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  1. 1. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL 0976 – MANAGEMENT (IJM) OF 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME ISSN 0976-6502 (Print) ISSN 0976-6510 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), pp. 88-92 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijm.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 6.9071 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJM ©IAEME REVIEW ON THE RELATIONSHIP OF POSITIVE & NEGATIVE PERFECTIONISM TO ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION AMONG PUNE BACHELOR DEGREE Mozhde Mellati Master of general psychology, department: psychology, university: Islamic Azad university of science and research of Tehran Nazanin Pourgheisar Master of general psychology, department: psychology, university: Islamic Azad university of science and research of Tehran ABSTRACT The relationship between positive and negative perfectionism, and academic achievement, motivation and well being Bachelor's degree students in Pune was examined it was hypothesized that high levels of positive perfectionism high academic achievement, high achievement motivation, lower levels of depression, anxiety and stress will be associated with, and more adaptive coping strategies, and use positive personality variables, compared with negative perfectionists. Additionally, it was hypothesized that the negative perfectionism high levels of academic achievement, Achievement motivation, depression, anxiety and stress, coping strategies, and more high level, maladaptive negative personality variables are associated with lower levels of use. 99 first year bachelor students participated, 50 from the University of Pune, Frost multidimensional Perfectionism scale (MPS) positive, negative and total used for measuring the level of perfectionism. Ray achievement orientation scale (Ray AO) short-form achievement motivation level was used for measuring the new personality inventory (neo PI). "Big five" personality variables (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness to experience) was used to measure the positive and negative affect scale. (PANAS) positive and negative effects Used to measure the levels of depression, anxiety and stress. Scale (DAS) measuring depression, anxiety and stress levels had been used for coping strategies using functional and dysfunctional wrath. Measure student demographic and used by the academic information academic files were received. The results indicated that generally, hypotheses were correct. with academic achievement, positive perfectionism associations high achievement motivation, coping, personality factors, positive and negative impact while negative perfectionism, depression, anxiety, stress, negative personality factors revealed an association with functional form optimization Coping strategies, and waste optimization is revealed. 88
  2. 2. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Keywords-: Education, Motivation, Achievement, Student’s Perfectionism, Curriculum Activities. 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Definition and Characteristics Perfectionism refers to a set of self-defeating thoughts and behaviors. These excessively high and unrealistic goals are even in areas in which high-performance doesn't matter in connection with the overly important. Engage in self-evaluations often Perfectionists. Failure experience often is often their successes over generalised price will pay special attention to their failures. A perfectionist where he believes they're a failure if not all of their goals often experience all-or-none thinking without any mistakes-are they complete what constitutes success and failure of inflexible beliefs (Blankstein, Flett, Hewitt & Eng, 1993; Broday, 1988; Brophy, 2005; Ellis, 2002; Frost & Marten, 1990; Shafran, Cooper & Fairburn, 2002) They often experience a fear making mistakes, and in terms of productivity and achievement measure their self-worth. Failure to achieve our goals results in lack of personal value. Failure, not being perfect and expectations of themselves and others, but not being able to live can cause enormous fear of emotions that a strategy led to the delay in terms of remit-this person compared to a lower display to avoid rejection by others is fear also Perfectionists. (Frost & Marten, 1990; Hall, 2005). And believe that if they see their two other flaws they will not be accepted that they generally assume that they think they can achieve success without hard work, while others achieve success with minimal effort or stress. Taken together, these irrational beliefs negative emotions, shame, guilt and embarrassment as can lead to experience. (Tangney, 2002). Recently, a cognitive-behavioral construct of “clinical perfectionism” has been proposed. It is suggested that the core feature of clinical perfectionism is the “over dependence of self-evaluation on the determined pursuit and achievement of personally demanding standards. This is accompanied by self-imposed dysfunctional standards, continual striving, and significant adverse consequences as a result of such striving. 1.2 Dimensions of Perfectionism Although perfectionism was once thought of as one dimensional is since the early. The two main conceptualizations have emerged in the literature (Riley & Shafran, 2005). Frost et al (1990) identified five dimensions of perfectionism as the first dimension, which is the dominant dimension., mistakes concern over the failure to explain the mistakes as the equivalent of the trend, and will lose the respect of others, believe that a failure to follow. The second dimension excessively high personal standards setting, which often can be met satisfactorily? The third dimension involves parental expectations, the extent to which high expectations as the person's parents. The fourth dimension is the degree of parental criticism, which includes being overly critical parents. Have doubts about the action, the fifth dimension, which has a tendency to doubt the quality of the performance. Additionally, a sixth dimension of the Organization have been identified, Hewitt who alternatively refers to a tendency to be systematic and organized, and has identified three dimensions of perfectionism Felt. According to this concept, including distinguishing features between 1 dimensions although behavior between the dimensions displayed are the same) repeatedly from perfectionist expectations (i.e. self or others) are removed, and (themselves or others) that are 2) directed behaviors (Alden, Ryder & Mellings, 2002; Frost, Heimberg, Holt, Mattia, & Neubauer, 1993; Frost, Lahart & Rosenblate, 1991; Frost et al. 1990; Frost, Turcotte, Heimberg, Mattia, Holt & Hope, 1995). The first dimension in which individual self-directed-oriented perfectionism, unrealistic standards themselves, strive for these standards is important, generation, generation focuses on their flaws and tries to avoid failure. The second dimension that contains the personal expectations of others unrealistic standards and capabilities, and often have other performanceoriented others overly perfectionism. The third dimension is socially prescribed perfectionism in 89
  3. 3. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME which the person believes others perfectionist expectations and motives is about them, and they think they have to achieve these standards (Hewitt & Flett, 2002). 3. DISCUSSION Although the results were indicated that personal standards correlation perfectionism subscale and a relationship between GPA. Individual standards with a high level of a high GPA were associated. Although overall positive and negative perfectionism and no significant correlations between the GPA where there is as a result of this positive thought that is a subscale indicates a relationship between (personal standards). The positive aspects of perfectionism can be associated with high academic achievement, provides some evidence. That high academic achievement work habits which possess high levels of negative perfectionism better than with are for individuals with high personal standards contribute to (in Accordino et al, 2000). They are usually what they do, rather than procrastinating and put things off a lot of time and effort. If they did they achieve less than expected They instead of focusing on the "failure", has the ability to release it to put your mind in the things they do to succeed enables them (Arthur & Hayward, 1997). Although it did not quite here, the negative aspects of perfectionism are thought to interfere with academic achievement. Perfectionist style is learning that students often trial and error learning process is an essential in impatient with motivation. They often fail because of our fears can be difficult Learning tasks are reluctant to try, (Adderholt-Elliot, 1989 in Arthur & Hayward, 1997). They work to avoid the risk of low marks for completing may fail, or they may have spent time on academic studies about the length of realistic decision problems. As they are less achievement than focusing on stress and frustration, Instead of what they need to achieve academic, as their focus a lot of energy wasted on perfectionist students meet their potential. 4. MEASUREMENT OF PERFECTIONISM IN PUNE BACHELOR DEGREE 4.1 Positive and Negative Affect The results showed that positive aspects of perfectionism were not related to positive affect in Pune. However, the negative aspects of perfectionism were associated with negative effect. Both concern over mistakes and overall negative perfectionism were associated with higher levels of negative effect. Concern over mistakes and overall negative perfectionism were also negatively related to positive effect, so higher concern over mistakes and overall negative perfectionism were associated with lower levels of positive affect (Campbell & Di Paula, 2002).. These results were generally in accordance with the hypothesis. The Pune bachelor students although positive aspects of perfectionism were not related to positive effect, negative aspects of perfectionism were associated with negative effect and negatively associated with positive affect. This replicates past findings. 4.2 Depression and Anxiety The results showed that the positive aspects of perfectionism levels were not significantly associated with depression or anxiety. However, perfectionism negative aspects of both depression and anxiety were associated with higher levels of overall negative perfectionism. Depression was associated with concern over mistakes, while depression and anxiety was associated with high levels of both (Hewitt & Flett, 2002). This is in accord with the hypothesis that depression and anxiety will be associated with the negative aspects of perfectionism. It is a common finding that perfectionism replicates, perfectionism, especially negative aspects related to depression and anxiety levels. It is suggested that negative perfectionists extremely high standards set for themselves, and stringently evaluate 90
  4. 4. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME their own performance it their self worth on the effects of emotions, as they equate self-worth with the performance of failure leads to an increase in the frequency of experiences, it results in low selfesteem. They also concern, high levels of experience as they think they themselves by the name of evaluation as well as strictly being evaluated. 4.3 Stress The results showed that all positive mistakes, personal standards, perfectionism, overall negative perfectionism and perfectionism and high levels of anxiety were associated with high levels of stress. This indicates that both the positive and negative aspects of perfectionism are associated with stress, although a high level of perfectionism associated with negative stress. This is partly to deal with the proposed hypothesis, and conclude that perfectionism is associated with high levels of stress last replicates. A study by perfectionism found that negative perfectionists are poor constructive thinkers and do not react well to stress. Pessimism and cognitive strongly feel to them that may be distressed about things beyond their control by limiting it to appear their decisions and their ability to focus on the problem at hand to interfere with the maintenance of tension in Perfectionists. First, featuring dimensions associated with perfectionism self-guilt and failure in relation to conservation, both of which are improper ways of dealing with stress cognitively. Failure to engage in the conservation of this trend and maintain both contribute to the experience of stress. Second, some perfectionists have a cognitive style that involves the frequent experience of automatic, perfectionist thoughts. The frequent experience of these thoughts is associated with psychological distress, such as anxiety. Perfectionists too often engage in contemplation when they your real and will focus on discrepancy between ideal self a failure or stressful event. This discrepancy increases the salience and depressive symptoms. Thirdly, crisis or distracted themselves to engaging in an effort to work instead of focusing Those with cognitively, ruminative orientation focused on his experience and nature of the crisis and that crisis musings about the causes of stress affecting the perpetuation Perfectionism. Cognitive features and at the same time, the perpetuation and maintenance of interpersonal styles of perfectionists can influence stress. 5. POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE PERFECTIONISM IN PUNE STUDENTS Generally, it is assumed that the persuasive distinctions are positive or negative whether perfectionism plays an important role in the results. If a personal motive to avoid primary failure (such as negative perfectionists), they often thought and behavior that ultimately undermine the attainment of the goal will engage in standard which is necessary to be accepted as, Instead of engaging in target search effortful. they often are overly concerned with the rejection by others, showing a tendency to reflect lower efficacy, goal that external reasons, and a goal progress which all can hinder the achievement and happiness, is adopted for a tendency to be unsatisfied. Conversely (Campbell & Di Paula, 2002). an implicit motivation (for example positive perfectionists), put more effort into striving for perfection rather than their goals, high self esteem, rejection, less concern over attaining satisfaction in order to avoid the failure to achieve our goals to actively pursue your goals and those who do not get better educational results than with (Campbell & Di Paula, 2002). 6. FUTURE RESEARCH If there are indeed positive and negative perfectionism and academic achievement (GPA) to examine a relationship between repeating this study. This study was a fairly low sample size, the more important and strong results there was a big sample size may have found, using a larger 91
  5. 5. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME sample size. Positive and negative relationship between perfectionism and achievement motivation is Also to be investigated further. Specifically, and further analysis of achievement motivation measure up to date should be carried out using 7. CONCLUSION Although the results obtained in this study are correlation in nature, they are proof those positive and negative perfectionism differential associations with academic achievement, achievement motivation, personality, coping strategies, and provide variables. Generally, positive perfectionism high academic achievement, high achievement motivation, coping with positive personality factors, and functional strategies used to be associated with. Negative perfectionism usually negative coping strategies of dysfunctional personality factors and use to be associated with academic achievement or achievement motivation. These results why tertiary students who are academically successful, could not be possible for an explanation, as if, even with the best intentions can provide. Knowing, Teachers and students themselves to understand why they cannot be acquired grades they are capable of, and this change to be able to change their lives. 7. REFERENCES 1. An Investigation of Perfectionism, Mental Health, Achievement, and Achievement Motivation in Adolescents. Psychology in the Schools, 37, (6). 2. Perfectionism in the Context of Social Fears: Toward a Two-Component Model. Perfectionism: Theory, Research and Treatment. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 3. Psychometric Properties of the 42-Item and 21-Item Versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in Clinical Groups and a Community Sample. Psychological Assessment, 10, (2). 4. Dimensions of Perfectionism across the Anxiety Disorders. Behavior Research and Therapy, 36. 5. The Relationships between Perfectionism, Standards for Academic Achievement, and Emotional Distress in Postsecondary Students. Journal of College Student Development, 38, (6). 6. Perfectionism in Anorexia Nervosa. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 17, (2). 7. Is Perfectionism Good, Bad, or Both? Examining Models of the Perfectionism Construct. Personality and individual Differences, 36, (6). 8. The Relationship between Perfectionism, Aversive Self-Awareness, Negative Affect and Binge Eating. Thesis - Master of Arts, Psychology. University of Canterbury. 9. Evaluative Concerns, Self-Critical, and Personal Standards Perfectionism: A Structural Equation Modeling Strategy. Perfectionism: Theory, Research and Treatment. 10. Dimensions of Perfectionism and Irrational Fears: An Examination with the Fear Survey Schedule. Personality and Individual Differences, 15, (3). 11. Warwer. O, Onesimus, Djumilah, Armanu and Mintarti, “Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Mediate Self-Leadership Focused Behavioral Strategies and Performance Outcome”, International Journal of Management (IJM), Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp. 191 - 203, ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSN Online: 0976-6510. 12. Nisha Ashokan and Dr. Jayshree Suresh, “A Study on the Entrepreneurial Intention Among Students”, International Journal of Management (IJM), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 1 - 7, ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSN Online: 0976-6510. 92