GIS for sustainable forest resource management in Ethiopia

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Presentation by Mengistie Kindu (EIAR) to WITFOR 2007 Agriculture Commission. (www.witfor.org)

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GIS for sustainable forest resource management in Ethiopia

  1. 1. GIS for Sustainable Forest Resource Management in Ethiopia Assistant Researcher August 2007 Mengistie Kindu Forestry Research Center, EIAR
  2. 2. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>GIS </li></ul><ul><li>Role of GIS for FRM in Eth. </li></ul><ul><li>Current GIS based Research Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>Overview
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Forest Resource in Ethiopia have a role: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>food, animal feed, & wood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>environmental protection, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regulation of local and regional climates, & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>preventing desertification. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conservation, utilization and development of these resource requires proper forest management (FM) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction ----- continued <ul><li>Forest Management : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is a collection of data, and the formulation of plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for the manipulation of the forest resources to preserve or supply products on a sustainable base </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It requires timely available forest information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographical Information System (GIS) has a role to fill such gaps </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) <ul><li>Concept and Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By using GIS: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>planners and decision makers can explore a range of possible scenarios to solve complex problems. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a system for performing operations when: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>acquiring geographic data performed by hand, are too tedious, too expensive, or too inaccurate. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>allows the user to collect and analyze data and view it in map or image </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GIS is a computer system: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>function used for collecting, compiling, storing, retrieving, transforming and displaying, updating, manipulating and analyzing all forms of geographically referenced data from the real world for particular set of purposes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) <ul><li>Components, ( computer hardware, Software and organizational context ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computer or central processing unit, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provides space for storing data and programs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digitizer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is used to convert data from maps and documents in to digital form </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plotter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plotter is used to present/print the results of the data processing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) <ul><li>Components, ( computer hardware, Software and organizational context ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software component: there are many different types of GIS software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MapInfo, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ArcView, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ArcInfo </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ArcGIS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The acquired data has to be processed for a specific purpose. This needs a proper organization of the data. All the data has to be organized according to their nature and the type of activities to be used </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) <ul><li>Data sources ( Existing digital and hardcopy documents; RS; and GPS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Existing digital and hardcopy documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digital data are those that are stored in a way readable to computers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The hard copy data includes topographic maps, and land use maps particularly if they are in paper form </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) <ul><li>Data sources ( Existing digital and hardcopy documents; RS; and GPS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote Sensing (RS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is the science and art of obtaining information about an object, area, or phenomenon through the analysis of data acquired by a device that is not in contact with the object, area, or phenomenon under investigation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The device or Sensors used to collect the intended data are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NOAA (AVHRR) (1.1 km, launched 1972, every day) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Landsat (30m, launched in 1972 &93, every 16 days) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SPOT vegetation (20 m, launched in 1986, every 26 days), </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ASTER (15 m,30 m, & 90 m, launched in 1999) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MODIS (250 m, 500 m, &1 km; launched in 1999, every 1 to 2 days) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ICONOS ( 4m, launched in 1999 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>QUICKBIRD (61 cm, launched in 2001) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) <ul><li>Data sources ( Existing digital and hardcopy documents; RS; and GPS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Positioning System (GPS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to collect ground data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is also a powerful navigation tool that can guide us any where in the world. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are many types of GPS, which differ in their accuracy, memory capacity, and price . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Role of GIS for Sustainable Forest Resource Management <ul><li>Forest Resource Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GIS is applied to know how much of what type is found where </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information on forest extent, and distribution of the forest is a necessary first step for effective FMP </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Role of GIS for Sustainable Forest Resource Management <ul><ul><li>FMP requires forest information by type </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forest classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GIS helps to discriminate between different forest types </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Role of GIS for Sustainable Forest Resource Management <ul><li>Forest cover change analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GIS help to know the changes by overlying the data captured for a period of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For ensuring FRM, it is necessary to monitor the ongoing changes in forest land use/ land cover pattern over a period of time </li></ul></ul>Disturbed forest Grazing land Crop land Bare land Forest land
  14. 14. Role of GIS for Sustainable Forest Resource Management <ul><li>Forest monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deigning effective FMP requires timely available information for checking the situation of the forest resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GIS support monitoring processes of forest resources by capturing the data needed to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>identify the species and habitats at greatest risk (weed), </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to estimate level of pest infestation/infection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to determine the spatial distribution and rate of fire occurrence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to identify and follow the hotspot areas for disease occurrence. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Role of GIS for Sustainable Forest Resource Management <ul><li>Suitability analysis for plantation/agro-forestry development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increase productivity through the provision of shade and shelter, the production of alternative sources of livestock fodder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GIS can answer the question which species can be planted where for the purpose of plantation/agro forestry development. </li></ul></ul>plantation agro-forestry <ul><ul><li>provision of scarce raw materials </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Role of GIS for Sustainable Forest Resource Management <ul><li>Regeneration study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FMP requires dynamics of regeneration after exploitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GIS help to identify the location of regenerated species </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Role of GIS for Sustainable Forest Resource Management <ul><li>Forest yield modeling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forests have a long gestation period for the yield. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the mechanisms to check this is the use of models to predict the yield based on the existing situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The forest yield could be inferred from the presence of certain parameters of forest resources using GIS modeling. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Role of GIS for Sustainable Forest Resource Management <ul><li>Forest Scheduling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed collection, pruning, thinning, harvesting and other major activities are important components of the forest management plan. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GIS can answer various questions related to the different activities to be conducted: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>where should the tree seed be collected? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When should seed be collected? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How long will the seed be stored before use? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How much and when the trees are thinned and pruned? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>CURRENT GIS BASED RESEARCH PROJECTS </li></ul>BY: The Forestry Research Center of the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research
  20. 20. Current GIS Based Research Projects <ul><li>Project title: Forest Land Conversion Analysis in Bonga Area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> SW Ethiopia, Kefa Zone (Bonga area forest): </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Last remnant forest are found </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>genetic centre and origin of Coffee arabica </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shrinking </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thus better to show evidence to decision makers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific Objectives: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State of forest land cover , </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>evaluate the changes over a period of time; & </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to identify the driving forces for the changes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Current GIS Based Research Projects <ul><ul><ul><li>satellite images </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Topographic maps produced earlier </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>structured questionnaires. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>digital image processing (image classification and interpretation); and overlaying to check the changes using GIS and RS software’s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SPSS software for descriptive analysis of the socioeconomic data collected for identifying the driving forces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expected Outputs: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information on Forest Land Cover Change dynamics and the driving force of Bonga forest, southwestern Ethiopia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Sources: </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Current GIS Based Research Projects <ul><li>Project title: Suitability analysis of five economically viable trees / shrubs species in Ethiopia using GIS technique </li></ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation in Ethiopia: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cultivation in unsuitable areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Various companies are flourishing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is wise to identify suitable land for specific uses based on the requirement of the species for optimum utilization while causing minimum impact to the environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify suitable land for five economically viable tree/ shrub species </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Current GIS Based Research Projects <ul><li>Species under study (Vitellaria, Moringa, apple tree, Jatropha, and Rubber tree). </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Known to be used for various purposes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>widely found in western parts of Ethiopia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can we take this species to other part of our country? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moringa stenopetala </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>commonly known as cabbage tree, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All parts of the tree except the wood are edible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>highly nutritious food for both humans and animals. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is native only to south Ethiopia and northern Kenya </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can we take this species to other part of our country? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Leaf ( Tooth & headache) </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit (Food), </li></ul><ul><li>Bark (Treats leprosy) </li></ul><ul><li>Kernel (Oil & butter) </li></ul><ul><li>Wood ( C & Energy) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitellaria paradoxa ssp. Nilotica </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Current GIS Based Research Projects <ul><li>Species under study (Vitellaria, Moringa, apple tree, Jatropha, and Rubber tree). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apple tree (Malus domestica) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a fruit with good market opportunity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for rubber production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jatropha curcas L </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is a promising, clean alternative energy source species (bio diesel) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Current GIS Based Research Projects <ul><li>Study site and Methodology . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>national scale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial analyses of each target species within GIS environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Expected out put . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Map of suitable areas for each economically tree/shrub </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Conclusion <ul><li>The Ethiopian forest resource can be conserved and wisely utilized though effective forest management plan. </li></ul><ul><li>GIS clearly can contribute to the designing of sustainable Ethiopian forest management plan by providing the required information </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Thank you </li></ul>Mengistie Kindu [email_address]

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