OPEN ACCESS PUBLISHING:  VIEWS OF RESEARCHERS IN PUBLIC AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS IN ZAMBIA Davy Simumba Principa...
OUTLINE <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Goal of the Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Results ...
INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Open Access is free and unrestricted online availability of scientific literature  </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Primary Approaches to Open Access: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Publishing articles in Open Access Journals (OAJ) </li></...
Benefits associated with providing Open Access to research literature <ul><li>Increased visibility, access and the impact ...
<ul><li>Success of OA initiatives in Africa depends: </li></ul><ul><li>support of basic principles of OA </li></ul><ul><li...
GOAL OF THE SURVEY <ul><li>To explore the views on Open Access publishing of researchers involved in agricultural sciences...
Specific Objectives <ul><li>To obtain information on researchers’: </li></ul><ul><li>Experience in publishing  </li></ul><...
METHODS <ul><li>Sampling: </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers in the following key public research/academic institutions, all  l...
<ul><li>Data Collection: </li></ul><ul><li>Experience in publishing, including number of publications </li></ul><ul><li>Aw...
<ul><li>Fact sheet: </li></ul><ul><li>A two page fact sheet on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Access Initiative </li></ul></u...
RESULTS Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia Distribution o...
<ul><li>Highest Academic Qualifications: </li></ul><ul><li>11 (27.5%) had doctorate degrees </li></ul><ul><li>22 (55%) had...
<ul><li>Experience in Research: </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 5 years  -  12 (30%) researchers  </li></ul><ul><li>5 years - ...
<ul><li>Funding for research activities: </li></ul><ul><li>Government of Zambia - 23 (57.5%) </li></ul><ul><li>Donor agenc...
<ul><li>Areas of Specialization: </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Economics - 7 researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Science  ...
Publishing Experience <ul><li>Journal articles - 21 (52.5%) respondents  </li></ul><ul><li>Book - 9 ( 25.5 %) </li></ul><u...
Types of Publications by Respondents Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institut...
<ul><li>Reasons for Publishing </li></ul><ul><li>The main reason for publishing outputs of research for 23 (57%) of the re...
<ul><li>Awareness of Open Access </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>At the time of the survey 21 (52.50%) researchers i...
<ul><li>Publishers’ Policies Copyright Policies and Self-Archiving </li></ul><ul><li>Overall, 24 (60%) researchers out of ...
Support for Open Access Publishing <ul><li>Thirty-three (82.5%) researchers indicated that they supported the basic princi...
Support for Open Access Policies <ul><li>Twenty-seven (67.5%) - favour a policy by their institution </li></ul><ul><li>31 ...
Experience with Online Publishing <ul><li>Ten (25%) researchers - aware of some of their publications being on the Interne...
Knowledge of Open Access Journals <ul><li>19(47.5%) researchers had knowledge of some Open Access journals in their fields...
Researchers willing to deposit full-text copies of their  articles  in an institutional repository <ul><li>Institutional R...
Researchers willingness to deposit or publish full-text copies of any of their  grey literature  for Open Access by users ...
CONCLUSION <ul><li>A large number of the respondents supported the basic principle of Open Access </li></ul><ul><li>For th...
<ul><li>However, making grey literature documents available in institutional repositories or on personal websites or insti...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT <ul><li>Special thanks to the following for assistance in </li></ul><ul><li>distribution and collection of...
THANK   YOU
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Open Access publishing: views of researchers in public agricultural research institutions in Zambia

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Presentation on "Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia" made at the 2nd IAALD Africa Chapter Conference, 15 - 17 July 2009, Accra, Ghana

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Open Access publishing: views of researchers in public agricultural research institutions in Zambia

  1. 1. OPEN ACCESS PUBLISHING: VIEWS OF RESEARCHERS IN PUBLIC AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS IN ZAMBIA Davy Simumba Principal Agricultural Research Officer Zambia Agricultural Research Institute Chilanga, Zambia Justin Chisenga Information Management Specialist Food and Agriculture Organization Regional Office for Africa Accra, Ghana
  2. 2. OUTLINE <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Goal of the Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledgements </li></ul>Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Open Access is free and unrestricted online availability of scientific literature </li></ul><ul><li>According to Suber (2007) Open Access removes “price barriers“ and “permission barriers” to “royalty-free literature” making them available with “minimal use restrictions” </li></ul><ul><li>The basic principle of Open Access is the provision of barrier-free and cost-free access to research literature </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia
  4. 4. <ul><li>Primary Approaches to Open Access: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Publishing articles in Open Access Journals (OAJ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depositing copies of articles, post-print or pre-print manuscripts by the authors in Open Access Archives (OAA) or repositories, also called self-archiving </li></ul></ul>Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia
  5. 5. Benefits associated with providing Open Access to research literature <ul><li>Increased visibility, access and the impact of papers in terms of citations </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement in the quality of research by way of improved communication of research results </li></ul><ul><li>Countries benefit because Open Access increases the impact of the research in which they invest public money </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to bridge the content divide </li></ul>Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia
  6. 6. <ul><li>Success of OA initiatives in Africa depends: </li></ul><ul><li>support of basic principles of OA </li></ul><ul><li>willingness to publish in OAJ </li></ul><ul><li>Access to local content </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries and documentation centres in most research institutes do not have comprehensive collections of the documents generated by their researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Why? Preferences to keep copies of research in offices </li></ul>Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia
  7. 7. GOAL OF THE SURVEY <ul><li>To explore the views on Open Access publishing of researchers involved in agricultural sciences and technology with a view of establishing whether there is support for Open Access among the researchers in Zambia. </li></ul>Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia
  8. 8. Specific Objectives <ul><li>To obtain information on researchers’: </li></ul><ul><li>Experience in publishing </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of Open Access </li></ul><ul><li>Views on the basic principle of Open Access </li></ul><ul><li>Experience with publishing online </li></ul><ul><li>Future intentions to publish as Open Access </li></ul>Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia
  9. 9. METHODS <ul><li>Sampling: </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers in the following key public research/academic institutions, all located in Lusaka Province, were targeted for the survey: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  Zambia Agricultural Research Institute (ZARI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (NISIR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Zambia - School of Agricultural Sciences and School of Veterinary Medicine </li></ul></ul>Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia
  10. 10. <ul><li>Data Collection: </li></ul><ul><li>Experience in publishing, including number of publications </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of the Open Access and publishers’ policies </li></ul><ul><li>Views on the basic principle of Open Access </li></ul><ul><li>Experience with publishing online; </li></ul><ul><li>Future intentions to publish as Open Access </li></ul>Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia
  11. 11. <ul><li>Fact sheet: </li></ul><ul><li>A two page fact sheet on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Access Initiative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies for Open Access, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Access publications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages of Open Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some definitions, i.e. copyright license, institutional repository, post-print, pre-print, grey literature, etc, related to Open Access </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Was provided to help participants not familiar with the Open Access and the associated terminologies. </li></ul>Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia
  12. 12. RESULTS Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia Distribution of Questionnaires: Institution Number of researchers Questionnaires distributed Questionnaires retuned Response rates ZARI 25 20 14 70% NISIR 30 20 10 50% UNZA 35 27 16 59% Totals 90 67 40 59.7%
  13. 13. <ul><li>Highest Academic Qualifications: </li></ul><ul><li>11 (27.5%) had doctorate degrees </li></ul><ul><li>22 (55%) had masters degrees </li></ul><ul><li>6 (15%) had bachelor degrees </li></ul><ul><li>One (2.5%) researcher did not indicate </li></ul>Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia
  14. 14. <ul><li>Experience in Research: </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 5 years - 12 (30%) researchers </li></ul><ul><li>5 years - 8 (20%) researchers </li></ul><ul><li>11 years - 3 (7.5%) researchers </li></ul><ul><li>16 years - 4 (10%) researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Above 20 years – 12(30%) researchers </li></ul><ul><li>one (2.5%) researcher did not indicate </li></ul>Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia
  15. 15. <ul><li>Funding for research activities: </li></ul><ul><li>Government of Zambia - 23 (57.5%) </li></ul><ul><li>Donor agencies through arrangements with the Government of Zambia – 3 (7.5%) </li></ul><ul><li>Donor agencies through arrangements with their parent institutions - 8 (20%) </li></ul><ul><li>Private organizations - 5 (12.5%) </li></ul><ul><li>Other sources - 1 (2.5%) </li></ul>Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia
  16. 16. <ul><li>Areas of Specialization: </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Economics - 7 researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Science - 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Veterinary Medicine – 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Crop Protection – 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Agronomy – 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Biotechnology - 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Plant Breeding and Genetics – 3 </li></ul><ul><li>One each: Horticulture, Plant Pathology, Radiation Processing, Environmental Protection and Food Science. </li></ul>Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia
  17. 17. Publishing Experience <ul><li>Journal articles - 21 (52.5%) respondents </li></ul><ul><li>Book - 9 ( 25.5 %) </li></ul><ul><li>Chapters in books - 15 (37.5%) </li></ul><ul><li>Papers at conferences - 28 (70%) </li></ul>Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia
  18. 18. Types of Publications by Respondents Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia Number of Publications Journal Articles Books Chapters in Books Conference Papers 0 19 researchers 31 25 12 < 5 14 8 14 17 5 - 10 4 1 0 4 11 - 15 0 0 1 3 16 - 20 3 0 0 2 > 20 0 0 0 2
  19. 19. <ul><li>Reasons for Publishing </li></ul><ul><li>The main reason for publishing outputs of research for 23 (57%) of the researchers was to communicate with their peers </li></ul><ul><li>5 (12.5%) indicated that it was to advance their careers </li></ul><ul><li>The same number each indicated that it was a requirement by their employers, and a requirement by the funders of their research  </li></ul>Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia
  20. 20. <ul><li>Awareness of Open Access </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>At the time of the survey 21 (52.50%) researchers indicated that they were not familiar with Open Access before their participation in the survey </li></ul><ul><li>15 (37.5%) had some knowledge about Open Access </li></ul><ul><li>4 (10%) researchers did not indicate whether they were familiar or not with Open Access before the survey. </li></ul>Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia
  21. 21. <ul><li>Publishers’ Policies Copyright Policies and Self-Archiving </li></ul><ul><li>Overall, 24 (60%) researchers out of the 40 respondents were not aware of such policies, and one (5%) did not indicate whether they were aware or not of the publishers’ policies on self-archiving. </li></ul>Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia
  22. 22. Support for Open Access Publishing <ul><li>Thirty-three (82.5%) researchers indicated that they supported the basic principle of Open Access, including the idea of providing Open Access to publications of research outputs in scholarly journals by agricultural research scientists in Zambia </li></ul><ul><li>Seven (17.5%) researchers were not sure as to whether or not they would support Open Access to scientific literature. </li></ul>Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia
  23. 23. Support for Open Access Policies <ul><li>Twenty-seven (67.5%) - favour a policy by their institution </li></ul><ul><li>31 (77.5%) - would favour a policy by the Government of Zambia </li></ul><ul><li>28 (70%) - would favour a policy by donor agencies funding research </li></ul><ul><li>  Three (7.5%) - would not support government policies requiring the deposit of research publications in Open Access repositories </li></ul><ul><li>Two (5%) each would not support institutional or donor agency policies. </li></ul>Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia
  24. 24. Experience with Online Publishing <ul><li>Ten (25%) researchers - aware of some of their publications being on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Six (15%) researchers had personally posted some of their publications on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>7 (17.5%) indicated that they had in the past given permission to requests to have their publications made accessible on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Fifteen (37.5%) indicated that if asked, they would grant permission to have their publications made available on the Internet. </li></ul>Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia
  25. 25. Knowledge of Open Access Journals <ul><li>19(47.5%) researchers had knowledge of some Open Access journals in their fields of specialization or areas of research </li></ul><ul><li>21 (52.5%) had no knowledge of Open Access journals in which they could publish their research. </li></ul>Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia
  26. 26. Researchers willing to deposit full-text copies of their articles in an institutional repository <ul><li>Institutional Repository 14 (35%) </li></ul><ul><li>Any Repository 14 (35%) </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Website 7 (17.5%) </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional Website 22 (55%) </li></ul>Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia
  27. 27. Researchers willingness to deposit or publish full-text copies of any of their grey literature for Open Access by users over the Internet <ul><li>Institutional Repository 15 (37.5%) </li></ul><ul><li>Any Repository 9 (22.5%) </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Website 6 (15%) </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional Website 19 (47.5%) </li></ul>Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia
  28. 28. CONCLUSION <ul><li>A large number of the respondents supported the basic principle of Open Access </li></ul><ul><li>For the majority Open Access would ensure that their research literature is visible and accessible to a large audience </li></ul><ul><li>Most would support policies by their institutions, the Government and the donor agencies funding research in the country to improve access to agricultural scientific and technical literature. </li></ul>Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia
  29. 29. <ul><li>However, making grey literature documents available in institutional repositories or on personal websites or institutional websites received very little support. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a matter for concern considering that much of the agricultural research literature in Zambia, like in most countries in Africa, is available largely in form of grey literature. </li></ul>Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia
  30. 30. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT <ul><li>Special thanks to the following for assistance in </li></ul><ul><li>distribution and collection of questionnaires: </li></ul><ul><li>Ms. Janevive Namangala (Librarian - ZARI) </li></ul><ul><li>Ms. Christine Kanyengo (Librarian - Vet UNZA) </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Bernard Chisenga (Librarian - NISIR Airport) </li></ul><ul><li>Mrs. Prudence Bwalya (Assistant Librarian – NISIR, Chilanga) </li></ul>Open Access Publishing: Views of Researchers in Public Agricultural Research Institutions in Zambia
  31. 31. THANK YOU
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