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  • 1. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT (IJM) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) ISSN 0976-6502 (Print) ISSN 0976-6510 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013), pp. 191-203 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijm.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 6.9071 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJM ©IAEME INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION MEDIATE SELF-LEADERSHIP FOCUSED BEHAVIORAL STRATEGIES AND PERFORMANCE OUTCOME Warwer. O Department of Management, Brawijaya University, Indonesia ABSTRACT The purposes of this study are to identify direct and indirect effect of self-leadership focused behavioral strategies on performance outcome, and the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation mediates the relationship between self-leadership focused behavioral strategies and performance outcome. The method of this study to collect data is survey with questionnaire the sample of this study is 229 lecturers of Cenderawasih University. Path analysis with lisrel is used to analyse data. There are three major findings. First, self-leadership focused behavioral strategies have direct, positive, and significant effect on performance out direct. Second, extrinsic motivation is significant mediate the effect of self-leadership focused behavioral strategies and performance outcome. Finally, intrinsic is not significant mediates the effect of self-leadership focused behavioral strategies and and performance outcome. Key Words: Self-Leadership, Motivation, Performance and Relationship 1. INTRODUCTION Self-leadership focused behavioral strategies is a leadership style in which the process of leading organization employees is not a top down process. This type of leadership is not traditional but the modern leadership said by Manz (1986).Researches on self-leadership and self-leadership focused behaviorals strategies have been done in different countries with different methodology With different results that read from literature as reported.(Neck and Manz, 1996, Steward, Carson and Cardy 1996, Prusia, Anderson and Manz 1998). An interesting research on self-leadership on focused behavioral strategies and team performance was carried by Politis(2006). There were three major findings. First, the relationship between self-leadership and job satisfaction was direct, positip and significant. Second was the relationship between job-satisfaction and team performance was positip and significant. Finally the results have clearly shown that job-satisfaction mediates the 191
  • 2. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) relationship between self-leadership focused behavioral strategies and team performance. Prusiaa, Anderson and Manz (1998) studied the relationship between self-leadership and performance outcome in which self-efficacy as mediating variable. The result of this study was that selfleadership had a significant effect on self-efficacy and self-efficacy directly effected performances. Curral Louis and Quienteiro P.M(2009) reported their study in three companies in Portugal with 108 employees. There was significant correlation between general self-leadership and work role innovation and significant correlation existed between intrinsic motivation and learning orientation. In addition to that, Self-leadership relates to multiculture, American students scored better than Chinese students. Neubert and Wu (2006) found that Self-leadership hardly influenced performance of people in chine. This fact opens up mind to study the relationship between self-leadership focused behavioral strategies and motivation. In addition to that, motivation is a psychological process that encourages employees to achieve their goal. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are internal and external forces to encourage individuals to to have direction and intensity to obtain their good performance (Bandura, 1986).This study will treat intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as intervening variable to the relationship between self-leadership focused behavior strategies and performance outcome. The previous studies mentioned above did not study motivation as intervening variables. Motivation is a determinable factor that plays an important role to influence employees to work hard. Some evidences showed that extrinsic motivation improved work quality as reported by Gibbons (1997) and he said that payment influenced productivity of workers. Workers were more productive when they switched from being paid by time to be paid by piece. Gibbon said that rewards could influence performance in the work place. Deci and Ryan(1985) that extrinsic motivation encourages performance of employees. This study hypothesizes that self-leadership focused behavioral strategies influence. Performance outcome and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation mediates the relationship between self-leadership focused behavioral strategies and performance outcome. This study will correlates self-leadership focused behavioral strategies with performance outcome. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation mediate the relationship between self-leadership focused behavioral strategies and performance outcome. Aspects of self-leadership focused behavioral strategies namely self-goal setting, self-reward, self-cue management, self-rehearsal, self-reward and self-punishment. Intrinsic motivation such as feeling of self-responsibility, feeling of self-advancement, feeling of selfachievement, feeling of self- empowerment, and work itself are important factors in this study. In addition to that, extrinsic motivation factors such as organization policy, salary, supervision, work condition will be analysed with performance outcome such as productivity, time allocation, and work quality. The four contructs with indicators of this research will be analysed by path analysis with lisrel. The problem identified at Cenderawasih University is about the performance outcome of teaching and learning in which many lecturers taught students without lesson plan, module, hand out and syllabus. They missed class meeting because of absence. They did not follow the tim allocation to teach according to time schedules. This condition influenced academic atmosphere and influence the teaching and learning quality that finally will result in low accreditation at Cenderawasih university. What is the root problem of the behavior of the lecturers to perform like that. This situation invites my curiosity to carry out this study. The low and high outcome of a Cenderawasih University lecturer at workplace relates to self-leadership focused behavioral strategies, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of the lecturer. In addition to that, there is contrary fact that Neubert and Wu(2006) pointed out that self-leadership is not significant with performance in chinese people and Manz said that self-leadership focused behavioral strategies influence performance outcome or team performance. This study is expected to find the root problem of this condition and to answer three hypotheses above. Theoretically factors that might support or hinder them to work optimally are individual factors such as mentioned above. Other factors such as self-empowerment and their work 192
  • 3. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) itself that enchance motivation into individual to perform well. All these factors are not always studied depend on the researchers. The approach of this study is quantitative in which can identify how the relationship between self-leadership focused behavioral strategies and performance out come and intrinsic, extrinsic motivation and performance outcome positive or not, especially, both motivations as intervening variables that influences the relationship between self-leadership focused behavioral strategies and performance out come. In addition to that, this study uses qualitative analysis to support the statistical results through description of linkert scale and factor loading of variable indicators. The results of this study can contribute to new findings to support the previous studies. Self-leadership focused behavioral strategies even reject the previous studies results and give new theoretical contribution to self-leadership focus behavioral strategies and new implication of training self-leadership focus behavioral strategies and motivation. This research finding will give more clear picture of reality that obtained from questionnaire of the perception of Cenderawasih University lectures. 2. LITERATURE The need of research on self-leadership and performance continuously carried out to prove the concepts proposed by leadership theorists and researchers that self-leadership and selfleadership focused behavioral strategies are effective to be practiced by individual or group. Some researches have been done in the theme of general self-leadership and self-focused behavioral strategies in connection with self-efficacy (Prusia, Anderson and Manz (2006). Another research on the relationship between self-leadership and performance mediated by job satisfaction reported by Politis (2005). The results showed that the relationship between self-leadership focused behavioral strategies and job satisfaction was direct, positive and significant. Also the relationship between job satisfaction and self-leadership focused behavioral strategies on was direct, significant. Finally job satisfaction mediated self-leadership focused behavioral strategies and team performance. The need of doing empirical study with motivation as mediating variable with self-leadership focused behavioral strategies or self-leadership is an important theme for researchers. Intrinsic motivation is understood as self-motivation and self-direction process come from someone to do activities (Manz 1986, Malone and Lepper, 1987). On the other hand, Fedrik Winslow Taylor(1915) and A.H. Maslow(1954) in Wren (2001) said that extrinsic motivation come from management of organization as reported in Scientific Management. Moreover, Maslow(1954) said that an individual had to fulfill his or her basic needs and then the higher needs had to be fulfilled later. From what was said by Maslow implied that basic needs as motivating factor to influence performance of human being. Take for example for example, money that people bought food to eat and the energy came from food as firing fuel that encouraged to work was their extrinsic motivation that mediate their efforts to do a piece of work well. The previous researches gave theoretical contribution to self-leadership focused behavioral strategies and practical implication to the organization that drew attention of organization leaders. This fact showed how important self-leadership focused behavioral strategies influenced performance outcome of employees when practiced by employees in organization. It is understandable that self- leadership focused behavioral strategies’ effect initially on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and then both motivation’s effect influenced performance of employees in organization is unfinished work for researchers to carry out impirical studies to prove the effectiveness of self-leadership focused behavioral strategies connected with other aspects employees’ life as a new perspective. In Indonesia empirical researches on self-leadership focused behavioral strategies and performance in which motivation as intervening variable is useful to be carry out in order to give new ideas improve the performance outcome in organization to increase the level of productivity, work quality and speed of completion of work. 193
  • 4. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) Self-leadership Focused Behavioral Strategies Theory Up to until now, researchers and practitioners pay their attention self-leadership focused behavioral strategies that adopted six aspects of self-leadership. Theoretically, self-leadership focused behavioral strategies is one of three categories of self-leadership, and two others are natural reward strategies and constructive thought pattern strategies. Self-leadership approach is not concerning on a vertical influence process (e top-down) in which subordinates are controlled, influenced and managed by a single individual leader (conger and Kanungo 2003).An emergent approach suggests that leadership is an activity that can be shared or distributed among members of group or organization (Pearce and Conger, 2003). This open up a new lines of thinking about leadership in organization when people empowered (Conger and Kanugo, 1988). The type of leadership which leads his or her employee to motive or direct him or herself to achieve good performance known as self-leadership focused behavioral strategies theory. Selfleadership focused behavioral strategies is one of the three categories of self-leadership theory proposed by Manz (1986). The origin of self-leadership focused behavioral strategies from selfleadership that rooted from self-management theory.. According to Manz(1992) literature clearly attest that self-leadership focused behavioral strategies to a larger extend overlap with selfmanagement because of their common theoretical background. Self-leadership focused behavioral strategies involve the influences people exert over themselves to achieve their motivation and direction needed to accomplish desirable outcomes (Manz1992).In relationship to focused behavioral strategies, Manz (1992) has developed self-focused behavioral strategies theory which goes beyond the work of self-control of Bandura (1997, 1982). Theory of self-leadership focused behavioral strategies of Manz (1992) is expanded some self-leadership perspective that views employees possessing an internal control system (1997).Self–leadership focused behavioral strategies consists of self-goal setting, self-observation, self-rehearsal, self-cue management, self-reward and selfpunishment in which form self-motivation which subsequently affect on performance outcomes. Each description of indicator as follows: Self-goal setting presents extend to which employees set up specific goal of their tasks by self-direction. Self-observation describes extend to which employees can keep tract of their progress of their work, or are aware of their own work performance. Self-cue management describes to extend to which employees use physical cues like schedules remind their important task. Self-rehearsal describes extend to which employees avoid making mistakes at their tasks so that they practice or prepare the task well before their real presentation. Self-reward describes extend to which employees influences themselves using reward at both physical (extrinsic) and mental(intrinsic) level. Self-punishment represents extend to which employees correct their undesirable behavior through the feeling of guilty when they fail to seething. Self-leadership focused behavioral strategies influence performance outcome. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Motivation can be divided into intrinsic and extrinsic when it is seen from its psychological process (Deci and Ryan 1985). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is inner and external drive stimulates individual to achieve his or her performance with his or her desire and intensity. According to Amobile (1997), Cameli et al.(2006), Deci and Ryan (1985) that motivation at workplace should be encouraged by the leaders or organization. Motivation can be defined as as a set of cognitive processes through which individual determine amount of the time and the effort will invest on the persuit of specify needs and goals. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation positively relate to performance through process of internal and external drive. According to Deci and Ryan(1985) intrinsic motivation is all about the desire to enjoy performance a task by its nature being well known to be positively relate to highly auto my level, self-efficacy perception and work performance satisfaction (Deci and Ryan 1985).Extrinsic motivation is external drive that influences an individual 194
  • 5. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) through his or her intensity to achieve his or her needs. Malone and Lepper(1987) define extrinsic motivation more simply in terms of what people will do without external inducement. Employees who are intrinsically motivated are those who engage for no rewards other than interest and enjoyment that ecampany them. On the other hand, extrinsic motivation is defined as external forces come from organization like organization policy, supervision, salary, personal communication, and work condition. Training for employees to influence the performance of employees like training for self-leadership focused behavioral strategies is an example of external effort from organizations which apply self-leadership to increase performance of his or employees(Neck and Manz, 1992). Researchers found intrinsic and extrinsic motivation influence employees in workplace. Extrinsic motivating factors such as monetary rewards increase willingness of employees to accept jobs at workplace or increase the speed of completing work. Finally both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are important factors for employees at workplace that self-managed by employees to increase performance outcome. Performance Outcome Many organizations hire individual who has high capacity in creativity to create noel ideas and innovation for the advancement, and achievement of his or her team work or organization. Individual performance is highly important I for an organization as whole and for individual working for it. Performance comprises both behavior and an outcome aspect. These two aspects are very important for researchers and practitioners in their work place. Behavioral aspect of performance describes action made by individual while outcomes aspect describe the result of individual action. Both aspects relate to individual performance and the use of job performance as outcome measure in the research. Referring to Cambell 1990 that what an individual does in work situation. Job performance comprises of quality and quantity( Toops(1944) and Wherry (1957) listed units of production, quality of work, tenure, supervisory and leadership ability as dimension of job performance Benardin and Beatty(1984) define performance as the records of outcomes produced on a specified job function or activity during a a specified time. According to Benardin and Beatty some of dimensions may not relevant to all job activities. Finally performance outcome can be simply defined for this study as activities of employees in which measured by productivity, work quality and time allocation. Self-leadership Focused behavioral strategies influence Performance Outcome It is common to many organization work hard to restructure employees empowerment. More specifically, empowering employees is a key foundation of self-managed work teams. (Alvesson and Willmott, (1992); Conger and Kanungo, (1988); Thomas and Velthouse, (1990 Due to that, managers can rely on employee self-leadership focused behavioral strategies rather than on external leadership as it has been traditionally applied (Manz and Sims, 1996). Self-leadership focused behavioral strategies considered pivotal to employees’ enthusiasm for commitment and performance in empowering organization (Manz, 1986, 1990). In addition that, Blanchard (1995), Cashman (1995), and Manz (1992) stated that either self-leadership or self-leadership focused behavioral strategies were applied to increase performance outcomes, and the application of self-leadership and self-leadership focused behavioral strategies has gained increasing attention from researchers and practitioners. Thus, a following hypothesis proposed. H1: Self-leadership focused behavioral strategies influence performance outcome. 195
  • 6. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Mediates Self-leadership focused behavioral Strategies and Performance Outcome Self-leadership focused behavioral strategies developed from self-leadership theory due to that it has the same six aspects as mentioned in self-leadership and self-focused behavioral strategies. Employees who practice self-leadership focused behavioral strategies well they perform well. Many researches of self-leadership and self-focused behavioral strategies have shown the effectiveness of self-leadership or self-leadership focused strategies influenced performance (.....). Manz and Neck (2004) said that self-leadership or self-leadership focused behavioral strategies is psychological construct that presents one’s capacity for performance enhancement through a repotoire of ongoing cognitive, motivational and behavioral self- navigation strategies. Moreover many statements found in literature stated that motivation mediates the relationship between self-leadership and selfleadership focused behavioral strategies and performance outcomes. Motivation which was its function as intervening was translated into intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in this study based on above opinions or theorists in self-leadership and self-leadership focused behavioral strategies. (Manz and Neck, 2004, Houghton and Neck, 2006). Although only exist theoretical preposition, intrinsic motivation is considered to be one of the main explanatory concerning self-leadership, selfleadership focused behavioral and natural reward strategies (Houghton and Neck 2006). Thus two hypotheses proposed as follow: H2: Intrinsic motivation mediates self-leadership focused behavioral strategies and performance. H3: Extrinsic motivation mediates self-leadership focused behavioral strategies and performance. 3. METHOD Sample and procedure of the study relate to method of this study. The study took place in 8 Fakulties at Cenderawasih University. The sample of study is 229 taken randomly from eight (8 ) Faculties that is Faculty of Teacher training and education, faculty of social science and politics, faculty of mathematic and natural science, faculty of law, faculty of economy, faculty of technology, faculty of medicine, faculty of public health. The average age of lecturers was 30 year old, and their average years of job experiences was 13 year. Data collected through the questions which consists of self-leadership focused behavioral strategies, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and performance outcome. There were 19 questions about selfleadership focused behavioral strategies, 16 questions of intrinsic motivation, 10 questions of extrinsic motivation and 9 questions of performance. Almost 86 % of lecturers had master degree and 12 % held doctorate degree. The questionnaire was self- developed from indicators of four constructs of this research. The all data were normally distributed and the reliability of all questions was between 0, 70-0, 80. Path analysis was used to analyse the data with statistical software called lisrel stand for program 8.70. Besides that, linkert scale and factor loading will applied to give describe data from questionnaire which is basically perception of the subjects studied to respond whether completely disagree to completely agree. 4. RESULT This research findings consist of lisrel analysis result as main findings to be presented in diagram one. In addition to that, the qualitative result consists of the mean of linkert scale and loading factor of indicators of self-leadership focused behavioral strategies, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and performance outcome presented in the table 2, 3, 4 and 5 to give to support the main findings in statistics. The following path diagram used SL stands for self-leadership focused 196
  • 7. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) behavioral strategies, PM stands for performance outcome, IM stands for intrinsic Motivation, and EM stands for Extrinsic Motivation. Diagram one Sources: Primary data, 2012. Notes. X1 = SL(self-leadership focused behavioral strategies); X2 = intrinsic motivation; X3 = extrinsic motivation; Y = performance outcome Table 1 below shows the research findings obtained from lisrel analysis. The results presented in table are path coefficient, path effect and t-value. Path Table1. Path Analysis Result Among Variables Path Coefficient Effect (%) Dirct effect of SEL on IM (PX2X1) Direct effect of SEL on EM (PX3X1) Direct effect of SFL on PM (PyX1) Direct effect of EM on PM (PyX3) Direct effect of IM on PM (PyX2) Indirect effect of SL on PM(PyX1) mediated by IM Indirect effect of SL on PM (PyX1) mediated by EM t-values 0,5719 0,4837 57,19%. 48,37%. 10,50 8,33 0,2726 0,1442 0,0005 - 27,26% 14,42% 0,05% - 3,30 2,04 0,01 10,50 dan 0,01 0,2726 + 0.0190 29,16% 8,33 dan 3,30 197
  • 8. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) This section showed the results of the study as presented at the table one above. The results consisted of the direct effect of self-leadership focused behavioral strategies(SL) on intrinsic motivation(IM)., the direct effect of self-leadership focused behavioral strategies(SL) on extrinsic motivation(EM), the effect of intrinsic motivation(IM) on performance outcome (PM), the effect of extrinsic motivation (EM) on performance outcome(PM), the direct effect of self-leadership focused behavioral strategies (SL) on performance outcome(PM), the indirect effect of self-leadership focused behavioral strategies(SL) on performance outcome(PM)_ mediating by intrinsic motivation(IM), and indirect effect of self-leadership focused behavioral strategies(SEL) on performance outcome(PM) mediating by extrinsic motivation(EM). Based on the table 1 above the interesting fact found is that t values of direct effect of selfleadership focused behavioral strategies on performance is positive and significant (t value =10.50), when intrinsic motivation mediates the relationship between self-leadership focused behavioral strategies (SL)and performance outcome(PM) is not significant indicated by t-value is 0.01 in red mark. Besides that, the direct and indirect effect of independent variable on independent variable result in the following effect: (a). 57,19 % is direct effect of self-leadership focused behavioral strategies(SL) on intrinsic motivation(IM) with coefficient value: 0,5719. This fact indicates that the other factors contributed to the effect of self-leadership focused behavioral strategies(SL) on intrinsic motivation (IM) is 43,81%. The up and down variation of intrinsic motivation is 57.19% determined by self-leadership focused behavioral strategies(SL)(b).4837% is direct effect of self-leadership focused behavioral strategies(SL) on extrinsic motivation(IM) with path coefficient: 0.4837. This fact indicated that other factors contributed to the effect of self-leadership focused behavioral strategies(SL) on Extrinsic motivation is 52.63 %. The up and down variation of extrinsic motivation (EM) is 4837% determined by self-leadership focused strategies.(c). 27.26% is direct effect of self-leadership focused behavioral strategies (SL) on performance outcome(PM) with coefficient value is 0.2726. This fact shows that other factors contributed to the influence of self-leadership focused behavioral strategies(SL) on performance outcome(PM) is 73.74 %. The up and down variaton of performance outcome(PM) determined by self-leadership focused behavioral strategies(SL) is 27.26%. (d).14.42 % is direct effect of extrinsic motivation on(EM) performance outcome(PM) with coefficient value is 0,1442. This fact indicated that other factors contributed to the effect of self-leadership focused behavioral strategies(SL) on performance outcome(PM) is 8658%. The up and down variation of performance outcome(PM) is 14.42% determined by extrinsic motivation(EM). (e).The indirect effect of self-leadership focused behavioral strategies(SL) on performance outcome(PM) mediated by extrinsic motivation(EM) is 29.16%. The increase of this effect because it is mediated by extrinsic motivation. The up and down variation of performance outcome(PM) was mediated by extrinsic motivation(EM) is 29,16% determined by self-leadership focused behavioral strategies. 4. DISCUSSION Discussion describes the results of lisrel analysis to test the significant of the hypotheses proposed. Whereas linkert scale and factor loading describe the perception of lecturers of Cenderawasih University. The objectives of this study are first, to examine direct effect of selfleadership focused behavioral strategies on performance outcome. Second the mediating effect of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation between the relationship of self-leadership focused behavioral strategies and performance outcome. Path analysis with statistical software, lisrel examined the effect of relationship of self-leadership focused behavioral strategies on performance outcome, The 198
  • 9. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) research findings show that correlation is direct, positive and significant indicated by 3, 30 t-value obtained from CFA. Extrinsic motivation as intervening variable that effects the relationship between self-leadership focused behavioral strategies and performance outcome is positive and significant indicated by 8, 33 and 3, 30 t-values. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation is not significant as intervening variable mediated the effect of relationship between self-leadership focused behavioral strategies and performance outcome indicated by 0,01 t-value. This finding is not consistent with the previous research reported by Neubert and Wu(2006) that self-leadership hardly influence performance of chinese people because they preferred to work together to work individually. Indonesian and chinese people are oriental people who prefer to work cooperatively to work individually. The different results of these two studies invite curiosity to be studied later. Besides that, this finding supports the concept of self-leadership or self-leadership focused behavioral strategies influence performance as said by (Manz, 1986, 1990, 1992. Blanchard, 1995, Cashman, 1995). The current research finding extend the previous research finding on the relationship between self-leadership focused behavioral strategies and team performance mediated self-efficacy(Prusia, Anderson, Manz) and job satisfaction as mediating variable (Politis, 2005). Now extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation as intervening variables in this study of the relationship between selfleadership focused behavioral strategies and performance outcome. This study supports the concept that self-leadership focused strategies and self-leadership influence performance mediated by motivation (Houghton and Neck 2006, Sake and Asforth, 1996). This study extend and support the previous study of self-leadership in higher education carried out by John. Jacques. Garger and Paul. H(2007) .The result of this study showed that transformational self-leadership positively related to GPA and passive /avoidance self-leadership negatively ly related to GPA., Prusia, Anderson and Manz (2006) gave contribution to support the effectiveness of selfleadership which is suspected by Lee and Koh(2001). This study not only give quantitative discussion but it also give description of variables that show the perception of the lecturers that influence their performance outcome. The next description is classified into four parts about perception of Cenderawasih University lecturers how they view or experience about self-leadership focused behavioral strategies, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and performance outcome. Cenderawasih University lecturers’ perception of these variables is their reality to view through the following description. The following description of self-leadership focused behavioral strategies, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation and performance outcome are presented in a 5 point linkert scale. The range of scale begins 1 for completely disagree, 2 for disagree, 3 neutral, 4 for agree and 5 for completely agree. The first part begins with self-leadership focused strategies. Table 2 below shows that the range linker scale of self-focused behavioral strategies indicators starts from 4.48 up to 4.63 from a 5 point linkert scale. The fact found from this study is the highest mean linkert scale of perception of self-goal setting is 4.63 and the highest loading factor is 0.90 for self-goal setting. Cenderawasih University lecturers’ perception of self-goal setting is their reality. They view self-goal setting for their self-leadership focused behavioral strategies in their workplace more important. Besides that, the highest loading factor of self-leadership focused behavioral strategies is also self-goal setting. This mean that they view that self-goal setting is ideally more important for their work. 199
  • 10. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) Table 2. Description of self-leadership focused behavioral strategies Indicator Self-goal setting SelfObservation Self-Cue Management Self Reward 1 2 3 0% 0% 0.00% 1 (0.60%) 2 (0.79%(0.0)) 4 (1.79%) 4 (1.59%) 14 (5.95%) 11 (4.76%) 11 (4.76%) 0% 0% 0% 0% Sel– 2 0% Rehearsal (0.79%) Self2 0% Punishment (0.79%) Resource: Primary Data, 2012 4 5 86 (37.50%) 94 (41.07%) 67 (29.37%) 106 (46.43%) 65 (28.57%) 82 (35.71%) 143 (62.50%) 128 (55.95%) 154 (67.46%) 112 (48.81%) 145 (63.49%) 134 (58.73%) Men Loading factor(λ) 4.63 0.90 4.51 0.70 4.61 0.79 4.48 0.20 4.48 0.56 4.52 0.08 The next second part of of description is description is about how Cenderawasih University lecturers view or experience elements of intrinsic motivation. Their Intrinsic motivation consists of the feeling of self-f responsibility, self-advancement, self-achievement, self- recognition, selfempowerment and work itself. The table 3 describes how they experience from their conscience. The highest mean linkert scale is 4.75 for work itself. This is their perception or reality to experience work itself more important compared with other elements of intrinsic motivation. Besides that, they view self-empowerment is ideally very important in their work motivation. This is indicated by highest loading factor is 1.00. Table 3. Description of Intrinsic Motivation Indicator 1 2 3 4 5 Responsibility 0.00% 2 (0.79%) Achieve-ment 0.00% 0.00% Work itself 0.00% 0.00% Advancement 0.00% 5 (2.38%) Self-Recognition 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 84 (36.51%) 93 (40.48%) 46 (20.24%) 85 (36.90%) 106 (46.43%) 81 (35.24%) 124 (53.97%) 120 (52.38%) 177 (77.38%) 134 (58.33%) 120 (52.38%) SelfEmpowerment 18 (7.94%) 14 (5.95%) 5 (2.38%) 5 (2.38%) 5 (2.38%) 2 (0.95%) 132(57.62%) Mean Loading (λ) 4.41 0.20 4.42 0.74 4.75 0.31 4.51 0.61 4.55 0.83 4.32 1.00 Resource: Primary data. 2012. This third description of extrinsic motivation is very important. Extrinsic consists of organizational policy, salary, supervision, work condition and interpersonal relationship. The table 4 below shows that the score range of extrinsic motivation starts from 3.90 up to 4.51 in a 5 point linker scale. The highest mean of linkert scale is 4.50 refers to organizational policy. They views regulations or policies from Cenderawasih University is very important to control or regulate the behavior of lectures in order to perform well at workplace. Take for example, self-punishment is not 200
  • 11. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) practice so that regulation for much abseism is important. Besides that, the highest loading factor is 0.93 for supervision. They think supervision is ideally very important in their work. Table 4 shows the mean of each indicator and factor loading that present their perception or their reality of extrinsic motivation at workplace. Finally table 5 is performance outcome that gives description is about performance outcome. Performance outcome measured by productivity, work quality and time allocation. Table 4. Description of Extrinsic Motivation Indicator 1 2 3 Organization policy 0.00% 0.00% Supervision 0.00% Salory 0.00% Personal communication 0.00% Work-condition 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 5 (2.38%) 3 (1.19%) 4 5 3 (1.19%) 30 (13.10%) 35 (15.48%) 74 (32.14%) 30 (13.10%) 79 (34.52%) 144 (63.10%) 104 (45.24%) 115 (50.00%) 144 (63.10%) 142 (61.90%) 55 (23.81%) 95 (41.67%) 41 (17.86%) 57 (25.00%) Mean Loading (λ) 4.51 0.72 4.11 0.93 4.36 0.66 3.90 0.92 4.19 0.34 Resource: Primary data, 2012 The final part description is about performance outcome of Cenderawasih University lecturers. The performance outcome consists of productivity of work quality, and time allocation performed by them. Table 5 below indicates each mean linkert scale. The highest mean of linkert scale is 4.71 for work quality whereas the highest loading factor is 0.87 for both work quality and time allocation. Their perception of work quality is their reality to experience it in their workplace. On the other hand, they view work quality and time allocation in their for work is ideally very important Table 5 below shows description of Performance outcome as their reality of their perception. In connection with self-leadership focused behavioral strategies, intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation, it is understandable that performance outcome of Cenderawasih University lecturers is the function of their self-leadership, intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Their performance outcome proved by statistical correlation is proved qualitatively as well. Table 5. Description of performance outcome Indicator 1 2 3 4 5 Productivity 2 (0.95%) 3 (1.43%) 38 (16.67%) 41 (17.86%) 8 (3.57%) 103 (44.76%) 112 (48.81%) 76 (33.33%) 83 (36.19%) 174 (32.14%) 150 (65.48%) Time 0.00% 0.00% allocation Work 0.00% 0.00 % Quality Resource: Primary data, 2012. 201 Mean Loading factor (λ) 4.14 0.06 4.10 0.87 4.71 0.87
  • 12. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 5, September - October (2013) 5. CONCLUSION Based on the results obtained from this study, the conclusion as follow. There are three findings in this study as follows. First, Self-leadership focused behavior strategies influenced performance outcome of Cenderawasih University lecturers. Second, Intrinsic motivation is not significant as mediating influence between the relationship between self-leadership focused behavioral strategies and performance outcome. Third, Extrinsic motivation mediates significantly effect of the relationship focused behavioral strategies and performance outcome. Finally the reality of self-leadership focused behavioral strategies, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and performance outcome showed by Cenderawasih University lecturers reflect their perception. The highest mean of linkert scale of each indicator of each variable indicates the reality of lecturers’ perception dealt with self-leadership focused behavioral strategies, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and performance outcome. First, the highest mean of linkert scale exist in self-goal setting, work itself, organization policy and work quality indicate their perception which is also their reality. On the other hand, the loading factor of self-goal-setting, self-empowerment, organization policy, time allocation and work quality are ideally most important for them in their workplace. REFERENCES 1. Alvesson, M. And Willmost, H. (1992). ‘On the idea of emancipation in management and organization studies’, Academy of Management Review, 17, ssss 432-464. 2. Bandura, A. and Schunk, D. H. (1981). Cultivating competence, self-efficacy, and intrinsic interest through proximal self-motivation, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 586-598. 3. Bandura. A (1982). ”Self-efficasy Mechanism in human agency”. American Psychol-70). Sanfrasico Campbell, J.P. :McCloy.R.A.,Oppler S.H. & Sager C.E (1990.). A Theory of Performance In E. 4. SchmittW.C Borman & Associates (Eds).pp30-70). Personnel Selection in Organization San Francisco: Jossey 5. Bass. Daniel A. Wren (2001). The History of Management Thought. Fifth Edition. USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 6. Deci, E.L and Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-John. Jacques. Garger and Paul.H(2007),Self-leadership and Academic Performance. Academic Exchange Quarterly. June, 22,2007.. . 7. Herzberg, F. (1966). Work and the nature of man. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Publishers. 8. Judge A. T and Piecolo. R. F (2004). Transactional and Transactional Leadership: A Meta Analitic Test of their relative validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 755-768 Lee and Koh. (2001). 9. Toward a contingency model of leadership and psychological empowerment: when should self-leadership be encouraged? Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies. Luis Curral and Pedro-Marques–Quinteiro (2009). 10. Self-leadership and Work role innovation: Testing a mediating model with goal orientation and work motivation. 11. Manz. C. C (2003). Empowering Your Self for Personal Excellence. Pretince Hall. New York.Neck .C.P and Manz C. C (1996). 12. Thought self-leadership: The Impact of Mental Strategies Training on employee cognition, behavior and effect. Journal of Organization Behavior. Vol. 17. 445-467 Manz and, J. (1990). Super Leadership Leading Others to Lead Themselves. 202
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