International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN IN –
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVA...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 64...
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20120130406020

  1. 1. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN IN – INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH 0976 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET) ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print) ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October 2013, pp. 195-202 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJARET ©IAEME A STUDY OF THE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE USING METHYL ESTER OF SIMAROUBA AND JATROPHA AT DIFFERENT INJECTION PRESSURES Sharun Mendonca1, John Paul Vas1 1 (Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph Engineering College, Vamanjoor, Mangalore, Karnataka, India-575028) ABSTRACT Environmental concerns and limited amount of petroleum fuels have caused interests in the development of alternative fuels for internal combustion (IC) engines. As an alternative, biodegradable, and renewable fuel, ethanol is receiving increasing attention. Efforts are being made throughout the World to reduce the consumption of liquid petroleum fuels wherever is possible. Biodiesel is recently gaining prominence as a substitute for petroleum based diesel mainly due to environmental considerations and depletion of vital resources like petroleum and coal. According to Indian scenario, the demand for petroleum diesel is increasing day by day hence there is a need to find out an appropriate solution. Under Indian condition only such plants can be considered for bio diesel, which produce non edible oil in appreciable quantity and can be grown in large scale on non cropped marginal lands and waste lands. However, the current utilization of non-edible oilseeds is very low .Bio-diesel has become more attractive recently because of the fact that it is made from renewable resources. In the present work, biodiesel has been prepared from edible and non edible oils. As in India the non-edible oil like simarouba glauca and Jatropha oil are available in abundance, which can be converted to biodiesel. The performance and emission characteristics of simarouba oil and Jatropha oil at 20% blend with diesel have been studied. Tests were carried out for analyzing various parameters such as thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), emission of CO, HC and NOx gases in exhaust. S20 is more suitable biodiesel compare to J20. Keywords: simarouba, Jatropha, injection pressure, viscosity, BTE, BSFC, emission 1. INTRODUCTION Efforts are being made throughout the World to reduce the consumption of liquid petroleum fuels wherever is possible. Two general approaches are in use. First is to switch over the energy 195
  2. 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME consumption devices on alternative energy source which are either abundant or are reproducible. The second is to enhance the efficiency of combustion devices. Recently, there has been a growing concern about the increasing air pollution caused by the combustion of petro diesel. In addition, depleting resources of conventional fuels has caused an increase in its price. Biodiesel is a renewable fuel which is produced from non-edible oil through a chemical process and can be used as either direct substitute, extender or as an additive to fossil diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. The most promising feature of biodiesel is that it can be utilized in existing design of diesel engine with no or very little modifications. It has a proven performance for air pollution reduction. Biodiesel is typically produced through the reaction of non-edible oil with methanol or ethanol in the presence of catalyst to yield glycerol as major by product [1] (biodiesel chemically called methyl or ethyl ester). However, the price of biodiesel is presently more as compared to petro diesel [2]. Higher cost of biodiesel is primarily due to the raw material cost [3]. 1.1 Jatropha oil Jatropha Curcas is commonly found in most of the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The oil content of Jatropha seed ranges from 30 to 35 % by weight. The fatty acid composition of Jatropha oil [4] consists of myristic, palmitic, stearic, arachidic, oleic and linoleic acids. After extraction of oil from seed the detoxification of the seed cake is necessary so that the seed cake can be used as cattle feed. Economic development in India has led to huge increases in energy demand, which in-turn has encouraged development of the Jatropha cultivation and Biodiesel production system. 1.2 Simarouba oil The Simarouba tree is a multipurpose tree, capable of growing on degraded soils. It can adapt to a wide range of temperatures (30–450C) and altitudes (up to 1000 m above sea level). This tree has got a potential to produce 2000–2500 kg oil/ha/year. The botanical name of paradise oil is simarouba glauca. Paradise oil, like Jatropha oil, is arousing great enthusiasm for its use in producing bio-diesel. The oil contains about 63% unsaturated fatty acids. This evergreen tree can check soil erosion and helps in wasteland reclamation. As a long-term strategy, cultivation of paradise tree is advocated in the abundantly available marginal lands/wastelands, to overcome oil shortage and its implementation is economically viable and ecologically sustainable. 2. OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH To study the Performance parameters like thermal efficiency, BSFC and emission characteristics like CO, HC, and NOx at different injection pressures 200 bar, 250 bar and 300 bar evaluated. 2.1 Properties of fuel Properties Diesel Simarouba (S100) S20 Jatropha(J100) J20 3 Density in kg/m 840 867 845.4 883.8 848.76 Cetane number 50 52 51 51 50 Calorific value in KJ/Kg 43000 39800 42360 39400 42280 Flash point 0C 55 165 70 120 68 0 Viscosity at 40 C in cst 2.7-5 4.8 3.4 6.2 3.64 196
  3. 3. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME 3. EXPERIMENTAL SET UP, PROCEDURE AND OBSERVATION The samples are prepared by using the 1000 ml measuring jar and a 10 ml graduated test tube. Fig.3.1 shows the schematic diagram of the complete experimental setup for determining the effects of simarouba oil as bio diesel fuel additives on the performance and emission characteristics of compression ignition engine. It consists of a single cylinder four stroke water cooled compression ignition engine connected to an eddy current dynamometer. It is provided with temperature sensors for the measurement of jacket water, calorimeter water, and calorimeter exhaust gas inlet and outlet temperature. It is also provided with pressure sensors for the measurement of combustion gas pressure and fuel injection pressure. An encoder is fixed for crank angle record. The signals from these sensors are interfaced with a computer to an engine indicator to display P-Ө, P-V and fuel injection pressure versus crank angle plots. The provision is also made for the measurement of volumetric fuel flow. The built in program in the system calculates indicated power, brake power, thermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency and heat balance. The software package is fully configurable and averaged P-Ө diagram, P-V plot and liquid fuel injection pressure diagram can be obtained for various operating conditions. Fig. 3.1 Schematic Diagram of the Experimental Set-up PT PTF FI FP T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 Combustion Chamber Pressure Sensor Fuel Injection Pressure Sensor Fuel Injector Fuel Pump Jacket Water Inlet Temperature Jacket Water Outlet Temperature Inlet Water Temperature at Calorimeter Outlet Water Temperature at Calorimeter Exhaust Gas Temperature before Calorimeter Exhaust Gas Temperature after Calorimeter 197 F1 Liquid fuel flow rate F2 Air Flow Rate F3 Jacket water flow rate F4 Calorimeter water flow rate LC Load Cell CA Crank Angle Encoder EGC Exhaust Gas Calorimeter
  4. 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME SL.NO 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Engine Parameters Machine supplier Engine Type Number of cylinders Number of strokes Rated power Bore Stroke Cubic Capacity Compression ratio Rated Speed Dynamometer Type of cooling Fuel injection Pressure Fuel Load Measurement Speed Measurement Temperature Indicator Cylinder Pressure Measurement Specification INLAB Equipments. Bangalore. TV1(Kirloskar, Four Stroke) Single Cylinder Four-Stroke 5.2KW (7 HP) @1500RPM 87.5mm 110mm 661cc 17.5:1 1500 RPM Eddy Current dynamometer, make SAJ Water cooling 200 bar Diesel Strain gauge load cell Rotary encoder Digital, PT-100 type temperature sensor Piezo-Sensor, range 2000 Psi, make PCB USA Fuel Injection Pressure Piezo Sensor, range 5000 Psi, make PCB Measurement USA Water flow Measurement Rota meter 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 4.1 Performance characteristics CR 17.5, 250 BAR, 20.50BTDC 30 25 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 20 DIESEL BTE,% BTE, % CR 17.5,200 BAR, 20.50BTDC 15 DIESEL 10 S20 S20 5 J20 J20 0 6.5 13 19.5 26 Load,N-m Load, N-m Figure 4.1 Brake thermal efficiency v/s load, CR 17.5, 200 bar, Std 20.50 Figure 4.2 Brake thermal efficiency v/s load, CR17.5, 250 bar, std 20.50 198
  5. 5. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME CR 17.5, 300 BAR, 20.50BTDC CR 17.5,200 BAR, 20.50BTDC 30 BSFC,Kg/KW-hr 25 BTE,% 20 15 DIESEL 10 S20 5 J20 26 19.5 13 6.5 0 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 DIESEL S20 J20 6.5 Load,N-m Load,N-m Figure 4.3 Brake thermal efficiency v/s Load, CR 17.5, 300 bar, std 20.50 Figure 4.4 brake specific fuel consumption v/s load, CR17.5, 200 bar, std 20.50 CR 17.5, 250 BAR, 20.50BTDC 0.7 17.5, 300 BAR, 20.50BTDC BSFC,Kg/KW-hr 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0.5 0.4 0.3 DIESEL DIESEL 0.2 S20 S20 0.1 J20 J20 26 19.5 13 0 6.5 BSFC,Kg/KW-hr 13 19.5 26 6.5 Load,N-m 13 19.5 26 Load,N-m Figure 4.5 Brake specific fuel consumption v/s load, CR 17.5, 250 bar, Std 20.50 Figure 4.6 BSFC v/s load, CR 17.5 300 bar, std 20.50 4.1.1 Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) The brake thermal efficiency of S20 is decreases about 6% and J20 decreases by about 12.5% compare to diesel at IP200 bar, IT 20.50BTDC. The reason for this is poor atomization of biodiesel due to higher viscosity. In all injection pressure BTE of biodiesel is decreased. S20 as better BTE compare to J20. 199
  6. 6. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME 4.1.2 Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) The BSFC of S20 is increased about 8.2% and J20 increased about 15.8% compare to diesel. The reason for this is lower calorific value of biodiesel. S20 has 11% less BSFC compare to J20. 4.2 Emission Characteristics The CO emission is reduced about 42% for S20 and 29% for J20 compare to diesel. This is due to better combustion and availability of oxygen present in the biodiesel. The HC emission is reduced about 36% for S20 and 20% for J20 compare to diesel. This is due to proper mixing of airfuel and availability of oxygen present in the biodiesel. The NOX emission is increased by 31% in S20 and 38% in J20 compare to diesel. This is due to higher temperature and availability of oxygen. CONCLUSION In this paper S20 and J20 is tested at different injection pressures and found that, while using S20 and J20 the BTE is decreased and BSFC is increased. The CO and HC emission is considerably decreased compare to diesel while NOX emission is increased slightly. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors are thankful Sri Siddhartha Institute of Technology, Tumkur for providing engine test rig for experiment. CR 17.5, 250 40 BAR, 20.50BTDC CO, PPM 35 30 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 DIESEL S20 25 20 DIESEL 15 10 S20 5 J20 J20 13 19.5 26 0 6.5 CO, PPM CR 17.5, 200 BAR, 20.50BTDC 6.5 Load,N-m 13 19.5 26 Load,N-m Figure 4.7 Carbon monoxide v/s load, CR 17.5, 200 bar, Std 20.50 Figure 4.8 CO v/s load, CR 17.5, 250 bar, std 20.50 200
  7. 7. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME CR 17.5, 300 BAR, 20.50BTDC CR 17.5, 200 BAR, 20.50BTDC 10 80 8 60 HC,PPM 12 100 CO, PPM 120 DIESEL 40 6 DIESEL 4 S20 S20 20 2 J20 J20 6.5 13 19.5 26 0 6.5 13 19.5 26 0 Load, N-m Load,N-m Figure 4.9 CO v/s load, CR 17.5, 300 bar Std 20.50 Figure 4.10 HC v/s load, CR 17.5, 200 bar std 20.50 CR 17.5, 300 BAR, 20.50BTDC 6 DIESEL 4 S20 2 J20 S20 J20 6.5 26 19.5 13 6.5 0 DIESEL Load,N-m 26 8 HC, PPM HC, PPM 10 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 19.5 12 13 CR 17.5, 250 BAR, 20.50BTDC Load,N-m Figure 4.11 HC v/s load, CR 17.5, 250 bar Std 20.50 Figure 4.12 HC v/s load, CR 17.5, 300 bar std 20.50 201
  8. 8. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME CR 17.5, 200 BAR, 20.50BTDC CR 17.5, 250 BAR, 20.50BTDC 150 100 NOX, PPM 200 150 NOX, PPM 200 DIESEL S20 50 100 DIESEL S20 50 J20 J20 0 0 6.5 19.5 6.5 13 19.5 26 Load,N-m Load,N-m Figure 4.13 NOX v/s load, CR 17.5, 200 bar, std 20.50 Figure 4.14 NOX v/s load, CR 17.5, 250 bar, std 20.50 REFERENCES [1] Dalai, A.K., N.N. Bakhshi, X. Lang, M.J. Reaney, P.B. Hertz and J. Munson, “Production of Diesel Fuel Lubricity Additives from Various Vegetable Oils”, Annual Interim Report for Canodev Research Inc. April (2000). [2] Haas, M.J., Improving Economics of Biodiesel Production Through the Use of Low Value Lipids as Feedstocks: Vegetable Oil Soapstack, Fuel Processing Technology 86, 1087-1096 (2005). [3] Zhang, Y., Dube M. A., McLean D. D. and Kates M. “Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil: 2. Economic Assessment and Sensitivity Analysis”, Bioresource Technology 90, (2003) 229–240 [4] Carraretto C, Macor A, Mirandola A, Stoppato A, Tonon S “Biodiesel as alternative fuel: Experimental analysis and energetic evaluations” Energy.; 29: (2004)2195-2211. [5] S.Sunil Kumar Reddy and Dr. V. Pandurangadu, “Theoritical Investigations of Injection Pressure in a Four Stroke Di Diesel Engine with Alcohol as Fuel”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 209 - 216, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. [6] Z. Ahmed and D. K. Mahanta, “Exergy Analysis of a Compression Ignition Engine”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 633 - 642, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. [7] Manu Ravuri, D.Harsha Vardhan, V.Ajay and M.Rajasekharreddy, “Experimental Investigations and Comparison of Di Diesel Engine Working on Jatropha Bio-Diesel and Jatropha Crude Oil”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 24 - 31, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. [8] V.Narasiman, S.Jeyakumar, M.Mani and K.Rajkumar, “Impact of Combustion on Ignition Delay and Heat Release Curve of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Using Sardine Oil as a Methyl Ester”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 150 - 157, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. 202

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