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  • 1. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL 0976 – MANAGEMENT (IJM) OF 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME ISSN 0976-6502 (Print) ISSN 0976-6510 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), pp. 71-79 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijm.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 6.9071 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJM ©IAEME STRESS MANAGEMENT MODALITIES IN IT SECTOR Dr. Ipseeta Satpathy, D.Litt. Professor, School of Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha Dr. B. Chandra Mohan Patnaik Associate Professor, School of Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha Ms. Bonita Mitra Research Scholar, School of Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha ABSTRACT Stress is an intangible part of a human being. This cannot be seen or touched however it can be felt. An individual with stress cannot give his best to the organization and at the same time to the family life also will be disturbed. Nobody wants to undergo through stress, however the present corporate scenario work pressure and personal life obligation contributes a lot in this regard. In the present paper we tried to understand the perception of the employees working in information technology sector in relation to stress. For this purpose 12 variables were considered after making the intensive review of literature, pilot study and taking the expert opinions of the HR experts. Likert scale method was used for the analysis of data and for collecting data, 200 questionnaires was distributed and finally 109 responses were received. The data analysis was made in the basis of age group of 25-40 years and age group having more than 40 years. Key words- Stress, IT Sector, Perception & Employees. AN OVERVIEW Stress is a hot-button issue for a daily life. It is a key challenge for the organizations because organizations with stressed employees are more likely to be unsuccessful in the market. Probably, the employees belonging from IT sector are witnessing maximum stress. Stress is a complex fact in an individual’s life with no easy answer. Generally, it is a condition of pressure or tension on an individual that affects individual’s health and performance at workplace. Many organizations are facing day-to-day challenges to handle stress in a proper way. It is no-wonder that in today’s fast paced society dealing with stress and adopting an effective stress management approach is a challenge for each and every organization. Individuals reflect a different behavior when they are 71
  • 2. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME stressed. The level of stress experienced by individuals differs from person to person, not because of their age or gender but it results out of variety of situations they come across. Stress among the employees is a great matter of concern both for the organizations as well as the working employees. It is influenced mainly by occupational position and the culture of the organization. Stress becomes more complicated and shows a more unfavorable result if left unhandled. The reasons that results stress are known as Stressors. Mostly, every human being reacts differently to the stressors. In present organizations, it has become a strong predictor of job satisfaction. It can be viewed from two directions: From Individual point of view- It can cause various physical and psychological imbalances leading to various diseases. From Organizational point of view-It can lead to ineffectiveness of organization, poor productivity, increase in employee turnover and absenteeism. However, stress is not always bad or shows negative results. Some stress is also good and helpful in improving the performance of an individual. Hence, certain level of stress is always necessary to motivate us to and perform at a higher level. For example: When you are stressed for a given project you give your best efforts and dedication to finish the project within the stipulated time frame and perform best. But at times, stress beyond certain level may show opposite reactions or poor results. For example: When you are stressed because of the poor health of your kid you may not perform your best at the workplace as a result of which you show low productivity. Thus, stress can broadly be divided into two main types: Eustress: Stress that motivates a person to perform better and show positive results. Distress: Stress that hinders the performance and show negative results. Whether a situation is stressful or not is always determined by the individual experiencing the situation. No two people perceive a given situation in the same way because persons differ with their coping skills. Situations are viewed differently by different persons. Hence, handling stress effectively is a skill that we should learn so that it will not harm our health as well as our performance. In the crude meaning, stress management can be defined as being aware of the stressors we are facing and their sources and learning how to respond these stressors in a positive way. People believe that they have inadequate skills to deal with the higher degree of stress which they are facing. Thus, eventually every individual needs a proper stress management program to stay fit. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY To understand the various contributing factors of stress for the employees working in IT sector. To suggest remedial measures for control the stress. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The study is limited to the employees working in IT sector in Odisha The period of study is limited to 2 months, i.e November 2013 to December 2013. The sample size is limited to 109 respondents; it may not be the universal view. 72
  • 3. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME RESEARCH METHODOLOGY In support to the objective of the research there is a primary research through questionnaire administration method in the field through stratified random sampling method covering the employees working in IT sector. Total 200 questionnaires were served, out of which 109 responded, which consists of 58 female respondents and 51 male respondents. The response rate was 54.5%. For the computation of data Likert scale method was used. Respondents’ perception with regard to stress management in IT sector To measure the perception level of the participant of IT sector related to stress, the various variables were identified. job satisfaction is directly related to stress and work culture of the organization, direct relationship between stress and job performance, married women face more stress as compared to men, organizations having stressed workers are less likely to be successful in competitive market, role overload, role conflict and role stagnation are the contributing factors for stress, emotional intelligence plays an important role in lowering occupational stress, stress varies due to attitude, demography and work performance, stress is not due to age but occupational position, organization politics and bureaucracy are important factors for stress, impact of stress level may lead to burnout, relaxing training interventions helps in reducing stress. In this regard we have assigned as +3,+2,+1,0 and -1 for the responses of the respondents “ Completely agree”, “ Agree”, “ Neutral, “ Disagree” and “ Completely disagree” respectively. Final scores for each feature are calculated by multiplying the number of response by the weights of the corresponding response. Calculation of respondents’ perception: Ideal and Least scores Ideal scores are calculated by multiplying the number of respondents in each category with (+3) and product with total number of attributes. Least scores are calculated by multiplying the number of respondents in each category with (-1) and the product with number of attributes in the questionnaires. Category Equation Ideal score Equation Least score Male ( age group 25-40) 28X12X3 1008 28X12X-1 -336 Male (age group above 40) 23X12X3 828 23X12X-1 -276 Female (age group 25-40) 26X12X3 936 26X12X-1 -312 Female (age group above 40) 32X12X3 1152 32X12X-1 -384 73
  • 4. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME ANALYSIS OF DATA Aggregate Score Age group 25-40 Variables Age group above 40 Male Female Male Female Job satisfaction is directly related to stress and work culture of the organization. 63 67 58 83 Direct relationship between stress and job performance, 64 70 59 83 Married women face more stress as compared to men 75 73 67 88 Organizations having stressed workers are less likely to be successful in competitive market 59 58 61 74 Role overload, role conflict and role stagnation are the contributing factors for stress. 60 61 56 89 Emotional intelligence plays an important role in lowering occupational stress, 61 60 54 83 Stress varies due to attitude, demography and work performance 71 64 55 65 Stress is not due to age but occupational position 73 67 64 71 Organization politics and important factors for stress. 77 60 62 79 Stress leads to drinking habits, smoking habits. 73 57 55 78 Impact of stress level may lead to burnout 66 63 55 71 Relaxing training interventions helps in reducing stress 71 69 57 86 Total Scores 813 769 703 950 Ideal Scores 1008 936 828 1152 Least Scores -336 -312 -276 -384 28 26 23 32 bureaucracy are No of respondents Source: Annexure A, B,C & D 74
  • 5. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME 1400 1200 1000 800 600 Total Scores 400 Ideal Scores 200 Least Scores 0 -200 -400 Male Female Male Age group 25-40 -600 Female Age group above 40 Aggregate Score INTERPRETATION In the present case the ideal score of the participants of male and female for the age group of 25-40 and more than 40 years are 1008,936,828,1152 and the total score for the same are 813,769,703 and 950. In no case the total scores are near to least score. The percentage of total score to ideal score for the respondents are 81.65%, 82.16%,84.90% and 82.46%. This shows that the perceptions for the stress level supporting variables are more than 81%. Hence, this shows that there is existence of stress level more in IT sector employees. REMEDIES FOR CONTROLLING THE STRESS Absolute elimination of stress is neither pleasing nor feasible. Hence, we can prevent stress to affect unfavorably on the health and work of the individuals. Stress prevention can be done by three ways: Primary Methods of Prevention- It includes reducing the effect of factors causing stress, methods like work or job design, workers participation in management and flexi work time can reduce stress Secondary Methods of Prevention- It includes changing the response and reaction to stressful situation. This can be done by doing regular exercises, giving proper education and adequate training to workers. Tertiary Methods of Prevention- When primary or secondary prevention methods are ignored or their implementation is neglected then tertiary methods should be adopted for coping with stress. It involves various interventions programmes and promoting health provisions. 75
  • 6. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Stress management is a continuous process that should be monitored frequently. Reducing the negative effects and consequences of stress is more important than mere identifying the reasons of stress. Stressors can work wonderfully and prove to be good opportunities if managed well. Stress works as a stimulus to motivate and stimulate employees to perform their best. At times, stress may be overwhelming resulting in harmful consequences. Thus, to have a productive workplace and healthy living, organizations must adopt some effective stress management approaches that would reduce stress. CONCLUDING NOTE A person with stress cannot discharge his work life balance properly. The human life and stress go side by side. Nobody is free from stress. Everyone is experiencing this aspect some way other. A low profile employee or a high profile employee, both will have stress but the nature may be different. It is not that only people with higher position will have only stress. The entire stress management to some extent depends upon our own attitude towards our life. If our attitude is positive and its outcome will be also positive. In this direction both the employers and employees should try to reach the breakeven. It is also found that in case of IT sector the burnout issues are more. There is a need for creating positive work environment for the betterment of employees and ultimately this will help to reduce the stress level. REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Madeline Weiss, MIS March 1983, Work Stress and Social Support, Effects of Work Stress and Social Support on Information Systems Managers. A P Singh* and Sadhana Singh, Effects of Stress and Work Culture on Job Satisfaction ,Vol. VIII, No. 2, 2009,The Icfai University Journal of Organizational Behavior. Mrs. J. Juliet Gladies, Dr. Vijila Kennedy, Impact of Organizational Climate on Job Stress for women employees in Information Technology sector in India, Volume 2, Issue 6 (June, 2011),Asia Pacific Journal of Research in Business Management. Mohla Charu, Effect of Occupational Stress on QWL: Amongst the Associates of IT Industry, Vol. 6 (5) May (2013), Advances in Management. Afsheen Khalid, Role of Supportive Leadership as a Moderator between Job Stress and Job Performance, Vol. 4, No. 9, pp. 487-495, Sep 2012, Information Management and Business Review. P. Kavitha, Role of stress among women employees forming majority workforce at IT sector in Chennai and Coimbatore, Tier-I & Tier-II centers, Sona Global Management Review, Volume 6, Issues 3, May 2012. Urska Treven, Sonja Treven and Simona Sarotar Zizek, Effective approaches to managing stress of employees, Volume 4, Issue 10 (2011), pp. 46-57, Review of Management Innovation & Creativity. Dr. C.Vijaya Banu, N.Santhosh and Venkatakrishnan.Y.B, “A Study on Stress Management with Special Reference to a Private Sector Unit”, International Journal of Management (IJM), Volume 1, Issue 1, 2010, pp. 1 - 16, ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSN Online: 0976-6510. K. S. Sathyanarayana and Dr. K. Maran, “Job Stress of Employees”, International Journal of Management (IJM), Volume 2, Issue 2, 2011, pp. 93 - 102, ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSN Online: 0976-6510. 76
  • 7. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Annexure –A (Male age group 25-40)- 28 respondents Perception of the respondents Completely Agree Neutral Disagree Completely Score Attributes agree disagree +3 +2 +1 0 -1 Job satisfaction is directly related to stress and 18 4 2 3 1 63 work culture of the organization. Direct relationship between stress and job 19 3 3 1 2 64 performance, Married women face more stress as compared to men Organizations having stressed workers are less likely to be successful in competitive market 23 2 2 1 0 75 19 2 1 3 3 59 Role overload, role conflict and role stagnation are the contributing factors for stress. 17 4 2 4 1 60 Emotional intelligence plays an important role in lowering occupational stress, 16 5 3 0 0 61 Stress varies due to attitude, demography and work performance 21 3 2 2 0 71 Stress is not due to age but occupational position 23 2 0 3 0 73 Organization politics and important factors for stress. 24 2 1 1 0 77 Stress leads to drinking habits, smoking habits. 21 4 2 1 0 73 Impact of stress level may lead to burnout 20 3 2 1 2 66 Relaxing training interventions helps in reducing stress 21 4 1 1 1 71 bureaucracy are Source: Compiled from field survey Annexure –B (Male age group above 40)- 23 respondents Perception of the respondents Completely Agree Neutral Disagree Completely Score Attributes agree disagree +3 +2 +1 0 -1 Job satisfaction is directly related to stress and 18 2 1 1 1 58 work culture of the organization. Direct relationship between stress and job 17 3 2 1 0 59 performance, Married women face more stress as compared to men Organizations having stressed workers are less likely to be successful in competitive market 21 2 0 0 0 67 19 1 2 1 0 61 Role overload, role conflict and role stagnation are the contributing factors for stress. 18 1 1 2 1 56 77
  • 8. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Emotional intelligence plays an important role in lowering occupational stress, 16 2 3 1 1 54 Stress varies due to attitude, demography and work performance 17 2 1 2 1 55 Stress is not due to age but occupational position 20 1 2 0 0 64 19 2 1 1 0 62 Stress leads to drinking habits, smoking habits. 16 3 2 1 1 55 Impact of stress level may lead to burnout 17 2 1 2 1 55 Relaxing training interventions helps in reducing stress 18 1 2 1 1 57 Organization politics and important factors for stress. bureaucracy are Source: Compiled from field survey Annexure –C (Female age group 25-40)- 26 respondents Perception of the respondents Completely Agree Neutral Disagree Completely Score Attributes agree disagree +3 +2 +1 0 -1 Job satisfaction is directly related to stress and 21 2 1 1 1 67 work culture of the organization. Direct relationship between stress and job 22 1 2 1 0 70 performance, Married women face more stress as compared to men Organizations having stressed workers are less likely to be successful in competitive market 22 3 1 0 0 73 18 2 2 2 2 58 Role overload, role conflict and role stagnation are the contributing factors for stress. 17 3 4 2 0 61 Emotional intelligence plays an important role in lowering occupational stress, 19 1 3 1 2 60 Stress varies due to attitude, demography and work performance 20 2 1 2 1 64 Stress is not due to age but occupational position 21 2 1 1 1 67 18 3 2 1 2 60 Stress leads to drinking habits, smoking habits. 17 3 2 2 2 57 Impact of stress level may lead to burnout 19 2 2 3 0 63 Relaxing training interventions helps in reducing stress 21 2 2 1 0 69 Organization politics and important factors for stress. bureaucracy are Source: Compiled from field survey 78
  • 9. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 1, January (2014), © IAEME Annexure –D (Female age group above 40)-32 respondents Perception of the respondents Completely Agree Neutral Disagree Completely Score Attributes agree disagree +3 +2 +1 0 -1 Job satisfaction is directly related to stress and 26 2 2 1 1 83 work culture of the organization. Direct relationship between stress and job 25 3 2 2 0 83 performance, Married women face more stress as compared to men Organizations having stressed workers are less likely to be successful in competitive market 26 4 2 0 0 88 23 2 2 4 1 74 Role overload, role conflict and role stagnation are the contributing factors for stress. 27 3 2 0 0 89 Emotional intelligence plays an important role in lowering occupational stress, 25 4 1 1 1 83 Stress varies due to attitude, demography and work performance 19 3 4 4 2 65 Stress is not due to age but occupational position 21 4 2 3 2 71 22 6 2 1 1 79 Stress leads to drinking habits, smoking habits. 23 4 2 2 1 78 Impact of stress level may lead to burnout 21 4 2 3 2 71 Relaxing training interventions helps in reducing stress 27 2 1 2 0 86 Organization politics and important factors for stress. bureaucracy are Source: Compiled from field survey 79