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Radiation-related Health Effects from Fukushima Nuclear Accident, 23 March 2011
 

Radiation-related Health Effects from Fukushima Nuclear Accident, 23 March 2011

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    Radiation-related Health Effects from Fukushima Nuclear Accident, 23 March 2011 Radiation-related Health Effects from Fukushima Nuclear Accident, 23 March 2011 Presentation Transcript

    • Fukushima Nuclear Accident
      Radiological Implications on Human Health
      23 March 2011
      Division of Radiation Transport and Waste Safety
      Department of Nuclear Safety and Security
      Division of Human Health
      Department of Nuclear Science and Applications
    • Radiation-related Health Effects
      Acute effects of radiation exposure? (Individual)
      NPP accident: Not likely in general population (doses NOT high enough)
      At risk: NPP workers, fire fighters and rescuers.
      Long-term effects? (population)
      Increased risk of cancer
      Risk of thyroid cancer: Prophylaxis by iodide pills.
      Noted: Iodine is NOT an antidote for radiation exposure.
    • Risk of radiation-related health problems
      Health problems depend on exposure.
      Exposure depends on:
      Dose received
      Duration of exposure
      Distance someone is from the plant
      Weather conditions
    • Human beings are exposed to natural/man-made radiation on a daily basis.
      2-3 mSv/year
      Nuclear accidents with health hazards:
      External Radiation
      Internal contamination
      External contamination (can often be washed off the body)
    • Main radionuclides in Fukushima with health risk are:
      Iodine-131
      Cesium-137
      suspended air, food and drink
      Workers of NPP and civil defence teams: higher radiation doses - professional activities
    • Which public health actions to take?
      Prevention of exposure:
      evacuation
      sheltering of those near the site.
      Preventive Iodine pills to reduce the risk of thyroid cancer.
      Restriction of consumption of vegetables and dairy products produced in the vicinity of the power plant.
      Follow instructions by competent authorities
      Source: WHO
    • How can food products become radioactive?
      • Contamination of the environment (soil, rivers, lakes, sea)
      How?
      surface of foods
      Or build up within plants and organisms
      Severity of health risk depends on radionuclide mix and intake
      Radioactivity cannot contaminate food that is packaged
    • What general advice can be given to food consumers and producers?
      In early stages of an emergency:
      avoid consumption of locally produced milk, vegetables and seafood;
      avoid slaughtering animals; and
      avoid fishing, hunting or gathering mushrooms or other forest foods.
      Source: WHO
    • Are there rules for radioactivity in foods for international trade?
      Guideline Levels (GLs)
      Food below these GLs is safe for people to eat
      If GLs are exceeded - national policies
      Source: WHO
    • MeasurementsIAEA radiation monitoring team 23/03/11
      Radius 30 from 73Km for NPP measurement of :
      Dose rate: 0.2 to 6.9microSv/ hour (background: 0.1 microSv/ hour)
      Contamination: 0.02 to 0.6 Mbq/ m2
      • IAEA team dispatched for further analysis of environmental contamination
    • Gamma Dose Rates/March 15-22
      (Japanese authorities/microSv/hour)
      Background: 0.1 microSv/hour
      Increase since yesterday
      Close monitoring needed
    • Daily deposition of Iodine-131 and Cesium-137 (Japanese authorities)
    • Radioactivity in food, milk and drinking waterFukushima and Ibaraki prefectures
      Japanese authority:
      Cease distribution and consumption of vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, spinach, cabbage and the like) in Fukushima area
      Cease distribution of fresh raw milk in Ibaraki
      Monitor seafood
      Tap water in Tokyo is not used as drinking water for infants
    • Drinking water I-131 concentration in Fukushima
      14
    • Sea water contamination
      Sea water radionuclides concentration
      Samples collected 330 m South of discharge point (NPP Daichii NPP)
      Very high above the normal range
      IAEA dispatch a team to conduct marine environmental study