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10120130406015

  1. 1. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT (IJM) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) ISSN 0976-6502 (Print) ISSN 0976-6510 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013), pp. 128-134 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijm.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 6.9071 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJM ©IAEME A STUDY ON IMPULSE BUYING BEHAVIOR OF COLLEGE STUDENTS FOR BRANDED APPARELS IN AHMEDABAD CITY Prof. Sandip G. Prajapati Assistant Professor, Faculty of Commerce, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara Dr. Khuman L. Rathod Associate Professor, M.B.A – Department, Hemchandracharya North Gujarat University, Patan ABSTRACT Impulse buying has been defined as a spontaneous, immediate purchase without pre-shopping intentions either to buy a specific product category or to fulfill a specific buying task. Apparel industry is one of the primary segments of our Indian economy and one of the largest sources of foreign exchange earnings. This industry contributes around 4 per cent of the GDP, 20 per cent of industrial output, and slightly more than 30 per cent of export earnings. This apparel industry provides employment to about 38 million people. For this researcher has used the questionnaire which include quantitative research. The sampling method is Non-probability sampling technique, in that convenience sampling is used. The collected data has been analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. As in the research there is no significant difference between fashion involvement, pre-decision process of purchase and post-purchase among various age groups, family. Key Words: Impulsive Buying, Consumer Behavior, Visual Merchandising, Fashion Involvement. INTRODUCTION Its hard core truth change is constant. And in 21st century high level of change remain contant in the fashion and apparel industry. This industry is considered as dynamic one in India currently. From previous few decades the fashion and apparel industry in India is on a boom due to the increasing fashion consciousness among middle and upper class of Indians. Whether they are middle class, college students or other youngsters having a high level of fashion sence which motivate them to buy more and more which distinguish this class from others 128
  2. 2. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) The high thunder in the Indian apparel industry is due to various factors like, increasing incomes levels, good trade policies adopted by the state governments, and flexible and high foreign investment in the apparel industry. In current scenarios we can able to found all worlds best brands in apparels to be present and available at each mall. World Brands like Mango, Armani and Diesel were not known to us before few months back, but today these brands are known and available at almost all Indian cities. In past few years this industry passing or moving from emerging stage to a fully fledged booms stage. The market value of the apparel in India is expected at around INR 200 Billion. While branded apparel market's size is reached up to INR 50 Billion, which is a quarter of the total share. The Indian apparel market can be categorized into branded and none branded apparels. Some well known Apparel Brands in India are Arvind Mills, Raymonds, Madura Garments and Provogue Zodiac Clothing. Beside this Indian apparel industry gives a birth and reorganization to some finest designers who become famous not only in India but also at abroad levels. This introduction gives move boost up to our apparel industry in last decade. According to Fashion Design Council of India (FDCI) apparels created by designers in India is going to play a most important role in the development of the apparel industry in the next coming years. At present Indian fashion designer industry having market value up to` 1.8 Billion INR and it is anticipated to grow up to` 100 Billion INR within the next coming decade. LITERATURE REVIEW According to the study conducted by ( Bellenger et all, 1978) & (Rook and Hoch , 1985) impulsive purchases represented 27 % to 62 % of all department store purchases done by peoples believe that they have experienced an impulse purchase. Other research findings also support this reliving fact almost 90% of respondents have made grocery purchases on impulsively. According to (Welles, 1986) between 30 to 50 % of all purchases can be classified by the buyers themselves as impulse purchases. Another researcher (Rook and Rook, 1987) identified impulse buying behavior with descriptors such as a intense, exciting, spontaneous, urge to buy with the purchaser often ignoring the consequences. While more recent research by Puri says that impulse buying as a trait rather than as a classification of a purchase decision, researchers agree that consumers vary in their impulse-buying tendency (Puri , 1996) (Rook & Fisher, 1995). Without having prior information of a new product or intention to purchase a certain item, a consumer is exposed to stimuli, suggesting that a need can be satisfied through the purchase. Researchers (Abrams, 1996) (Burns, 1992) have suggested that internal states and environmental/external factors can serve as cues to trigger consumers’ impulse behavior to purchase. The research on situational influence can be described as examining the relationship among shopper characteristics and the features of retailing or point-of-purchase situations. Shopper characteristics might include involvement (Smith & Carsky, 1996), attitude (Reid & Brown, 1996), and ethnicity (Crispel, 1997), while the retailing features could include outlet size (Owen, 1995), retail format (Fernie, 1996; Fernie & Fernie, 1997), and store personality. Researchers (Gardner & Rook, 1988; Rook, 1987; Rook & Gardner, 1993) identify affect of mood has been known as a variable that influences impulse purchasing. Rook and Gardner (1993) found that 85 per cent of their survey respondents indicated a positive mood would be more positive to impulse buying than a negative mood. For instance, the findings of Darden et al.’s (1983) study showed that consumers’ beliefs about the physical pleasant appearance of a store had a higher connection with a choice of a store than did merchandise quality, general price level, and other selection criteria. 129
  3. 3. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH Leading objective of the research is to study college student’s impulse buying behavior for branded apparel in Ahmedabad city. While some other secondary objectives are to identify the level of association between shopping life style and impulse buying behavior of various category college students shopping in the area of Ahmedabad and to identify the level of association between fashion involvement and impulse buying behavior of various category college students shopping in the area of Ahmedabad. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The research design is Descriptive is single cross sectional research design. Sample element is Male or female, a person who is a college student and resident of Ahmedabad city and buying branded apparel. Non-probability sampling convenience sampling is used in this Project Study. Sample size limited to 119 (95per cent significance level and 9per cent probable error). A close ended interviewer administrated questionnaire has been used for collecting primary data. INFERENTIAL ANALYSIS In inferential analysis researchers done cronbach Alpha and Exploratory factor analysis – 1) Reliability analysis – scale (cronbach’s alpha) Table 1 Cronbach alpha coefficients overall Measures Cronbach alpha coefficients 1. Impulse buying behavior for branded apparels 2. Fashion Involvement of college students 0.818 3. Pre-decision process 4. Post-purchase perception The Cronbach alpha coefficient was calculated in order to check if the items that make up the Impulse buying behavior for branded apparels, fashion involvement of college students, pre-decision process and post-purchase perception. Testing the scale for reliability revealed an Impulse buying, Fashion involvement, pre-decision stage and post-decision stage Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.818. Therefore, this scale is considered reliable. 2) Exploratory factor analysis (EFA): to identify sources underlying the buying behavior for branded apparels of college students, an exploratory factor analysis was carried out. Table 2 KMO, Bartlett’s test of Sphericity and significant level Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy 0.725 Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 226.429 Df 36 Sig. .000* *significant at 0.001 level 130
  4. 4. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) The factors, their respective items with the numbers and their corresponding factor loading are given in bellow tables. Table 3 Description of factors Pattern of purchase Description % of Variance % of Cumulative variance 22.543 Factors 22.543 There are three types of pattern of purchase feel, planning and inattentive Spot purchase Spot purchase lead to the purchase of unplanned and unneeded apparels 22.277 44.820 Buying habits Buying habits lead to the purchase of unintentional apparels 17.731 62.551 In total, there were nine (9) variables in the data. Varimax rotation method was used with factors extraction with Eigen value over 1. It resulted into extraction of three factors, which explained 62.551 per cent of variance. The minimum factor loading observed was 0.598 and the maximum loading was seen to be 0.794. DATA ANALYSIS & FINDINGS Visual merchandizing has a great power to attract the costumers. Impulse is totally based on visual merchandizing. The attractive store fronts, window displays, lightings, signages attract the college students to buy the branded apparels. Today’s college students are more conscious about the latest fashion, status, life style, which makes them to buy the branded apparels. A. Gender Vs Impulse Buying Behavior: H1: Rejected: An independent-samples t-test is conducted to compare significant difference among male and female students for their level of fashion involvement. There is no significant difference in the scores for level of fashion involvement among male (M=2.73, SD=0.74) and female (M=2.69, SD=0.68) conditions; t (117) =0.164, p = 0.870. H2: Rejected: An independent-samples t-test is conducted to compare significant difference in male and female student’s Pre-decision process for buying branded apparels. There is no significant difference in the scores for Pre-decision process for buying branded apparels in male (M=2.91, SD=0.65) and female (M=2.73, SD=0.72) conditions; t (117) = 1.40, p = 0.163. H3: Rejected: An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare significant difference in male and female student’s Post-purchase perception for buying branded apparels. There is no significant difference in the scores for Post-purchase perception for buying branded apparels in male (M=2.72, SD=0.60) and female (M=2.68, SD=0.52) conditions; t (117) = 0.297, p = 0.767. B. Education Vs Impulse Buying Behavior: H4: Rejected: An independent-samples t-test is conducted to compare significant difference among Graduate and Post-graduate students for their level of fashion involvement. There is no significant difference in the scores for level of fashion involvement among Graduate (M=2.63, SD=0.57) and Post-graduate (M=2.73, SD=0.78) conditions; t (117) = 0.249, p = 0.803. H5: Rejected: An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare 131
  5. 5. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) significant difference in Graduate and Post-graduate students’ Pre-decision process for buying branded apparels. There is no significant difference in the scores for Pre-decision process for buying branded apparels in Graduate (M=2.80, SD=0.67) and Post-graduate (M=2.85, SD=0.69) conditions; t (117) = 0.354, p = 0.724. H6: Rejected: An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare significant difference in Graduate and Post-graduate students’ Post-purchase perception for buying branded apparels. There is no significant difference in the scores for Post-purchase perception for buying branded apparels in Graduate (M=2.81, SD=0.62) and Post-graduate (M=2.69, SD=0.58) conditions; t (117) = 0.973, p = 0.332. C. Family Structure Vs Impulse Buying Behavior: H7: Rejected: An independent-samples t-test is conducted to compare significant difference among Nuclear family and Joint family students for their level of fashion involvement. There is no significant difference in the scores for level of fashion involvement among Nuclear family (M=2.78, SD=0.70) and Joint family (M=2.62, SD=0.78) conditions; t (117) = 1.20, p = 0.233. H8: Rejected: An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare significant difference in Graduate and Post-graduate students’ Pre-decision process for buying branded apparels. There is no significant difference in the scores for Pre-decision process for buying branded apparels in Graduate (M=2.80, SD=0.67) and Post-graduate (M=2.85, SD=0.69) conditions; t (117) = 0.354, p = 0.724. H9: Rejected: An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare significant difference in Nuclear family and Joint family students’ Postpurchase perception for buying branded apparels. There is no significant difference in the scores for Post-purchase perception for buying branded apparels in Nuclear family (M=2.77, SD=0.53) and Joint family (M=2.63, SD=0.67) conditions; t (117) = 1.25, p = 0.213. D. Age Group Vs Impulse Buying Behavior:H10: Rejected: A one-way was conducted to compare the significance difference among students of various age groups about their level of fashion involvement. There is no significant effect of Customers Various Age groups on their level of fashion involvement. At the p<0.05 level for three conditions [F (12,106) =0.551, p=0.876] H11: Rejected: A one-way was conducted to compare the significance difference among students of various age groups about their level of fashion involvement. There is no significant effect of Customers Various Age groups on their Pre-decision process for buying branded apparels. At the p<0.05 level for three conditions [F (12,106) =1.131, p=0.343]H12: Rejected: A one-way was conducted to compare the significance difference among students of various age groups about their level of fashion involvement. There is no significant effect of Customers Various Age groups on their Post-purchase perception for buying branded apparels. At the p<0.05 level for three conditions [F (15,103) =1.120, p=0.348] E. Family Income Vs Impulse Buying Behavior: H13: Rejected: A one-way was conducted to compare the significance difference among students of various Income groups about their level of fashion involvement. There is no significant effect of Customers Various Income groups on their level of fashion involvement. At the p<0.05 level for three conditions [F (12,106) =1.474, p=0.145] H14: Rejected: A one-way was conducted to compare the significance difference among students of various Income groups about their level of fashion involvement. There is no significant effect of Customers Various Income groups on their Pre-decision process for buying branded apparels. At the p<0.05 level for three conditions [F (12,106) =1.725, p=0.071] H15: Accepted: A one-way was conducted to compare the significance difference among students of various Income groups about their level of fashion involvement. There is significant effect of Customers Various Income groups on their Post-purchase perception for buying branded apparels. At the p<0.05 level for three conditions [F (15,103) =1.921, p=0.029] 132
  6. 6. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 6, November - December (2013) CONCLUSION According to (Rock, 1987) Impulse buying is a sudden and immediate purchase with no preshopping intentions either to buy the specific product or to fulfill a specific buying task. Researchers try to attempt to determine if college students’ who frequently engage in impulse buying behavior for branded apparels have some common personality traits. This study also investigated some outside factors that influence impulse buying behavior for branded apparels. In the efforts to inspect this relationship, this study mainly tried to explain the relationship between college students’ impulse buying behavior and various types branded apparels. One of the significant finding of this study was that impulse buying behavior certainly influences college students’ to purchase branded apparels. The result shows that there were significant relationships between college students’ buying behavior and impulse buying behavior for branded apparels. The window display and floor merchandising (visual merchandizing) are significantly correlated with impulse buying behavior for branded apparels. When consumers (college students) are exposed to these visual stimuli they are likely to make purchase decisions on impulse basis. REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Abrahams, B. (1997, March 27). It’s all in the mind. Marketing , 31-33. Abratt, R., & Goodey, S. D. (1990). Unplanned buying and in store stimuli in supermarket. Managerial and decision Economics , 11 (2), 111-121. Anglin, L., Morgan, F., & Stoltman, J. (1999). An investigation of retail shopping situation. International journal of retail and manegement , 27 (4), 145-153. Babin, B., Darden, W., & Griffin, M. (1994, March 20). Work and /or fun: Measuring hedonic and utiliterian shoping value. Journal of consumer resrearch , 644-656. Beatty, S. E., & Ferrell, M. (1998). Impulse buying: modeling its precursors. Journal of Retailing , 74 (2), 169-191. Belk, R. (1975). Situational variables and consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 2(3),157-164. Bowers, K. (1973). Situationism in psychology: an analysis and critique. Psychology review, 307-36. Churchill, G., & peter, J. (1998). Marketing: Creating value for customers. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill. Cobb, C. J., & Hoyer, W. (1986). Planned Versus Impulse Purchase Behavior. Journal of Retailing , 62 (4), 384-409. Darden, W., Erdem, O., & Darden, D. (1983). A comparison and test of three casual models of petronage intentions. Patronage behavior and Retail manegement . Eysenck, S. B., & Eysenck, H. J. (1978). Impulsiveness and venturesomeness:Thair position in dimensional system of personality description. psychological Reports. Eysenck, S. B., Pearson, P. R., Easting, G., & Allsopp, J. (1985). Age norms for impulsiveness, venturesomenes s and empathy in adults. personality and individul differences, 613-619. Fernie, J., & Fernie, S. (1997). The development of a US retail format in Europe: the case of Factory outlet centers. International journal of retail and disribution management, 25 (11), 342-50. Gardner, M., & Rook, D. (1988). Effects of impulse purchases on consumers’ affective states. advances in consumer research, 15, 127-130. Hoyer, W. (1984, december 11). An examination of consumer decision making for a common repeat purchase product. Journal of consumer research, 822-9. 133
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