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  • 1. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME 110 EMISSION REDUCTIONS USING APPLICATION OF CONSERVATION & ENERGY EFFICIENCY STRATEGIES IN ENERGY INEFFICIENT AUSTRALIAN’S HOUSEHOLDS Eshan Ahuja1 , Dr. Navin Kumar Kohli2 1 Mechanical Engineering Dept. Australian National University, Canberra, Australia 2 DGM, MP Power Management Co. Ltd., India ABSTRACT Substantial scientific evidence indicates that an increase in the global average temperature of more than 2° C above pre-industrial levels poses severe risks to natural systems & human health. Sustained warming of this magnitude could, for example, result in the extinction of many species & extensive melting of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets causing global sea level to rise between 12 and 40 feet. Australia’s residents have modern and energy reliant lifestyles leading to a very high value of carbon footprint of around 18.4 tonnes of CO2/ capita/year. Australia is one of the top 20 polluting countries in the world and produces more carbon pollution per person than any other developed country in the world. Australia's emissions are projected to increase by 24 per cent between 2000 and 2020. Recognising the importance of responding to the climate change challenge, countries all over the world are acting to reduce their emissions. Australia needs to reduce its carbon pollution and its action plan. The paper here discusses ways of emission reductions using application of conservation & energy efficiency strategies in energy inefficient Australians’ households. This paper elaborates various reasons why carbon footprints of different households within the country differ. Various technologies and strategies have been proposed to mitigate. A detailed assessment made indicating conservation and energy efficient strategies applied to reduce emissions to subject household. The mitigation strategies present & quantitative measure of their impact defining the factors contributes towards reduction of emissions. Key words: Energy reliant, Carbon footprints, Conservation & energy efficient strategies. 1. INTRODUCTION As per fact sheet of Australia emission reduction target 2020,[1] Australia would reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 25 per cent compared with 2000 levels by 2020 if the world INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH IN ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET) ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print) ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October 2013, pp. 110-117 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJARET © I A E M E
  • 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September agrees to an ambitious global deal capable of ppm (parts per million) carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 reduce its emissions by 5 per cent compared with 2000 levels by 2020 and by up to 15 per cent by 2020 if there is a global agreement that falls short of securing atmospheric stabilisation at 450 ppm CO2-e under which major developing economies commit to substantially restraining their emissions and advanced economies take on commitments comparable to Australi anchored under the Cancun Agreements. A detailed statement of Australia's target conditions can be found below. Australia will reduce GHG emissions by 80 per cent compared with 2000 levels by 2050.[1] Australia remains on track to meet its Kyoto Protocol target of limiting average annual emissions over the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period (2008 to 2012) to 108 per cent of 1990 levels. Australia's emissions are projected to average around 580 Mt CO2 2012, which is 106 per cent of 1990 levels. Without further policy action, Australia's emissions are projected to continue to increase. In 2020, emissions are projected to reach 686 Mt CO2 cent above 2000 levels. Australia's unconditional t below business as usual. Fig1: Australia's emissions trends, 1990 to 2020 2. CARBON FOOTPRINT CALCULATORS The Carbon Footprint Calculator is a tool to measure one’s carbon footprints which helps to improvise our lifestyle choices. The following figures depicts the facts in details. Fig2: Carbon Neutral Calculator International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME 111 agrees to an ambitious global deal capable of stabilizing levels of GHGs in the atmosphere at 450 ppm (parts per million) carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) or lower. Australia will unconditionally reduce its emissions by 5 per cent compared with 2000 levels by 2020 and by up to 15 per cent by there is a global agreement that falls short of securing atmospheric stabilisation at 450 ppm e under which major developing economies commit to substantially restraining their emissions and advanced economies take on commitments comparable to Australia's. These targets have been anchored under the Cancun Agreements. A detailed statement of Australia's target conditions can be Australia will reduce GHG emissions by 80 per cent compared with 2000 levels by k to meet its Kyoto Protocol target of limiting average annual emissions over the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period (2008 to 2012) to 108 per cent of 1990 levels. Australia's emissions are projected to average around 580 Mt CO2-e per year over 2008 2012, which is 106 per cent of 1990 levels. Without further policy action, Australia's emissions are projected to continue to increase. In 2020, emissions are projected to reach 686 Mt CO2 cent above 2000 levels. Australia's unconditional target of 5 per cent represents a 23 per cent decline Australia's emissions trends, 1990 to 2020 (http://www.climatechange.gov.au ARBON FOOTPRINT CALCULATORS Footprint Calculator is a tool to measure one’s carbon footprints which helps to The following figures depicts the facts in details. Carbon Neutral Calculator[8], Origin meter[12] International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – October (2013), © IAEME levels of GHGs in the atmosphere at 450 Australia will unconditionally reduce its emissions by 5 per cent compared with 2000 levels by 2020 and by up to 15 per cent by there is a global agreement that falls short of securing atmospheric stabilisation at 450 ppm e under which major developing economies commit to substantially restraining their emissions These targets have been anchored under the Cancun Agreements. A detailed statement of Australia's target conditions can be Australia will reduce GHG emissions by 80 per cent compared with 2000 levels by k to meet its Kyoto Protocol target of limiting average annual emissions over the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period (2008 to 2012) to 108 per cent of 1990 e per year over 2008 to 2012, which is 106 per cent of 1990 levels. Without further policy action, Australia's emissions are projected to continue to increase. In 2020, emissions are projected to reach 686 Mt CO2-e, or 24 per arget of 5 per cent represents a 23 per cent decline http://www.climatechange.gov.au)[13] Footprint Calculator is a tool to measure one’s carbon footprints which helps to
  • 3. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September Fig3: Australian The following table gives the definitive characteristics of different carbon calculators and reasons which account for differences in results. Table1: Characteristics of different carbon calculators & its reasons for differen Calculator Characteristics Carbon Neutral It’s a non-profit solution providing organization. Accurate Requires more details factors based on methodologies of Commonwealth National Carbon offset standard form of 3 scope taking data from climate change department, CISRO and Australian Bureau of Statistics. Origin meter Origin Energy a green energy based investing firm established in 2000 with an ORIGIN FOUNDATION to support & encourage use of energy efficient appliances. Covers fewer areas Australian Greenhouse Calculator Most accurate Highly detailed Compares your household value with typical greenhouse This is version 3.0, version 1.0 came in the 1990s. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME 112 Australian Greenhouse Calculator [3] The following table gives the definitive characteristics of different carbon calculators and reasons which account for differences in results. : Characteristics of different carbon calculators & its reasons for differen Characteristics CO2emission Tonnes/year Reasons for differences profit solution providing Accurate. Requires more details. Emission factors based on methodologies of Commonwealth National Carbon offset standard. Gives results in form of 3 scope taking data from climate change department, CISRO and Australian Bureau of 12.43 Accounts for 5 different factors to calculate final value Other sources like use of paper are also considered. Origin Energy a green energy based investing firm established in 2000 with an ORIGIN FOUNDATION to support & encourage use of energy efficient Covers fewer areas. 11.82 Different benchmarks Takes in average values instead of ones for electricity and gas consumption values. Gives results for energy consumption by appliance as well as on the room basis Compares your household value with typical greenhouse values This is version 3.0, version 1.0 came in the 1990s. 13.24 Use of different calculation factors Prompts user to put in maximum values Covers all aspects of carbon emissions Uses assumptions Australian guide to GHG calculator. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – October (2013), © IAEME The following table gives the definitive characteristics of different carbon calculators and : Characteristics of different carbon calculators & its reasons for differences Reasons for differences Accounts for 5 different factors to calculate final value Other sources like use of paper are also considered. Different benchmarks Takes in average values instead of exact ones for electricity and gas consumption Gives results for energy consumption by appliance as well as on the room basis. Use of different calculation factors. Prompts user to put in maximum values. Covers all aspects of carbon emissions. Uses assumptions Australian guide to GHG calculator.
  • 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME 113 3. COMPARISON OF EFFICIENT & INEFFICIENT HOUSEHOLDS To investigate in details the contributions with different reasons of carbon emissions, the following table shows some explanations regarding my new and old households and the technologies they implemented & their possible impacts: Table2: Results of differences in carbon footprint- (*)represents energy rating [4] & [7] Sources(kwh/yr) Watson St ACT (old residence) Lowanna St ACT current residence Differences in carbon footprints Insulation Ceiling Walls floor Complete insulation Ceiling only Causes more load on the heating system leading to high energy consumption in case of later. Heating system Cooling system Electricity rev cycle (not ducted) Air conditioner rev cycle. Electric fan/ radiator: Air conditioner standard. Reverse cycle systems have a very high efficiency compared to the later. Hot water service Electric instant & (30% heated by solar) Electric large (o/p) Use of solar heater reduces emissions Washing machine & dryer Front loader that heats its own water *** 191 kwh/yr. Top loader that heats its own water *** 218kwh/yr Top loader type is 15% less efficient than front loaders Dishwasher Standard ***184 kwh/yr. + water consumption Standard ** 294 kwh/yr. Later one consumes more energy thus has drying efficiency <60% Lighting ( incandescent , CFL)@Hrs. daily 9 CFC @ 4 Hrs. Daily 6 incandescent ones @ 5 Hrs. Daily. CFL can last up to 8 times longer. Consume 75% lesser than incandescent. Refrigerator quantity & type 1 normal compressor *** 130kwh/yr. 2 normal compressor ** star 279 kwh/yr No. of fridges and their energy consumption was more in the case of later Standard oven & microwave Fan forced oven & microwave Standard oven & microwave Fan forced type are 15 % more efficient than standard ones. Laptop & TV 2 LAP & 1 T.V (LED) **** 171 kwh/yr. 2LAP & 2 T.V/LCD *** 246 kwh/yr. LED appliances consume less energy than LCD Expenditure on Food + Alcohol Non- Vegetarian 40 $ + 0 $ Per week Non-Vegetarian 77 $ + 35 $ Per week Use of tin/canned/frozen exported food, alcohol consumption is high in case of later. Wastage% / yr. 18 7 as compared, Wastage of food is half The potential reduction of CO2 emission per annum with corresponding sources is worked out. The following table gives the tonnes of CO 2 emissions reduced per year when the following methods are used. (Lowanna Residence).
  • 5. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME 114 Table3: Tones of CO 2 emissions reduced per year Sources Potential reduction of CO2 Emissions Tn/yr Heating & cooling systems 2.973 Energy guzzlers (washing machine , dryer dishwasher, refrigerator) 1.889 Moderate intensity (microwave, TV , other small appliances) 0.676 Lighting 0.336 Food habits 1.483 Total Emissions Reduced 7.357 4. MITIGATION STRATEGY After a detailed analysis of my carbon footprint calculation at my current Residence (Lowanna St) I have formulated a mitigation strategy. These strategies have been divided into three major strategies: 4.1. Strategy no- 1 No of stars (*) represents the minimum rating for systems to be energy efficient. This concept has been applied in the following table according to the analysis of the households. Table 4: Minimum rating for systems to be energy efficient households [7] & [10] Energy Sources Proposed Mitigation Strategy Benefits Barriers to implementation Insulation Canberra’s minimum insulation levels (total R-values) requirements are Roof/ceiling –4.1 wall-2.8 Reductions up to 65 % on carbon emissions + wall, ceiling insulation. (Australian Government, n.d.) High capital costs Fridges & Freezers Make sure the seals on your fridge are clean and that the door closes properly. Fridge settings between 3°C-4°C and freezer 15°C-18°C *** Significant reduction in CO2 Footprints High costs Reluctance to change habits Washing M/c & Dryer selecting the cold wash do not overload *** saves a lot of power, Public awareness T.V & laptops Turn off if not in use. Not to prefer Sleep mode. *** Reduction up to 150 kg of GHG/yr(Australian Government, n.d.) More vigilance required Air conditionin g Set cooling between 23°C - 26°C. It’s better to use fans instead of air conditioners or with them. ***1/2 Fans easily spread cool air further to help clear out hot air. Windows help maintain natural ventilation & air flow Requires change in habits
  • 6. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME 115 Heating system Set heating between 18 ºC and 21ºC. An efficient ducted system 3/4th of total heat loss can be prevented.Substantial amount of savings in running costs. Space heating Economical only when small areas of the house are being used. Hot water system While purchasing preference should be given to solar hot water systems. Set the system between 60°C - 65°C. Use of AAA-rated water shower rose. Fix leaking taps and insulate water pipes Govt. incentives & rebates reduction in CO2. On a sunny day a solar system can save more than 3/4th of the hot water costs People have developed a tendency to not care for energy wastage. Changing this will be a big challenge Dishwasher Run the dishwasher when full Use the economy settings and let dishes air-dry. ***1/2 Energy and water savings High capital costs Lighting Install programmable timers & motion sensors. use lightings such as CFC’s or LED’s. Long term savings High cost Change of habits required Microwave s Prefer Microwaves over standard ovens *** Can cook food 3 times faster and can save upto 70% electricity. Expensive to purchase 4.2. Strategy no – 2 This strategy involves the use of renewable energy for everyday activities. These technologies if used for heating & cooling purpose can save up to 800 MT of CO2 emissions / yr. by 2050. [11] The following bar chart demonstrates the average energy production by a 3KW solar panel if used in a household located in ACT, Australia. [2] Fig 4: Average Monthly Production (Kwh) The table clearly demonstrates that solar energy produces more than 300KW in most seasons with the values peaking form November to March. [9] 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 JAN FEB MAR APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
  • 7. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME 116 Table 5: Benefits and Barriers System with specification Benefits Barriers Evacuated tubes solar water heating system-300 L Energy saver, Reduces CO2 emissions, improves air quality. Availability for hot water 24 hours a day. Government rebates 480-1500AUD in total for residential sector. works in subzero temperatures too. a family of 4 can save up to $920 a year on water heating bills. High Initial cost Lack of public awareness. A 3kw solar panel Energy production = 5015.64 Kwh Greenhouse emissions offset = 6515.14 kg/yr. High Initial Costs Of about 5500$ 4.3. Strategy no-3 The primary elements of this strategy involve the requirement of lifestyle and behavioural changes, energy awareness of people and the initiation of a home savings program. The following are the major elements of the strategy: i. A free energy audit service in the NSW: which enables to save 20% on energy bills thus saving on carbon emissions. [4], [7] ii. Green Power, which is a government accredited program, enables not only to reduce emissions, but indirectly contribute to the development of Australia. iii. Creating Energy Awareness: Spread awareness through word of mouth, media and social networking, Join a local or global environmental group, Educate yourself, your family, your friends, your co-workers and everyone you meet and Tell people the savings they can generate just by little changes in their habits. 5. POTENTIAL RESULT The emissions that can be reduced based on these strategies equal an approximate 7.357 tons of CO2/year per person defined in preceding paras. The following pie chart represents the carbon emitting sources and the percentage of reduction in the carbon emissions after the implementation of the strategies. Fig5: Carbon emission reduction for different processes. [3] 25 9 8 50 6 Carbon Emissions Reductions Hot water Refrigerator Cooking Heating Others
  • 8. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME 117 6. CONCLUSION What we have observed that Australia’s residents predominantly have modern and energy reliant lifestyles which yield high level of carbon footprint. Carbon footprints of different households of various households within the same country differ to each other. Investigation of technologies like heating, cooling, cooking, etc used which resulted in the differences in carbon footprint results. To cater these to lowest possible levels, detailed conservation and energy efficient strategies can be applied to reduce emissions in various households. After conducting a detailed analysis and the potential savings based on mitigation strategies, it is proposed that one strategy alone cannot have desired effects due to social and economic barriers. A blend of all strategies synergize the effect of one and thus lead to best results in implementation of reductions in emissions. Conservation, efficiency and awareness all are valuable strategies if applied in conjunction and these can be easily seen when calculated for two households one of which applies this strategy and the other which does not. The inefficient households contribute almost three times to modern houses those implementing these strategies. It is inferred that a smart implementation of strategies can achieve emission targets quite quickly. Author Biographies Eshan Ahuja has completed his BE Mechanical Engineering in the year 2012 and has worked on energy efficiency consulting firm in Chandigarh, India. He has published two papers on energy sector. He is recently pursuing his Master of Energy Change from Australian National University, Canberra. Dr. Navin Kumar Kohli, is working as DGM in Govt Power Sector in India and has more than 30 years experience in power sector. He has published twenty five papers on Engineering and Management part of energy sector. REFERENCES [1] Fact sheet, Austarlia emission reduction target 2020. accessed on 20.9.2013. [2] Anon., n.d. Energy Matters. [Online] Available at http://www.energymatters.com.au/energy- efficiency/#Heating [Accessed 2013]. [3] AUS EPA, 2011. Australia EPA. http://apps.epa.vic.gov.au/AGC/home.html [4] Australian Government, n.d. Energy Ratings. available at www.energyrating.gov.au. [5] Australian Government, n.d. Environment. Available at www.environment.gov.au. [6] Australian Government, n.d. Savepower. [Online], Available at savepower.nsw.gov.au/freehelp, Accessed 2013. [7] Australian Government, n.d. Yourhome. [Online],Available at http://www.yourhome.gov.au/technical/fs47.html. Accessed 2013. [8] Carbon Neutral, n.d. Carbon Neutral. [Online], Available at: http://www.carbonneutral.com.au/carbon-calculator.html. [9] Energy Matters, n.d. Energy Matters. [Online], Available at: http://www.energymatters.com.au/energy-efficiency/#Heating, [Accessed 2013]. [10] Go Switch, 2012. Go Switch. Available at: www.goswitch.com.au, [Accessed 2013]. [11] IEA, n.d. IEA. [Online], Available at: www.iea.au. [12] Origin, n.d. Origin Energy. [Online], Available at: http://www.originenergy.com.au/2103/Residential-Efficiency, [Accessed 22 08 2013]. [13] Wikipedia, 2009. Wikipedia. [Online], Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_carbon_dioxide_emissions_percapita. [14] http://www.climatechange.gov.au/climate-change/greenhouse-gas-measurement-and- reporting/australias-emissions-projections/national, accessed on 13.9.2013