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20120130406022

  1. 1. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN IN – INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH 0976 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET) IJARET ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print) ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October 2013, pp. 216-221 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com ©IAEME EVOLUTION OF GREEN ICT IMPLEMENTATION AT EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS STUDY WITH REFERENCE TO MAHARASHTRA Kavita Suryawanshi Dr. D.Y.Patil Institute of MCA University of Pune Pune, Maharashtra, India Sameer Narkhede School of Management Studies North Maharashtra University Jalgaon, Maharashtra, India Kumar Nirmala ASM’s IBMR University of Pune Pune, Maharashtra, India ABSTRACT Green ICT is ICT related to the environment protection, preservation and creating green environment. The Maharashtra is one of the states in India to focus on the environmental sustainability. The Maharashtra public sector including educational institutions and private sector including IT/BPO industry is implementing Green or eco sustainable ICT. This paper analyzes the need of green ICT as well as green ICT practices at education institution. The study presents the benefits to educational institutes for going green information and communication technology based on data collected from survey of various websites of educational institutions and interviews of Directors/Deans from various institutions selected by convenience sampling technique. Keywords: Information and Communication Technology (ICT); Green ICT; Education Institution; Green ICT Practices. I. INTRODUCTION The growing boom of ICTs in India today is also simultaneously witnessing a growing impact on the environment and climate change. All professional institutes need to satisfy AICTE norms; Number of PCs to Student ratio should be 1:2 i.e. 30 PCs, Legal System Software 03, Legal Application Software 20, All PCs should be in LAN, Mail server and client, Minimum 02 internet connections of 2 MBPS and 10 % of printers in laboratory i.e. 03; as well as need to apply for National Board of Accreditation in Maharashtra when establishing new course or running existing 216
  2. 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME course. The institutions where computer and IT related courses are conducted are considered as a professional Institute with yearly intake of 60 students for (Master of Computer Applications) MCA Course. According to AICTE norms each Institute requires a Computer Lab of 30 Computers with latest configuration. These computers become outdated after three years because at that time “Latest Configuration” will be different (AICTE manual) .So that most of the institutes attempt to write-off these computers which lead generation of e-waste. Maharashtra ranks first in India which generates more than 60% of the total e-waste generated from use of ICT in India [2]. Currently biggest challenge facing the environment is global warming caused by carbon emission. It is very much necessary to save the environment and ultimately the earth .Use of ICT in education is a cause of carbon dioxide emission, high energy consumption and hazardous waste production. These pressure led education institutions to adopt Green ICT so as to minimize energy consumption, carbon footprint, ICT waste and to maximize recycling & reuse and to reduce energy cost. Moreover savings can be achieved by minimizing the wastage of computational facility. With the increase in the number of institutions offering higher education, green ICT implementation at institutions has become key ingredient to achieve cost effective solutions and corporate social responsibility. The universities and colleges has to adopt more sustainable approaches to ICT use. The pressure should be enforced from Maharashtra government, from external stakeholders and the public who are increasingly aware of the environmental and energy cost. Based on these observations, following questions arise: - What are the current Green ICT practices followed by educational institutions? - What are the benefits of Green ICT implementation to educational institutions? This paper reviews the literature available on Green ICT. The structure of paper is as follows. Initially, the Researchers reviewed Maharashtra government’s Green IT policy and Green ICT concepts. Secondly the Researchers have presented the green ICT practices to be followed by educational institution. A discussion on the analysis of benefits of green ICT implementation to education institutions is followed by a conclusion. II. LITERATURE REVIEW India possesses a highly developed higher education system. In its size and diversity, India has the third largest higher education system in the world, next only to China and United States (MHRD Annual Report). US Energy Information Administration publishes international energy statistics reveals that India is now the world’s third biggest emitter of Co2 (carbon dioxide) [4]. In general, the carbon footprint of the ICT can be measured in terms of electricity usage, paper and printing costs, equipment recycling and disposal costs. A. Maharashtra Government Policy The state of Maharashtra has emerged as a key hub for ICT, electronics, and in the captive business outsourcing industries. Maharashtra is the largest market for IT hardware and internet in India. IT continues to transform daily life for the better. It has become necessary to address the environmental consequences of the rapid increase in IT users. Maharashtra IT/ITES Policy-2009 will be valid up to 14th August, 2014. The Policy proposes path breaking initiatives to promote ‘green’ IT and electronic hardware, as well as e-waste recycling (MH IT/ITES policy 2009). B. Green ICT Advances in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) over the past few years shown an exponential growth in technology and its global presence. Hence, there is need for solutions to optimize energy consumption in the ICT sector. Such solutions are collectively referred to as Green ICT (vineetha paruchuri, 2009). 217
  3. 3. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME Keiichi Nakata extends the existing definitions of Green ICT, as a coordination and convergence of strategy, practice and measurement of Green ICT which addresses environmentally sustainability. Green ICT aims to minimize carbon footprint, minimize hazardous ICT waste, reduce energy cost, achieve corporate social responsibility (CSR), and finally comply with regulations (Supaporn Chai, 2011). Green or eco-sustainability is the ability of one or more entities, either individually or collectively, to exist and thrive (either unchanged or in evolved forms) for lengthy time frames, in such manner that the existence and flourishing of other collectivities of entities is permitted at related levels and in related systems (Molla A., Vanessa C,2008). This study summarizes and extends the existing definitions as follow. Green ICT consists of policies and practices that deal with environmental sustainability and achieve corporate social responsibility by minimizing carbon footprint, ICT waste and by optimizing energy consumption and natural resources. III. GREEN ICT AT EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTES There is expanding pressure on schools and universities to embrace more economical methodologies to ICT utilization. This force need to originate from government, from outer stakeholders and general society who are eager to get degrees at the natural expense. As of late greatest challenge confronting nature's domain is a global warming via carbon emission. It is truly essential to recover nature and at last the earth .Use of ICT in education is an explanation for carbon dioxide emission, high energy utilization and unsafe waste generation. These pressures made educational organizations to embrace Green ICT in order to minimize energy utilization, carbon footprint, ICT waste, to boost recycling & reuse and to diminish energy cost, besides environment could be realize by minimizing the wastage of computational facility. With the increment in the amount of education institutions offering professional education, green ICT usage at establishments has come to be key part to attain cost effective solutions. Green ICT has a part of advancement in administering ICT recognized with the sustainability, Researchers intends to focus why education institutions need to give careful consideration to green ICT by inspecting three sorts of demands : environmental, social and economic. C. Green ICT and Environmental Demands For the most part, Green ICT issues are spoken in natural terms because of the effect of ICT on nature's domain. ICT results into carbon dioxide emanations, high energy utilization, creation of hazardous e-waste, which is dangerous for people and the earth. Concerning higher education systems, the learners and staff have expanded the amount of ICT utilized as a part of their regular life. Appropriately, these forces dependent upon these evaluations regulate education institutions to adopt Green ICT in order to minimize energy utilization, carbon footprint, ICT waste, and to expand reusing, refurbishing and reuse. Every living person may as well come to be Green ICT pioneer for social change and saving mankinds from natural contamination. D. Green ICT and Social Demands ICT has social effects which are both granted and unconvinced. Regardless of the possibility that Green ICT is ordinarily approached scientific, technical and environmental points of view, a thought of social challenge ought to be tended to as far as education institute. Green ICT works to attain social viewpoints which are identified with Corporate Social Responsibility. Therefore Green ICT helps education organizations to realize social profits like enhanced image, higher reputation and trustworthiness. 218
  4. 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME E. Green ICT and Economic Demands ICT has straight influenced cost related expense incorporating utilities and support & operation cost, which build each year. The energy utilization of India ICT infrastructure is estimated to expand by 30% to in excess of 31 trillion-watt hours by 2014, an investigation of Global research firm Gartner. Green ICT proposes to utilize energy effective supplies and diminish energy cost. In that capacity, Green ICT in education institutions can additionally address budgetary requests through expense adequacy and best asset use. IV. ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION The responses from interviews of selected directors/deans from various institutions were analyzed. The analysis of Green ICT practices and benefits are discussed in this section are based on the data collected from survey of various websites of educational institutions and interviews of selected directors/deans from various institutions. F. Green ICT Practices With the increasing awareness of environmental issues around the world, institutions are turning to green ICT initiatives more and more. Not only are there significant environmental benefits to these initiatives, but they can also yield substantial business benefits. Green ICT also encourages and supports Greener behavior by the faculties, staff members, students and admin people. By various means, including awareness campaigns and ongoing education, and in some cases legislation, the whole culture of education institutions can be changed. Riaz, M.T., Gutierrez, J.M., Pedersen J.M. (2009) have provided a survey of the challenges faced today of global warming by CO2 emission related in global ICT infrastructure. In their paper (2009) they have provided a number of strategies for greening ICT lead by discussion and overall analysis. Finally, by implementing a Green ICT, education institutions can ensure the sustainability of the IT resources. The researchers have investigated the ways in which educational institutes can reduce, reuse and recycle infrastructure. The green ICT practices to be followed by education institutions to achieve cost effective solution along with green reasoning are as follows: 1) IT Equipment Recycling This practice reduces carbon footprint through proper disposal of hardware and its hazardous components. 2) Printer Consolidation & Reduction This practice reduces the consumption of paper, ink, toner, energy, and hazardous material from printer devices and cartridges. 3) End-User Device Power Management (PCs, monitors ) This practice reduces the consumption of energy during extended idle times, overnights, etc. and PC Power Management was monitored. 4) Telecommuting Capabilities & Strategies This practice reduces carbon emissions from employee commuting activities. 5) Use of Thin Client Model was established This practice reduces energy consumption and hardware footprint. 6) IT Energy Measurement Tools & Techniques This practice reduces future energy consumption by setting baselines, understanding organizational energy use, working towards reduction and improvement. Energy Star /EPEAT Rating hardware were purchased. 219
  5. 5. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME G. Benefits of GICT to Education Institution The main motivation for implementing Green ICT is to reduce costs. Actions to minimize the environmental impacts of ICT use can help the education institutions in some of the benefits appealing to all stake holder groups: faculty, student and staff satisfaction increases, the institute image improves in the society. Some of the benefits which are mentioned below: Reduce energy cost GICT study is beneficial for reduction in environmental impact and power bill which is very essential for future sustainability. By following simple methods of reducing power consumption like Power-down the CPU and all peripherals during the periods of inactivity and so on, each institution can reduce energy cost and ultimately contribute towards sustainable earth. 2) Minimize carbon footprint, hazardous ICT waste: The ICT generates large amount of hazardous waste. Hazardous ICT waste not only has impacts on people’s health but also consumes space in a landfill .Examples of reducing ICT wastes are recyclable or reusable equipment which can extend the ICT lifecycle equipment. Therefore, institutions need to minimize hazardous ICT waste, which is one of the objectives of Green ICT. GICT study is beneficial for reduction in environmental impact and cost saving which is very essential for future sustainability. 3) Comply with regulation The institute can comply with the environmental laws, protocols for sustainability by way of reducing e-waste, providing healthy environment, minimizing power bill. Being environment friendly is good for the overall geo-economic condition. There is no negative effect of adopting Green ICT practices, therefore no regrets. It saves the resource of the country as a whole. It is now high time people should start saving fuel sources and energy for the future generations along with saving money and assets for them. 4) Sustenance of ICT The Government sets targets for carbon emissions and other environmental impacts which require strict regulations. Institutions should comply with the regulatory standards for ICT procurement, procedures, ICT waste, ICT-related aspects of buildings, etc. Green ICT implementation will ensure that Natural resources are conserved and are available for our next generation to continue a way of life that is environment friendly. 1) V. CONCLUSION This paper examined Green ICT concepts and has provided the explanation why educational institutions need to give careful consideration to Green ICT and also reviewed Maharashtra government Green IT policy. This paper has also discussed the green ICT practices to be followed by educational institution. Regardless of the practices, the factors that most significantly determine the success of green ICT would be motivation and rationale for adoption of GICT, urgency to comply with environmental laws and policies, support from top management and stakeholder. REFERENCES 1. Molla A., Vanessa C. Brain Corbitt, Hepu Deng, Say Yen Teoh, “E-Readiness to G-Readiness: Developing a Green Information Technology Readiness Framework”, 19th Australian Conference on Information Systems , 3-5 Dec 2008 , Christchuch, Australia , pp 669-678 2. Supaporn Chai-Arayalert, Keiichi Nakata,”The Evolution of Green ICT Practice: UK Higher Education Institutions Case Study”, IEEE International Conference on Green Computing and Communications, 2011, United Kingdom, pp 220-225. 3. San Murugesan, “Harnessing Green IT: Principals and Practices,” IEEE IT Professional, January-February 2008, pp 24-33. 220
  6. 6. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME 4. Vineetha Paruchuri “Greener ICT: Feasibility of Successful Technologies from Energy Sector”, 2009. ISABEL, 2009, pp. 1 - 3. 5. Kothari C. R. ‘Research Methodology and Techniques 'Wiley Eastern Ltd, New Delhi, Fourth Edition. 6. US publishes international energy statistics, Online available: www.eia.gov.in 7. Industries Department Government of Maharashtra IT/ITES policy 2009. Retrieved May 05 2012 from http:// www.maharashtra.gov.in/pdf/ITPolicy_01-12-09.pdf 8. Government of India ministry of Environment and Forests, “National mission for Green India”, New Delhi, 26th March 2011, available at www.naeb.nic.in access on 12 May 2011. 9. GUIDELINES for Environmentally Sound Management of e-Waste, CPCB,, MoEF, available at http://cpcb.nic.in/oldwebsite/Electronic%20Waste/Final-Ewaste- Documents/Executive_Summary.pdf. 10. B.Mahadevan and Dr.K.Vijayakumar, “A Study on the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Tools in Pharmacy College Libraries of Tamilnadu and Puducherry”, International Journal of Library and Information Science (IJLIS), Volume 1, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 81 - 88, ISSN Print: 2277 – 3533, ISSN Online: 2277 – 3584. 11. N.Tamilselvan, N.Sivakumar and Dr.R.Sevukan, “Information and Communications Technologies (ICT)”, International Journal of Library and Information Science (IJLIS), Volume 1, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 15 - 28, ISSN Print: 2277 – 3533, ISSN Online: 2277 – 3584. 12. Kavita Suryawanshi and Dr. Sameer Narkhede, “Evolution of Green ICT Implementation in Education Sector: A Study of Developed and Developing Country”, International Journal of Management (IJM), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 91-98, ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSN Online: 0976-6510. 13. Tarun Dhar Diwan and Upasana Sinha, “The Machine Learning Method Regarding Efficient Soft Computing and ICT using SVM”, International Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 124 - 130, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375. 14. Ahood M.A. Al-Sawaha, Mansour E. Abou Gamila and Khalid A. Bubshait, “Assessing the Effect of Information and Communication Technology on Enhancing Higher Education Systems in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 134 - 149, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499. 15. www.aicte-india.org 16. www.cpcb.nic.in 17. www.maharashtra.gov.in 18. www.naeb.nic.in 19. www.eia.gov.in 20. www.mhrd.gov.in 221

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