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20120130406027
20120130406027
20120130406027
20120130406027
20120130406027
20120130406027
20120130406027
20120130406027
20120130406027
20120130406027
20120130406027
20120130406027
20120130406027
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20120130406027

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  • 1. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH IN 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET) ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print) ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October 2013, pp. 256-268 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJARET ©IAEME OPERATING PARAMETERS EFFECTS ON DRYING KINETICS AND SALTED SUNFLOWER SEED QUALITY UTILIZING A FLUIDIZED BED Phairoach Chunkaew1, Aree Achariyaviriya1, Siva Achariyaviriya1, James C. Moran1, Sujinda Sriwattana2 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chiang Mai University, 239 Huay Keaw Road, Muang District, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand 2 Department of Product Development Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Chiang Mai University ABSTRACT Drying salted sunflower seed using a fluidized bed was studied to investigate the effects of various operating parameters. These parameters were the drying air temperature, the static bed height and the superficial air velocity. Their effect on sunflower seed quality was investigated. The quality was determined from the kernel color, rupture force and consumer acceptance test scores. Additionally, the drying kinetics was modeled using an exponential relationship. The drying constant was determined using the least squares method and correlated with the operating parameters. The results show that an increasing drying temperature causes a decrease in the rupture force of dry seed. It also results in decreasing the redness and yellowness. However, the drying temperature has no effect on lightness. Besides, the static bed height and the superficial air velocity had no effect on the quality. Sunflower seeds dried at 170 °C received the highest approval rating from consumer feedback. Keywords: Operating parameters, Fluidized bed, Quality, Consumer Acceptance Test 1. INTRODUCTION Sunflower seeds (Helianthus annuus L.) are normally classified by the pattern on their husks. Black oil sunflower seeds have black husks, which are usually pressed to extract their oil. Confection sunflower seeds have striped husks (black and white), used for food [1]. The physical properties of sunflower seeds were studied by several researchers (Perez et al., 2007[2] ; Figueiredo et al., 2011[3]; Sharma et al., 2009 [4]; Bax et al., 2004[5] etc.). Dried salted sunflower seeds are used as snack products. They are a nutritious snack with high nutrition. The nutrient content of sunflower 256
  • 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME seeds consists of 47.5 g fat, 18.6 g of carbohydrate, 19.8 g of protein and 6 g of fiber per 100 g. The vitamin content consists of E 37.77 mg, 9.1 mg of niacin equivalent, 3 mg of sodium, 710 mg of potassium, 110 mg of calcium, 640 mg of phosphorus, 4.9 mg of iron, 390 mg of magnesium and 5.1 mg of zinc [6]. In 2012, Chiang Rai businesses on the Thai border imported 39.56 million Thai baht of sunflower and watermelon seed [7]. In the production process, sunflower seeds are pretreated in salted aqueous solution with a ratio of 1/4 to 1/2 cup of salt per two quarts of water for about 17 hours. They are then roasted at 150oC using a shallow pan or a conventional oven for about 30-40 minutes [8]. Fluidized beds are widely used for drying particulate or granular solids in agricultural and food industries. They promote excellent mixing and have high effective heat and mass transfer coefficients. The hydrodynamics of the bed result in coupling between the heat and mass transfer coefficients. This research will use a fluidized bed dryer for the salted sunflower seed drying process in an attempt to reduce the drying time and energy consumption. The air flow rate was selected according to the drying kinetics, the lower this value the lower the required operational energy. However, to reach a fluidized state the minimum fluidization velocity (Umf) is required. This is one of the significant parameters in the analysis and design of fluidized beds. Several researchers (Mawatari et al., 2003[9]; Harish Kumar and Murthy, 2010[10]) determined Umf by the pressure drop method which is an accurate and widely used method. The pressure drop across the air distributor is a function of its open area and the air velocity[11]. For drying kinetics, most results are presented showing the moisture content reduction, drying time, drying rate and energy consumption [12-13]. Drying condition affect the physical properties of food and agricultural products. Research on dried product quality has focused on color, texture (hardness, crispness and toughness) and microstructure. Presently, there is no publication of these qualities for sunflower seed dried by the fluidized bed technique. In this study, a fluidized bed is proposed as a novel drying method for salted sunflower seed. The effects of various operating parameters on the specific drying rate and product quality are investigated and discussed. The drying temperature, static bed height to hydraulic diameter ratio (H/Dh) and superficial air velocity ratio (Uo/Umf) are the investigated parameters. The product quality was assessed in terms of the kernel color, rupture force and consumer satisfaction scores. Additionally, a model for the drying kinetics was developed. Comparison between drying curves verified the drying kinetics model. Furthermore, the quality of dried product was investigated and a product evaluation on consumer preference levels was performed. Nomenclature DT Dh H H* k, md Min MR Mt RMSE R2 SDR t T Umf Uo L*, a*, b* total drying time, min hydraulic diameter, cm static bed height, cm fluidization height, cm drying constant dry bone mass of product, g initial moisture content of sample, %dry basis moisture ratio moisture content of sample at time t, %dry basis root mean square error coefficient of determination specific drying rate, kgwater/ min kgp drying time, min temperature, oC minimum fluidization velocity, m/s superficial air velocity, m/s color parameters 257
  • 3. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS 2.1 Experimental apparatus A laboratory fluidized bed dryer with an open loop air system is shown in Fig. 1. It consists of: a blower, an electrical heating chamber, a distributor, a fluidized bed riser and an anemometer (VELOCICALC PLUS model 8385-M-GB). The anemometer was installed at the top of chamber for measuring the superficial air velocity. The blower was driven by a 0.75 kW motor with inverter. Eleven heaters, totaling 11 kW with a PID temperature controller were used. The distributor had a 4.5 mm diameter with a 33.3% open area [11]. The riser had a uniform rectangular, 15cm x 15 cm, cross section and a height of 150 cm. The hydraulic diameter (Dh) was 15cm. In the high drying temperature and high air velocity (150oC to 170oC; 1.5Umf to 2.5 Umf ) cases the ambient air was preheated by a 5 kW heater to between 45 - 60oC before flowing to the blower. Fig.1. The experimental apparatus of laboratory fluidized bed dryer 2.2 Material The Chinese sunflower seed 5009 was purchased from the Mai Sai district market, Chiang Rai Province, Thailand. Their moisture content was determined by experiment, samples were dried in a hot air oven at 130oC for 3 hours to obtain the dry bone mass. The moisture content was 9.81 ± 0.14 on a % dry basis. The shape of seed approached an ellipsoid. The actual dimensions were 18.2 ± 1.3 mm in length, 10.1 ± 1.3 mm in width and 5.6 ± 1.1 mm in thickness. The volume-equivalent diameter was 8.18 ± 0.08 mm. Prior to drying, the sunflower seeds were pretreated by immersion in a salt solution for 17 hours. The ratio of sunflower seed to water and salt was 48:60:5 by volume. After draining they were left on a sieve for 1 hour. The initial moisture content (Min) of the samples was 90.65 ± 5.37 % dry basis. The samples were kept in a closed plastic bag and stored at 4oC. 258
  • 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME 2.3 Experimental method The minimum fluidization velocity of the sample was determined by the pressure drop method using the apparatus shown in Fig. 1.The static bed height inside the square bed is one of the important parameters which affects Umf [11]. Experiments were performed at ambient air temperature and various static bed height. At static bed height of 0.3Dh, 0.7Dh, Dh and 1.3Dh, the corresponding minimum fluidization velocities were 2, 2.1, 2.4 and 2.8 m/s, respectively. 2.3.1 Drying experiment The drying rate is dependent on the fluidized bed operating conditions. Experiments were performed under three different conditions. The first one kept a constant air velocity of 1.5Umf and a static bed height of 0.3Dh whilst testing at 4 different temperatures (110, 130, 150, 170oC). The second condition kept a constant drying air temperature of 150oC and constant static bed height of 0.3Dh whilst testing at 5 different air velocities, Uo (0.5Umf, Umf, 1.5Umf, 2Umf and 2.5Umf). The third condition kept a constant drying air temperature of 150oC and an air velocity of 1.5Umf whilst testing at 4 different static bed heights (0.3Dh, 0.7Dh, Dh, 1.3Dh). In each experiment, the fluidized bed dryer maintained the chamber temperature at the desired drying condition 40 min before putting the sample in the drying chamber. After drying for a definitive period such as 2, 4, 6, ... min, the samples were withdrawn from the dryer and their weight was measured by a digital balance (±0.1 g). After weighing, a new sample was placed into the drying chamber and the process repeated. For each test the fluidization height (H*) of the product was recorded. Samples were dried until they reached a moisture content lower than 5.2 %dry basis [14]. All experiments were carried out in triplicate. 2.3.2 Quality measurement The quality of dried sunflower seed was investigated in terms of hardness (rupture force), kernel color and a consumer survey. Each shall be explained in more detail below. 1) The rupture force of dried seed was determined using a universal testing machine (HOUNS model). This was used for rupture force compression testing of dried seed at their final moisture content. A compression load cell of 10 kN was used to determine the maximum rupture force on the horizontal and vertical orientation of seeds. After each drying condition, thirty seeds were tested and the rupture force data was reported as an average value. 2) The color of dried kernel samples were measured by a colorimeter (Hunter Associates Laboratory, Inc., model MiniScan XE Plus, VA, USA) based on standards from CIE (Commission International de I’Eclairage). Three parameters were measured, namely L* (lightness), a* (redness/greenness) and b* (yellowness/blueness). At least three different measurements were taken for each sample at different positions. For each drying condition, twenty dried seeds were tested and the data was reported as an average value. 3) A consumer product evaluation was conducted at the laboratory of sensory evaluation and consumer testing, in Chiang Mai University, Thailand. A hundred consumers were randomly recruited from students and staff at Chiang Mai University. The criteria for recruitment of the participants were that they like sunflower seed, had no food allergies and were available and willing to participate. Consumers were briefly instructed on the testing procedure, especially the use of the consumer ballot. Four samples, each coded with a 3-digit random number, were served. Each sample consisted of 15 g of the sunflower seed in a 2 oz plastic cup, covered with a lid. The order of serving to each panelist was randomized to minimize bias [15]. Samples were evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions in partitioned booths. Panelists rated each sample using a 9-point hedonic scale [16], 259
  • 5. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME wherein 1 = dislike extremely, 5 = neither dislike nor like, and 9 = like extremely. Panelists rated their overall preference, the seed color, flavor and crispiness using a computer ballot. Distilled water was supplied to panelists to cleanse their palate and minimize any residual effect between samples. A small gift was provided to panelists for participating in the study. 2.4 Analysis 2.4.1 Drying and Modeling Analysis The experimental data was used to obtain the specific drying rate (SDR). It is defined as follows: SDR = evaporative water from product DT × md (1) where DT is total drying time and md is the dry bone mass of product. To model the drying behavior of samples an appropriate empirical equation (exponential model) was fitted to the experimental moisture removal data. For air drying at high temperatures, the moisture equilibrium (Meq) of the samples can be taken to approach zero [17-19]. So, empirically the drying rate can be expressed as: MR = Mt = exp(− kt ) M in (2) where Mt is the moisture content of the sample at drying time t and Min is the initial moisture content (gwater/gdry mass). MR is the moisture ratio (dimensionless term). The drying constant (k) was determined by fitting experimental data to the drying kinetics equation, Eq. (2), using the least squares method. The dependence of k on the drying air temperature, H/Dh and Uo/Umf was evaluated. The moisture ratio is a function of the drying time and can be estimated using Eq. (2) with Eq. (3), which is expressed as follows: MR = exp [ ( − k1k2 k3 )t ] where k , respectively. 1 k2 and k3 are (3) drying constants for the drying air temperature, H/Dh and Uo/Umf, 2.4.2 Statistical analysis The SPSS for windows, version 17.0 [20] was used for variance analysis (ANOVA). Duncan’s test was used to analyze the drying constant, rupture force and kernel color. Tukey’s studentized range test was used to analyze the consumer acceptance data at a significance level of 0.05. A coefficient of determination (R2) and a root mean square error (RMSE) were evaluated to determine the fit of the exponential model. These parameters can be calculated as shown below: 260
  • 6. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME N ∑ (M R R2 = p re , i − M R ex ) 2 i =1 N ∑ (M R ex , i − M R ex ) 2 (4) i =1 1 RSME =  N  ∑ (MRpre,i − MRex,i )  i =1  N 0.5 2 (5) where MRex is the average experimental moisture ratio, MRex ,i , and MRpre,i are the experimental and predicted moisture ratios, respectively. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.1 Drying behavior and drying kinetics model All experimental results showed that the drying curve was in the falling drying rate period. The effects of drying under different experimental conditions: drying air temperature, static bed height to hydraulic diameter ratio and superficial air velocity ratio are shown in Table 1 along with the calculated average specific drying rates and drying constants. Drying with an air temperature range of 110-170oC at a Uo/Umf of 1.5 and an H/Dh of 0.3, the drying time decreases with increasing air temperature. Moreover, higher air temperatures led to higher values of the drying constant and hence higher specific drying rates. The temperature of the seed increases with increasing air temperature, which results in an increase in the water vapor pressure inside the seed and thus to higher mass transfer coefficients. Increasing the superficial air velocity from 0.5 Umf to 2.5 Umf , at 150oC and an H/Dh of 0.3, results in an initial increase and then a reduction in the specific drying rates and drying constants. The peak specific drying rate was at a Uo of 1.5Umf. The drying time was a constant 10 minutes except at Uo/Umf of 0.5 where the drying time was 20 minutes. These results are similar to previous research on drying hazelnuts [21] and drying soybean meal [22]. At high velocities the reduction in the drying rate results from heat loss to the walls of the fluidized bed as shown in Fig. 2(a). The fluidization height (H*) increases with superficial air velocity, leading to lower air temperatures at the top of the bed height. Varying the static bed height to hydraulic diameter ratio, at 150oC and a Uo/Umf of 1.5, leads to higher drying time and lower average specific drying rates and drying constants value. A possible reason for this is the increase in fluidization height with static bed height. The temperature of sunflower seed at the upper level in the bed has a temperature lower than 150oC. The results of varying H/Dh whilst keeping other parameters constant are shown in Fig.2 (b). The results are in agreement with previous research on olive pomace [23] and granular materials [24]. 261
  • 7. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME e) (a) T=150 oC, H/Dh=0.3, Umf=2 m/s (b) Uo/Umf=1.5, T=150 oC Fig. 2. Comparison average fluidization height and moisture content of various H/Dh and Uo/Umf. 262
  • 8. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME Table1. The calculation values of SDR and drying kinetics under different experimental conditions Tempe Superfici Static rature al air bed velocity height to (oC) ratio hydraulic diameter ratio Total Initial Final moisture moisture content (%dry drying basis) time (min) content of sample (%dry basis) (Specific drying rate, (kgwater/ min kgp) Drying constant (min-1) 110 0.3 95.99±1.13 4.58±0.15a 30 0.0305±0.0004a 0.211±0.020a 130 1.5 0.3 95.99±1.13 4.43±0.10a 24 0.0382±0.00049a 0.344±0.001bf 150 1.5 0.3 94.00±0.00 3.08±0.75a 10 0.091±0.00073f 0.434±0.021cd 170 1.5 0.3 87.29±7.47 4.88±0.09a 7 0.125±0.02302g 0.535±0.064e 150 1.5 0.3 94.00±0.00 3.08±0.75a 10 0.091±0.00073f 0.434±0.021cd 150 1.5 0.7 92.13±0.00 4.51±0.12a 12 0.073±0.00010cd 0.235±0.008a 150 1.5 1.0 95.89±0.00 3.46±1.60a 13 0.071±0.00130c 0.234±0.010a 150 1.5 1.3 87.33±1.89 4.32±1.73a 15 0.054±0.00083b 0.226±0.041a 150 0.5 0.3 83.73±0.00 2.98±2.05a 20 0.0403±0.0010a 0.220±0.005a 150 1.0 0.3 81.00±4.24 3.02±2.17a 10 0.078±0.0064cde 0.387±0.0045df 150 1.5 0.3 94.00±0.00 3.08±0.75a 10 0.091±0.00073f 0.434±0.021cd 150 2.0 0.3 94.22±0.00 4.22±0.25a 10 0.085±0.00034ef 0.369±0.008b 150 2.5 0.3 88.66±2.22 3.62±1.5a 10 0.071±0.0010def 0.350±0.0108bf 170 a-g 1.5 1.2 0.7 84.00±0.00 3.83±0.14a 12 0.0668±0.0001c 0.326±0.0057b Means in the same column with different superscripts are significantly difference (p<0.05). It is apparent that the drying constant depends on the air temperature, Uo/Umf and H/Dh. A regression equation for estimating the drying constant as a function of these operating parameters can be expressed as 3 2   H H H k =[0.062530T −0.467131] −0.430620  +1.260717  −1.20132  +0.488506    Dh   Dh   Dh    3 2    Uo   Uo    0.270367  −1.37748  + 2.097390 Uo  −0.534744         Umf  Umf  Umf    263 (6)
  • 9. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME e) Fig. 3 shows the results for k as predicted by Eq. (6). The predicted k values are very close to their experimental values. Curve fitting the regression equation produces optimal correlation t coefficients (R2) of 0.80, 0.816, and 0.60 as shown in Fig. 3(a), 3(b) and 3(c), respectively. , (c), (a) Uo/Umf=1.5, H/Dh=0.3 (b) Uo/Umf=1.5, T=150 oC (c) T=150 oC, H/Dh=0.3 Fig. 3. Comparison of prediction k values to experimental results. omparison Fig. 4 shows the model for the moisture ratio as calculated by Eq. (3) and Eq. (6) and compares it with the experimental results. From Fig. 4(a), the moisture ratio and drying time decrease rapidly with increasing air temperature. The model is in close agreement with the experimental values (R2 = 0.839 to 0.981 and RMSE = 0.0295 to 0.054). From Fig. 4(b), the moisture ratio increases with increasing static bed height to hydraulic diameter ratio. The fluidization height increases with increasing H/Dh as expected. The model is in eight . close agreement with the experimental values (R2 = 0.963 to 0.999 and RMSE = 0.016 to 0.047). ( 264
  • 10. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME e) (a) Uo/Umf=1.5, H/Dh=0.3 (b) Uo/Umf =1.5, T=150 oC (c) T=150 oC, H/Dh=0.3 Fig. 4. Comparison of prediction moisture contents to experimental results 265
  • 11. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME Fig. 4(c) shows that increasing the gas velocity initially causes the specific drying rate to increase but then further velocity increases cause a reduction in the specific drying rate. This results in a peak specific drying rate at a velocity of Uo of 1.5Umf. The model is in close agreement with the experimental values (R2 = 0.938 to 0.983 and RMSE = 0.020 to 0.040). 3.2 Effect of operating parameters on quality Table 2 presents the results of the colors of dried kernels, average rupture force and the sensory acceptability of dried salt sunflower seed using statistical analysis software ANOVA at a significance level of 5% (p < 0.05). It was found that the redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) of the kernel color decreased with increasing temperature. But the lightness (L*) for various temperatures remained constant even when the thin outer film of the kernel was cracked. The lightness decreased with increasing static bed height to hydraulic diameter ratio because at a constant temperature (150˚C) used the thin outer film did not crack. The average rupture force, of horizontal orientation (Rh), decreases with increasing air temperature. This rupture force for dried seed (p < 0.05) was not affected by the static bed height to hydraulic diameter ratio. Nor was it affected by the superficial air velocity ratio. Gupta and Das (2000) [25] found that sunflower seed at a moisture content of 4.21 %dry basis had rupture forces of 50.2 ± 1.0 N and 59.12 ± 1.20 N for horizontal and vertical orientations, respectively. These experimental results, presented here, of the vertical orientation rupture force show lower values than the results of Gupta and Das [25]. The consumer product evaluation preferences of sunflower seed are shown in Table 2. There were 4 processing conditions used, the overall taste, color, flavor and crispiness. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed for the preferences of these attributes. All conditions had mean ratings of at least 6.0 (like slightly) for overall taste and crispness, except sunflower seed dried at 110 °C. It was clear that sample dried at 110 °C did not perform well with any respect. In this study, increasing the drying temperature tentatively increased the score of the seed. Sunflower seed dried at 170 ° received the highest preference scores in all attributes. Table 2. The Rupture Force, Kernal Color and Consumer Acceptance Test Scores of Dried Sunflower Seed a-d Means in the same Column with Different Superscripts are Significantly Difference (p<0.05) 266
  • 12. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME 4. CONCLUSIONS Salted sunflower seeds were dried by a laboratory fluidized bed dryer. The operating parameters were the drying air temperature, the static bed height and the superficial air velocity. The samples had an initial moisture content of 90.65 ± 5.37 % dry basis and were dried until the moisture content was 3.73±0.73 % dry basis. All experiments showed that the drying curve was in the falling drying rate period. A model for the drying kinetics was developed and the drying constant of the empirical model was determined. It is a function of the drying air temperature, the static bed height to hydraulic diameter ratio and the superficial air velocity ratio. Comparison between the predicted results and the experimental data gave good agreement. The quality of dried salted sunflower seed was determined by the kernel color (L*, a* and b*), the rupture force and a consumer survey. It was found that the rupture force, the redness and yellowness decreased with increasing temperature. However, the drying temperature had no effect on the lightness. Moreover, the static bed height and the superficial air velocity had no effect on the quality. From the consumer survey, it was found that the sample dried at 170 °C was the most popular. Lastly, the appropriate drying conditions for drying salted sunflower seed using a fluidized bed should be the following: An air temperature of 170oC, static bed height of 0.3Dh and a superficial air velocity of 1.5Umf. This drying condition gave the highest drying rate, shortest drying time and had high product quality. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors express their sincere appreciation to the Faculty of Engineering, Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna Tak (Thailand) and the Graduate School and Faculty of Engineering, Chiang Mai University (Thailand) for financially supporting this study. REFERENCES [1]. National Sunflower Association, (2013), “How to roast in shell sunflower seeds”, http://www.sunflowernsa.com/health/recipes/recipe.asp?rid=53 ( accessed on 27/ 2/ 2013). [2]. E.E. Perez, G.H. Crapiste, A.A. Carelli (2007), “Some Physical and morphological properties of wild sunflower seeds”, biosystems engineering, 96 (1), pp. 41–45. [3]. A.K. de Figueiredo, E. Baumler, I.C. Riccobene, S.M. Nolasco (2011), “Moisture-dependent engineering properties of sunflower seeds with different structural characteristics”, Journal of Food Engineering, 102, pp. 58–65. [4]. R. Sharma, D.S. Sogi, D.C. Saxena (2009), “Dehulling performance and textural characteristics of unshelled and shelled sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds”, Journal of Food Engineering, 92, pp. 1–7. [5]. M.M. Bax, M.C. Gely, E.M. Santalla (2004), “Prediction of crude sunflower oil deterioration after seed drying and storage processes”, JAOCS, 81, no. 5, pp.511-515. [6]. B. Mckevith (2005), “Review nutritional aspects of oilseeds. British Nutrition Foundation Nutrition Bulletin”, 30, pp. 13-26. [7]. Office of Commercial Affairs Chiangrai (2012), “News of Office of Commercial Affairs Chiangrai”, http://www.moc.go.th/opscenter/cr/data/Trade_Data/News/26-12-54.pdf (accessed on 28/ 6/ 2013). [8]. Wikihow (2013), “How to roast sunflower seeds”, http://www.wikihow.com/RoastSunflower-Seeds (accessed on 27/ 2/ 2013). [9]. Y. Mawatari, Y. Tatemoto, K. Noda (2003), “Prediction of minimum fluidization velocity for vibrated fluidized bed” ,Powder Technology, 131, pp. 66-70. 267
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