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    • International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management (IJMHRM), ISSN 0976 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MARKETING AND HUMAN – 6421 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January-February (2013) RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (IJMHRM) ISSN 0976 – 6421 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January – February (2014), pp. 22-32 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmhrm.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 4.6901 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJMHRM ©IAEME THE INTERNAL DYNAMICS OF MIGRATION Dr. B. Chandra Mohan Patnaik Associate Professor, School of Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha Dr. Ipseeta Satpathy, D.Litt. Professor, School of Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar; Odisha Mr. Anirban Mandal Research Scholar, School of Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha ABSTRACT The concept of migration is not new to the society. However, in the present paper we tried to revisit the same with the changing scenario of socio economic development. In the present paper we tried to focus on the selected rural and semi-urban areas of eastern part of India and also we tried to ensure that respondents are basically poorest of the poor in that area. Collection of data was very challenging for this paper. We tried to communicate the questions with local language. For the purpose of collecting data we had distributed 219 questionnaires and finally 108 responses were received. The analysis of data was made with the help of likert scale method. It is found that most of the migrants are economically backward and the core interest of migration is to survive. No doubt there are number of other factors for the migration but because of better opportunity to earn income in the urban area people forced to migrate. This is more specially in the un-organized sectors. It is also realized during the data collection, the people who migrated to the urban area they are missing their home land only their physical presence is in the urban area for the sake of better livelihood. Key words- Migration, Rural area, Semi-urban area & Perception. 22
    • International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management (IJMHRM), ISSN 0976 – 6421 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January-February (2013) AN OVERVIEW Migrants involve in different types of migration streams and they are characterized by large number of socio economic variables like caste, landholding size, age, gender, education, family size, consumption levels etc. The National Commission for Rural Labour Report, 1991, suggests that a large number of migrants are basically those who have less landholding. For them seasonal migration is the best option as they are not in a position to arrange moving cost and subsequently staying cost in urban location during initial stage of migration. In terms of education, it is observed that rate of migration is high among highly educated as well as least educated individuals. But for these two extreme groups, nature of job is different after migration. Those who are highly educated normally get into well paid formal sector job, thus improves the standard of living. But for least educated the reverse is the truth. This group of migrants landed up in urban informal sector job, where neither the working condition is good nor do they have the job security. Not only that, most of the time they suffer from lack of access to basic amenities and labour market discrimination. The poor migrants once enter in the urban job markets face large uncertainties in the potential job market. They also incur the risk of high job search cost. This risk is increased if the distance of place of destination increases from place of origin. Jobs in the urban informal sector are highly segmented and based around people of same caste, religion and kinship. This social network provides initial income support, information, accommodation and access to jobs. Table 1.1: Rural Urban Population Distribution in India (1901, 1951, 2011) Census Year % of Population in Rural % of Population in Urban Areas Areas 1901 89.2 10.8 1951 82.7 17.3 2011 68.8 31.2 Source: Census 2011 – Provisional Population Totals – India Migration has created diverse impact in both sources as well as destination areas. These impacts are complex in nature and a thorough understanding is required to know the real impact of labour migration. It has created an impact on the lives of migrants as well as their households, social and political lives in both source as well as destination areas. Remittances and savings are a primary channel through which migrant workers are able to stabilize or improve their conditions of living. Remittances also impact on intra – and – inter household relations and the pattern of growth and development in source areas. The other important channels through which migration affects workers and impacts on the source and destination areas are the nature of their involvement in labour markets and changes in workers’ tastes, perceptions and attitudes. The latter are less tangible but nonetheless of great significance. India’s economic growth pattern shows a mixed outcome in terms of migration. Due to industrial growth demand for both skilled and unskilled labour is on the rise. The concentrated growth in urban areas attracted lots of migrant workers because of greater job opportunities. On the other hand, low industrial growth and low job opportunities in the rural sector created a push factor which influences the migration decision. 23
    • International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management (IJMHRM), ISSN 0976 – 6421 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January-February (2013) The other main feature influencing the pace and pattern is the emerging characteristics of the labour market in India. There has been a shift in labour regimes towards greater in formalization and flexibilization. It is believed that employment related migration has definitely increased. Further, while documented migration flows, it shows that migration propensity is higher among the better off and the more skilled but there is an increase in labour circulation and seasonal labour migration, partly dictated by the emerging labour regimes and partly by the growth in sectors such as construction, which mainly depend upon migrant labour. The impact of migration on growth is not only confined to the industrial and services sector, but increasingly agricultural development, too, is coming to depend more on labour migration, because young people move out of cultivation in more developed areas, and agricultural employers become more and more unwilling to deal with local sources of labour. Table 1.2: Urbanization & Decadal Growth Year Total population No. of Towns and UAs Urban Population Share of Urban Population to Total Population (%) Decadal Growth of Urban Population (%) Index of Urban Population (Base 1951 = 100) 1951 36.11 2843 6.24 17.3 41.4 100 1961 43.92 2365 7.89 18.0 26.4 126 1971 54.81 2590 10.91 19.9 38.2 175 1981 68.33 3378 15.95 23.3 46.1 256 1991 84.63 3768 21.76 25.7 36.4 349 2001 102.86 5161 28.61 27.8 31.3 458 Source: Planning Commission Report on Urban Development for 11th Five Year Plan (2007 – 2012) OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY To visualize the various determinants of migration from rural and semi-urban areas to urban area To provide various remedial measures to overcome migration problem. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The present study is restricted to selected rural and semi-urban areas of eastern part of India, i.e. West Bengal and Odisha The sample size is limited to 108 only and this may not represent the views of others. The period of study is for 4 months, i.e. October 2013 and January 2014. 24
    • International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management (IJMHRM), ISSN 0976 – 6421 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January-February (2013) RESEARCH METHODOLOGY For the purpose of collection of data initially pilot study was conducted by taking 26 various variables and after the pilot study the variables were restricted to 18 only. Stratified random sampling method used covering the selected rural and semi-urban areas of West Bengal and Odisha. Total 219 questionnaires were distributed and out of which only 108 responses were received. This includes 28 respondents belongs to male in rural area and 24 belongs to female in the rural area. Similarly, in case of semi-urban area 29 were male and 27 were female respondents. Likert Scale method used with close end option in the questionnaire. The rate of response was 49.32%. Respondents’ perception with regard to the determinants of migration To measure the perception level of the respondents of rural and semi-urban areas, the various variables identified are economic reasons and improved standard of living, better health care facility and entertainment, better employment opportunity, existence of surplus work force in rural areas, nature of employment (sometimes temporary or seasonal), reduce the risk of income loss, individual migration because of less land holding, pursuing higher education and better training facility, to get the social protection, women migration for social conditions (marriage), migration because of geographic proximity, climate change factors like low rainfall and change in temperature or weather condition, business motive, due to violence, fear of famine/ flood, strict repayment of loan to the micro-credit organizations during the lean period, socio economic disparities between rural & urban areas and limited income opportunities in rural areas. In this regard we have been assigned as +4,+3,+2,+1 and 0 for the responses of the respondents “ Completely agree”, “ Agree”, “ Neutral, “ Disagree” and “ Completely disagree” respectively. Final scores for each feature are calculated by multiplying the number of response by the weights of the corresponding response. Calculation of respondents’ perception: Ideal and Least scores Ideal scores are calculated by multiplying the number of respondents in each category with (+4) and product with total number of attributes. Least scores calculated by multiplying the number of respondents in each category with (0) and the product with number of attributes in the questionnaires. Table-1.3: Ideal and Least scores Category Equation Ideal score Equation Least score Male in Rural area 28X4X18 2016 28X0X18 0 Female in Rural area 24X4X18 1728 24X0X18 0 Male in Semi-urban area 29X4X18 2088 29X0X18 0 Female in Semi-urban area 27X4X18 1944 27X0X18 0 25
    • International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management (IJMHRM), ISSN 0976 – 6421 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January-February (2013) Analysis of Data Variables Aggregate Score RURAL AREA SEMI-URBAN AREA Male 94 Female 83 Male 109 Female 100 96 103 97 97 87 87 89 92 97 99 102 107 95 88 95 95 97 102 82 82 97 93 84 84 102 81 106 85 101 101 81 87 97 105 91 93 92 92 76 86 94 108 102 94 91 94 100 96 86 84 79 79 98 95 87 101 91 95 96 89 88 85 97 99 93 82 98 95 Total Scores 1736 1508 1790 1671 Ideal Scores 2016 1728 2088 1944 Least Scores 0 0 0 0 86.11 28 87.27 24 85.73 29 85.96 27 Economic reasons and improved standard of living Better health care facility and entertainment Better employment opportunity Existence of surplus work force in rural areas Nature of employment (sometimes temporary or seasonal) Reduce the risk of income loss, Individual migration because of less land holding Pursuing higher education and better training facility To get the social protection Women migration for social conditions (marriage) Migration because of geographic proximity Climate change factors like low rainfall and change in temperature or weather condition, Business motive Due to violence Fear of famine/ flood Strict repayment of loan to the micro-credit organizations during the lean period, Socio economic disparities between rural & urban areas Limited income opportunities in rural areas. % of total score to Ideal score No of respondents Source: Annexure A, B, C & D 26
    • International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management (IJMHRM), IS ISSN 0976 – 6421 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January-February (2013) January February 2500 2000 1500 Total Scores Ideal Scores 1000 Least Scores 500 0 Rural male Rural female Semi-urban male Semi-urban female Interpretation- In the above table it shows that the total score for various male and female in rural areas are 1736 and 1508 and similarly the same for the semi-urban areas are 1790 and semi urban 1671 respectively. In no case the total score touches the least score. The percentages of total percent score to ideal score are for the semi-urban area for male and female are 85.73% and 85.96% semi urban respectively. Also in case of semi-urban area the percentage of total score of female and male semi urban in the rural area are 87.27% and 86.11%. This indicates that all the variables considered for the study seems to have better support from the respondents. Remedial measure There are number of issues that needs to be taken care in the area, however in this direction following are important ones Infrastructure development needs to be improved in the rural and semi-urban area semi urban Better health care facility needs to be improved in the area Better education facility in the rural and semi-urban area semi Scope for employment generation should be created in the rural and semi semi-urban area Training facility for the self employment should be created in the area Population control should be made in the area Child marriage should be stopped CONCLUDING OBSERVATION We also strongly feel that the inherent problems in rural area specially cannot be specially changed in overnight. It is very unfortunate that even after 66 years of independence we are not able to provide basic needs to the rural masses. The major problem in the area is lack of infrastructure and adequate education facility, basic health care facility, increased population basic and child marriage etc. Since independence lot of schemes were implemented in the name of 27
    • International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management (IJMHRM), ISSN 0976 – 6421 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January-February (2013) welfare schemes for these rural areas however the benefits were not reached to these people. Most of the times the schemes are implemented in the paper only. It is very surprise to find that most of the areas we visited for collecting data do not even the electricity and proper transportation and so called government sponsored schemes are miles away from these people. The migration no doubt helps the migrants economically and able to help for the survival. This migration having effect on urban area also, because of this the urban area becomes congested and also number of problem arises in the urban area like housing, drinking water, electricity, theft and other basic sanitary issues. No doubt these migrated people contribute for the development of urban areas economy but at the same time they also creates imbalance in the urban sanitary issues. This migration leads to development of slum in the urban area. So every effort should be made to stop migration to the extent possible by creating and providing infrastructure, employment, and health care and education facilities in these rural and semi-urban areas. In this regard we would like to conclude with the vision of Dr. Achyutanand Samant, the founder of KIIT and KISS and internationally acknowledged Social entrepreneur, (who is the founder of Kalinga Institute of Social Sciences (KISS), a Tribal School for the 25,000 students who are provided with free education and boarding)- “ Empowering the under privileged through education”. The need of the hour is we need more people like Dr. Samant, who is living legend for the underprivileged and messiah for the tribal empowerment in India. REFERENCES [1] Kwaku Twumasi Ankrah (1995), Rural Urban Migration & Socioeconomic Development in Ghana; Journal of Social Development in Africa, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 13 – 22. [2] Rita Afsar (1999), Rural-urban dichotomy and convergence: emerging realities in Bangladesh. [3] John Kennan & James R. Walker (March 2003), The Effect of Expected Income on Individual Migration Decisions; Working Paper 9585, National Bureau of Economic Research. [4] Amaresh Dubey, Richard Palmer – Jones & Kunal Sen (July 2004), Surplus Labour, Social Structure & Rural to Urban Migration: Evidence from Indian Data; Conference Paper Presented at the Conference on the 50th Anniversary of the Lewis Model. [5] Priya Deshingkar (June 2004), Understanding the Implications of Migration for Pro – poor Agricultural Growth; Overseas Development Institute, London, Paper prepared for the DAC POVNET Agriculture Task Group Meeting. [6] Richard Black, Lyndsay Mclean Hilker & Claire Pooley (November 2004), Migration and Pro – poor Policy in East Africa; Working Paper C 7, Sussex Centre for Migration Research. [7] D. Dhanuraj, “Health Insurance Scheme for Low Income Groups in India with a Focus on Urban Poor in Cochin”, International Journal of Management (IJM), Volume 2, Issue 2, 2011, pp. 182 - 197, ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSN Online: 0976-6510. [8] Dr. B .Chandra Mohan Patnaik, Dr. Ipseeta Satpathy and Mr. Chandrabhanu Das, “Effectiveness of Outsourcing of Internal Audit and Financial Reporting by the Corporate”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM), Volume 5, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 53 – 58, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6324, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6332. 28
    • International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management (IJMHRM), ISSN 0976 – 6421 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January-February (2013) Annexure-A (28) Perception of Male in rural area VARIABLES CA A N DA CDA SCORE 4 3 2 1 0 19 3 4 1 1 94 Economic reasons and improved standard of living 18 5 4 1 0 96 Better health care facility and entertainment 23 2 2 1 0 103 Better employment opportunity 20 4 2 1 1 97 Existence of surplus work force in rural areas 17 8 2 1 0 97 Nature of employment (sometimes temporary or seasonal) 21 2 3 1 1 97 Reduce the risk of income loss, 22 3 2 1 0 102 Individual migration because of less land holding 19 8 1 0 0 102 Pursuing higher education and better training facility 23 1 2 2 0 101 To get the social protection 21 4 2 1 0 101 Women migration for social conditions (marriage) 19 3 3 1 2 92 Migration because of geographic proximity 18 4 3 2 1 92 Climate change factors like low rainfall and change in temperature or weather condition, 17 5 3 2 1 91 Business motive 19 4 2 2 1 94 Due to violence 20 5 2 1 0 100 Fear of famine/ flood 18 6 2 2 0 96 Strict repayment of loan to the micro-credit organizations during the lean period, 17 4 3 2 2 88 Socio economic disparities between rural & urban areas 16 8 2 1 1 93 Limited income opportunities in rural areas. Source: Compiled from field survey 29
    • International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management (IJMHRM), ISSN 0976 – 6421 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January-February (2013) Annexure-B (24) Perception of Female in rural area VARIABLES CA A N DA CDA SCORE 4 3 2 1 0 18 2 2 1 1 83 Economic reasons and improved standard of living 17 5 2 0 0 87 Better health care facility and entertainment 19 2 2 1 0 87 Better employment opportunity 20 2 1 1 0 89 Existence of surplus work force in rural areas 21 2 1 0 0 92 Nature of employment (sometimes temporary or seasonal) 17 3 2 1 1 82 Reduce the risk of income loss, 18 2 1 2 1 82 Individual migration because of less land holding 16 4 2 1 1 81 Pursuing higher education and better training facility 17 2 3 1 1 81 To get the social protection 19 2 2 1 0 87 Women migration for social conditions (marriage) 15 2 4 2 1 76 Migration because of geographic proximity 19 2 1 2 0 86 Climate change factors like low rainfall and change in temperature or weather condition, 20 1 1 1 1 86 Business motive 19 2 1 0 2 84 Due to violence 18 1 1 2 2 79 Fear of famine/ flood 17 2 2 1 2 79 Strict repayment of loan to the micro-credit organizations during the lean period, 18 3 1 2 0 85 Socio economic disparities between rural & urban areas 16 5 1 1 1 82 Limited income opportunities in rural areas. Source: Compiled from field survey 30
    • International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management (IJMHRM), ISSN 0976 – 6421 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January-February (2013) Annexure-C (29) Perception of Male in semi-urban area VARIABLES CA A N DA CDA SCORE 4 3 2 1 0 23 4 2 0 0 109 Economic reasons and improved standard of living 20 3 3 2 1 97 Better health care facility and entertainment 19 4 5 1 0 99 Better employment opportunity 21 3 4 1 0 102 Existence of surplus work force in rural areas 22 5 2 0 0 107 Nature of employment (sometimes temporary or seasonal) 18 6 3 1 1 97 Reduce the risk of income loss, 17 5 4 2 1 93 Individual migration because of less land holding 21 6 2 0 0 106 Pursuing higher education and better training facility 18 6 3 1 1 97 To get the social protection 21 5 3 0 0 105 Women migration for social conditions (marriage) 19 4 2 2 2 94 Migration because of geographic proximity 24 2 3 0 0 108 Climate change factors like low rainfall and change in temperature or weather condition, 20 3 4 1 1 98 Business motive 18 6 2 1 2 95 Due to violence 17 4 2 3 3 87 Fear of famine/ flood 20 5 2 2 0 101 Strict repayment of loan to the micro-credit organizations during the lean period, 18 4 6 1 0 97 Socio economic disparities between rural & urban areas 20 2 5 2 0 98 Limited income opportunities in rural areas. Source: Compiled from field survey 31
    • International Journal of Marketing and Human Resource Management (IJMHRM), ISSN 0976 – 6421 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 643X (Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January-February (2013) Annexure-D (27) Perception of Female in semi-urban area VARIABLES CA A N DA CDA SCORE 4 3 2 1 0 22 2 3 0 0 100 Economic reasons and improved standard of living 21 2 2 1 1 95 Better health care facility and entertainment 19 2 2 2 2 88 Better employment opportunity 20 3 2 2 1 95 Existence of surplus work force in rural areas 19 4 3 1 0 95 Nature of employment (sometimes temporary or seasonal) 18 2 2 2 3 84 Reduce the risk of income loss, 17 3 2 3 2 84 Individual migration because of less land holding 16 5 2 2 2 85 Pursuing higher education and better training facility 17 6 2 1 1 91 To get the social protection 19 4 2 1 1 93 Women migration for social conditions (marriage) 22 4 1 0 0 102 Migration because of geographic proximity 18 6 2 0 1 94 Climate change factors like low rainfall and change in temperature or weather condition, 20 2 2 1 2 91 Business motive 19 4 3 1 0 95 Due to violence 21 2 2 2 0 96 Fear of famine/ flood 19 2 2 3 1 89 Strict repayment of loan to the micro-credit organizations during the lean period, 22 2 2 1 0 99 Socio economic disparities between rural & urban areas 20 3 2 2 0 95 Limited income opportunities in rural areas. Source: Compiled from field survey 32