthquake. During our interactions with the people we concluded that the main reasons behind their negligence is lack of proper seismic knowledge among skilled workers like masons, carpenters, bar binders and lack of attention shown by government officials. At times even the practicing engineers are not adequately familiar with details of seismic resistant construction. Key Words: Catastrophic Damage, Non-Engineered Buildings, Traditional Architecture, Lack of Proper Seismic Knowledge, Details of Seismic Resistant Construction. INTRODUCTION The 8th October 2005 earthquake in Jammu and Kashmir clearly demonstrated the earthquake vulnerability profile of the state. Most of the losses in this earthquake have occurred due to collapse of buildings constructed in traditional materials like stone brick and wood, which were not engineered to be earthquake resistant. Construction of earthquake resistant new buildings alone is not the desired solution of the problem but there are as many as 90% of structures in J&K that need to be reviewed and retrofitted , especially those structures which have higher importance factor viz. hospitals, schools etc. As we know that just after the earthquake the first requirement to the injured people is to provide them medical facility and if hospitals collapse, how can we avoid the further loss of the life? It is not the earthquake that kills the people but the buildings that are meant for shelter becomes the trap and weapon for killing the people during earthquake. It is also evident that life becomes more miserable when people become homeless especially in cold climate regions. Thus, the need of the hour is not only to design earthquake resistant structures but also retrofitting of seismically unsafe existing building in highly earthquake prone areas Table 1. District Wise Deaths, Houses Damaged Partially as well as Fully in Kashmir Valley 289
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME BEHAVIOUR OF MASONRY BUILDINGS TO GROUND MOTION Ground vibrations during earthquakes cause inertia forces at locations of mass in the building. These forces travel through the roof and walls to the foundation. The main emphasis is on ensuring that these forces reach the ground without causing major damage or collapse. Of the three components of a masonry building (roof, wall and foundation) (Figure (a), the walls are most vulnerable to damage caused by horizontal forces due to earthquake. A wall topples down easily if pushed horizontally at the top in a direction perpendicular to its plane (termed weak direction), but offers much greater resistance if pushed along its length (termed strong direction) [Figure (b)]. 1- Earthquake force 2- Overturning 3- Sliding FIG. (a) Flexural wall FIG. (b) Shear wall CATAGORISATION OF EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE STAGES IN LOAD BEARING MASONRY WALLS Stage I of Earthquake. damage Stage I of Earthquake. Damage 290
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME Stage II of Earthquake. Damage Stage II of Earthquake. Damage Stage III of Earthquake. Damage Stage III of Earthquake. Damage 291
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME Stage IV of Earthquake. Damage CASE STUDY Case studies are the best way to learn the practical aspects of the real life problems from the experience of others. They eliminate the need for reinvention, and a further benefit is that they can help build confidence in prevailing building systems. The purpose of presenting case studies in our project is to share the learning from cases that are relevant to the present day scenario of high level seismic risk in the state of Jammu & Kashmir.This chapter includes field survey of a government public building (GOVT. MIDDLE SCHOOL in GANAIHAMAM, BARAMULLAH )in the area of J&K. GOVT. MIDDLE SCHOOL GANAIHAMAM Front view of school The building is a typical double story load bearing masonry structure constructed in mud mortar. The building is situated at old town Baramulla. 292
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME SALIENT FEATURES IN ACCORDANCE WITH CODES (IS 4326-1993, IS 13828-1993) 1. LIGHTNESS The building is light in weight, typically constructed in brick masonry. The building is constructed using kacha bricks as building material. Further the presence of timber roof truss also results in decrease in weight of the structure. 2. PROJECTION AND SUSPENDED PARTS Structural projecting parts are absent. 3. BUILDING CONFIGURATION The building is symmetrical in plan which somewhat improves the seismic performance of structure, even if other salient features are lacking. 4. CONTINUITY OF CONSTRUCTION The parts of the building were not integrally tied together. The connection between the walls in strong and weak direction is completely absent and also the presence of large openings leads to the lack of box action in the structure. Although, the presence of continuous wooden lintel band improves the continuity between the parts of building to some extent. 5. OPENING IN BEARING WALLS Window openings are large in size which weakens walls from carrying inertial force in their own plane. Furthermore the total area of opening exceeds 40% of area of wall which is not in accordance with code. 293
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME Opening in bearing walls 6. HORIZONTAL BANDS A wooden lintel band is provided over all the openings and is continuous. Seismic band Roof band is not provided but is necessary in building with CGI sheet roof, pitched or sloping roof. 294
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME 7. WORKMANSHIP The quality of workmanship in brickwork is not so good, the structure being unengineered and also lack of proper planning has resulted in settlement of the building during 2005 earthquake which led to formation of cracks as shown in figure below. Lack of proper workmanship 8. QUALITY OF MATERIAL Good quality material was not used during construction of building. Kacha bricks were used as basic structural unit which have compressive strength less than 3.5Mpa which is not permitted by present day codes. Furthermore, mud mortar has been used as principal binding material which decreases the strength of building during earthquake. 9. BRICK NOGGED TIMBER FRAME CONSTRUCTION The wall construction consists of timber studs and corner posts framed into sills, top plates and wall plates. Horizontal struts and diagonal braces are used to stiffen the frame against lateral loads. The building in our assessment has diagonal braces but these are not rigidly connected and properly placed which reduce the strength of the frame. Furthermore, the dhajji walls have been constructed only on two sides of the building which resulted in the tilting of building after the 2005 Eqk. as we observed during our site visit. Brick nogged timber frame 295
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME Building tilted SEISMIC ASSESSMENT OF GOVT. MIDDLE SCHOOL GANAIHAMAM BARAMULLAH AS PER IS CODES IN TUBULAR FORM SNO. 1. 2. PARTICULARS OF BUILDING Building configuration: rectangular with l<3b Building category: E (seismic zone v and importance factor 1.5) CODAL REQUIREMENTS L ≤ 3B COMPATIBLI-TY WITH CODE (YES/NO) YES REFRENCES Cl. 4.4.2 IS 4326:1993 ≤3 YES (ii). Mud mortar H2 or richer NO (iii). Opening in bearing wall (see fig. 4.2) A. b5 = 608mm b5 ≥ 450mm YES Cl.7.1.1 Table 2 IS 4326:1993 Table 7 IS 4326:1993 Table 3 IS 4326:1993 Table 4 FIG.7 IS 4326:1993 --------------do------------- (b1+ b2+ b3)/l ≤ 0.42 NO --------------do------------- b4 ≥ 560mm NO --------------do------------- Compressive strength ≥ 3.5 Mpa NO ≥ 1 ½ brick thick or l/16 YES ≥ 1 brick thick or l/16 ≤ 3m NO YES Cl. 8.2.4 IS 13828:1993 (i). Lintel band: provided (wooden) (ii) Roof band :not provided Required YES Cl. 8.4.2 IS 4326:1993 Required NO Cl. 8.4.3 IS 4326:1993 (iii) Plinth band: not provided (iv) At sill level : not provided Required NO Cl. 8.4.6 IS 4326:1993 Required NO Cl. 8.4.1 IS 4326:1993 (i). No. of stories = 2 B. (b1+ b2+ b3)/l = 0.56 C. b4 = 456mm 3. 4. Building uit: unbaked (kacha) brick Compressive strength < 3.5 Mpa Thickness of load bearing walls 5. Ground floor Internal = 340mm external = 225mm First floor Internal = 125mm external = 125mm Typical story height = 2.3m 6. Cl.7,Table1 IS 13828:1993 Cl. 8.2.1 IS 13828:1993 Cl. 188.8.131.52 IS 4326:1993 Cl. 8.2.3 IS 13828:1993 Seismic bands 296
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME 7. Vertical reinforcement 8. (i). At corners : not provided (ii). At jambs of door and windows: not provided Dhajji wall (i). connection with infill wall. (ii). Connection with cross walls. (iii) Connection with roof and floor. Required Required NO NO Cl. 8.4.8 IS 4326:1993 Cl. 184.108.40.206 IS 4326:1993 Tight fitting brick masonry in stretcher bond Steel strips (hold fast) 150x35x1.5 (mm) Steel strips or notch required YES Cl.10.8.1 IS 4326:1993 YES Cl.10.9.1 IS 4326:1993 NO Cl.10.9.2 IS 4326:1993 CONCLUSION It is quite pondering that even for a rider riding motorcycle; it has been put mandatory on his part to wear a helmet just for his safety or even for buildings certain building bylaws have been provisioned which need to be abided. These objectives are solely attributed for the safety and well being of the public on the whole and refraining them from landing into any inconvenience. Thus in this regard our domain i.e. the analysis made by us in regard of the earth quake too need to be given a broader dimension like this. Its importance should be given a due domain in familiarizing the message about the very same. Also certain measures should be taken by the Structural Designers on the mandatory lines which would take into account not only raising the structures but raising them with strength to mobilize the ill effects of the earthquake so that even if a structure fails at least it should be in a position to alarm the people so that in the elapsed time they could make a safe passage. The need of an hour is to produce low cost but earthquake resistant structures in severe and severe most seismic zones and J&K being the most earthquake prone area, we and all other engineers of the valley should understand that it is the masonry that would prove to be economical construction on one hand and earthquake resistant on the other hand, provided an engineering approach to the said material is adopted REFERENCES 1. IS 4326:1993 “Earthquake Resistant Design and Construction of Buildings Code of Practice?” 2. IS 13828:1993 “Improving Earthquake Resistance of Low Strength Masonry Buildings Guidelines.” 3. IS 1893(PART-I):1993 “Criteria For Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures Part 1 General provisions and Buildings”. 4. Earthquake Resistant Design, by S.K. Duggal. 5. IITK-BMTPC Earthquake Tips. 6. A manual of Earthquake Resistant Non- Engineered Construction. Indian Society of Earthquake Technology, Roorkee 2001. 7. Manual for Restoration and Retrofitting of Rural Structures in Kashmir 2007. 8. Report on the 8th October 2005, Kashmir Earthquake, Amita sinvhal, Ashok D. Pandey & Sachin M. Pore. IIT ROORKEE. 9. “Masonry Codes and specifications, “International Conference on Building Officials, 10. “Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures,” ACI 530/ASCE 5? TMS 402 ACI. Detroit; ASCE New York, Boulder,1992. 11. Mohammed S. Al-Ansari, “Building Response to Blast and Earthquake Loading”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 327 - 346, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 297
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME 12. Mohammad Adil Dar, Prof(Dr) A.R. Dar, Saqib Fayaz and Jayalakshmi Raju, “A Study of Seismic Safety of District Hospital in Baramullah in J&K”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp. 88 - 98, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316. 13. Web sites. a. www.sciencedirect.com, b. www.nicee.org, c. www.bmtpc.org, d. www.geocites.com. AUTHOR’S DETAILS M Adil Dar The Author has received his B.E(Hons) in Civil Engineering from M.S.R.I.T Bangalore. He is Presently pursuing his M-Tech in Structural Engineering in under Kurukshetra University. The Author has published papers in numerous High Quality Peer Reviewed International Journals and International Conferences. His research interests include Earthquake Engineering, Bridge Engineering & Steel Structures. He is the Life Member of ISE,ISET,ICI,ISCE,SEFI & IAEME & Member of IASE,ACCE,ISSE,ASCE,ACI & IRC. Prof(Dr) A.R.Dar The Author has received his B.E in Civil Engineering from R.E.C Srinagar (Presently N.I.T Srinagar) , M.E(Hons) in Structural Engineering from I.I.T Roorkee & Ph.d in Earthquake Engineering from University of Bristol U.K under prestigious Commonwealth Scholarship Award. He is presently working as a Distinguished Professor & Head of Civil Engineering Department in N.I.T Srinagar. . The Author has published papers in several International journals & Conferences..His research areas include Earthquake Resistant Design, Tall Structures, Structural Dynamics, RCC design, Steel Design & Prestressed Design. He is the life member of several professional bodies in structural engineering. He is presently the senior most professor & holds many administrative responsibilities in the same institution. Asim Qureshi The Author has received his B.Tech(Hons) in Civil Engineering from N.I.T Srinagar. He is Presently pursuing his M-Tech in Structural Engineering from I.I.T. Bombay. The Author has published papers in many lnternational journals. His research interests include Earthquake Engineering, Bridge Engineering & Prestressed Structures. Jayalakshmi Raju The Author is pursuing her B.E (Final Year) in Civil Engineering in M.S.Ramaiah Institute of Technology Bangalore. She has published many papers in numerous peer reviewed journals and International Conferences. She has presented technical papers in many State & National Level Technical Events. She has also participated in many technical events like cube casting & technical debates. Her research interests include Steel Design, RCC Design & Bridge Engineering. She is the student member of ASCE,ACI,SEFI,IAEME & ISCE. 298
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